Thomas Austin Yawkey, born Thomas Yawkey Austin (February 21, 1903 – July 9, 1976), was an American industrialist and Major League Baseball executive. Born in Detroit, Yawkey became president of the Boston Red Sox in 1933 and was the sole owner of the team for 44 seasons, longer than anyone else in baseball history. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1980. Yawkey's racism and resistance to baseball's integration have led the modern day Red Sox to distance themselves from his legacy.
Tom Yawkey with his first wife Elise Sparrow Yawkey in 1938
|Born: Thomas Yawkey Austin|
February 21, 1903
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
|Died: July 9, 1976 (aged 73)|
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
Yawkey was born in Detroit on February 21, 1903. He was the grandson of lumber and iron magnate William Clyman Yawkey, who agreed in principle to buy the Detroit Tigers in 1903 but died before the deal closed. The deal eventually was completed by Tom's uncle, Bill Yawkey. After his father died, Tom's uncle adopted him and he took the Yawkey name.
Bill Yawkey died in 1919 and left his $40 million estate to his adopted son, but a clause in the will forbade him from taking possession of it until he turned 30 years old. Tom Yawkey was a graduate of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1925 and was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity.
On February 25, 1933, four days after his 30th birthday, Yawkey bought the Red Sox for $1.25 million, and persuaded friend and former Philadelphia Athletics second baseman Eddie Collins to be the team's vice president and general manager.
The Red Sox had been the dregs of the American League for more than a decade following the infamous Babe Ruth sale to the New York Yankees by former owner Harry Frazee before the 1920 season, and had just finished the 1932 season with a record of 43-111—still the worst in franchise history. Yawkey directed Collins to buy up as much talent as possible to turn the team around. He also heavily renovated Fenway Park, which had fallen into disrepair over the years.
Yawkey devoted his time and finances for the rest of his life to attempting to build winning teams, with The Boston Globe citing Yawkey's estimation in 1974 that he lost $10 million on the team during his tenure owning the Red Sox. His teams' best seasons took place in 1946, 1967, and 1975, when the Red Sox captured the American League pennant but then went on to lose each World Series in seven games, against the St. Louis Cardinals (1946, 1967) and the Cincinnati Reds (1975). He would never achieve his ultimate goal of winning a world championship.
The Red Sox had multiple black players in their farm system during the 1950s, with the team failing to promote them despite the successes other teams realized after integrating black players. During this period, the Red Sox went from perennial contender to failing to finish within ten games of first place for 16 years (1951–1966). As owner of the Boston Red Sox, the team's policy on integration ultimately was Yawkey's responsibility. In 1959, the Red Sox became the last major league team to field a black player, Pumpsie Green, twelve years after Jackie Robinson's rookie season with the Brooklyn Dodgers and two-and-a-half years after Robinson's retirement. Robinson would later call Yawkey "one of the most bigoted guys in baseball".
Another controversy involved longtime clubhouse attendant Donald Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick was accused of sexual abuse of minors between 1971 and 1991 while working in the Red Sox spring training clubhouse in Winter Haven, Florida. The abuse was reported to the team by victims and players who witnessed it, but Fitzpatrick remained employed. Yawkey, and later his wife Jean after Tom's death, protected Fitzpatrick from the allegations, according to two sources with knowledge of their relationship. In 2002, Fitzpatrick pleaded guilty after being charged with four counts of attempted sexual battery for actions between 1975 and 1989.
Yawkey was a popular figure in Boston and a respected voice in major league councils, as evidenced by his fellow American League owners naming him vice president between 1956 and 1973, though fellow owners regarded him as a "strange fish" in the words of one contemporary sports writer for Yawkey's willingness to spend lavishly on salaries and perks for star players at the expense of profits.
Yawkey died from leukemia in Boston on July 9, 1976. His wife, Jean R. Yawkey, became president of the club following his death. The Yawkey Foundation was established in 1976 through a bequest in his will. The foundation later recorded $420 million in 2002 income after the sale of the Red Sox. Alongside a second foundation formed in 1982 by Jean Yawkey, the Yawkey Foundations donated $30 million in 2007 for the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute to build the Yawkey Center for Cancer Care in Boston.
In 1977, the section of Jersey Street where Fenway Park is located was renamed Yawkey Way in his honor. However, in August 2017, Red Sox principal owner John W. Henry announced the team was seeking to change the name, adding he was "haunted" by Yawkey's legacy, which some have characterized as racist. The change was approved by the City of Boston in April 2018, and the name reverted to Jersey Street in May 2018. A plaque honoring Yawkey, from "his Red Sox employees," that had hung at the administrative office entrance to Fenway Park since shortly after his death was removed in May 2018. An MBTA Commuter Rail station near the park, Yawkey station, was renamed Lansdowne station in April 2019. 
A chain of islands off the coast of Georgetown, South Carolina, near the entrance of Winyah Bay, make up the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center Heritage Preserve. The nature preserve was formed from 24,000 acres of land along a tidal estuary, which Yawkey willed to the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. He originally purchased the land for use as a hunting and fishing retreat, and often allowed access to Red Sox players, including Ted Williams. It consists of North Island, South Island, Sand Island  and a majority of Cat Island.
Yawkey married Elise Sparrow in 1925, with the couple adopting a daughter named Julia in 1936. With different interests, the couple would drift apart and divorce in November 1944. Both remarried within a few weeks of the divorce, Tom Yawkey to department store model Jean R. Hiller. Tom and Jean Yawkey had no children.
Boston was an all-white ball club until 1959—12 years after Jackie Robinson became a Dodger.
Married. Thomas Austin Yawkey
J. A. Robert Quinn
| Owner of the Boston Red Sox
February 25, 1933 – July 9, 1976
Jean R. Yawkey
The 1944 Boston Red Sox season was the 44th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished fourth in the American League (AL) with a record of 77 wins and 77 losses.1949 Boston Red Sox season
The 1949 Boston Red Sox season was the 49th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished second in the American League (AL) with a record of 96 wins and 58 losses. The Red Sox set a major league record which still stands for the most base on balls by a team in a season, with 835.1976 Boston Red Sox season
The 1976 Boston Red Sox season was the 76th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished third in the American League East with a record of 83 wins and 79 losses, 15½ games behind the New York Yankees.
The Red Sox did not come close to repeating the previous year's success. An off-season contract dispute with Fred Lynn was a distraction. In early May, a brawl with the New York Yankees led to a shoulder injury for Bill Lee, one of their best pitchers and a 17-game winner in 1975; Lee would be out until mid-1977, and his loss was keenly felt. The Red Sox' beloved owner, Tom Yawkey, died of leukemia in July. Manager Darrell Johnson was fired shortly thereafter, and replaced by coach Don Zimmer. Overall, it was a disappointing season for a talented but underachieving team.1980 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting
Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1980 followed the system in place since 1978.
The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and
elected Al Kaline and Duke Snider.
The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider older major league players as well as managers, umpires, executives, and figures from the Negro Leagues.
It selected Chuck Klein and Tom Yawkey.Bill Yawkey
William Hoover Yawkey (August 22, 1875 – March 5, 1919) was the sole owner of the Detroit Tigers of the American League from 1903 through 1908, and part-owner with Frank Navin from 1908 to 1919.
Yawkey was the son of lumber tycoon William Clyman Yawkey, the richest man in Michigan. The elder Yawkey agreed to buy the Tigers from Samuel F. Angus in 1903, but died before the deal closed. Navin, then the Tigers' bookkeeper and vice president, persuaded the younger Yawkey to complete the deal.Yawkey took little interest in the Tigers, leaving day-to-day control in Navin's hands. In 1908, Yawkey sold almost half of the club's stock to Navin, making him for all intents and purposes a full partner.Yawkey died in Augusta, Georgia in 1919 from the Spanish flu. Upon his death, he left his $40 million estate to his nephew and adoptive son, Tom Yawkey, who later bought the Boston Red Sox.Bob Quinn (baseball, born 1870)
James Aloysius Robert Quinn (February 14, 1870 – March 12, 1954) was an American executive in Major League Baseball who became renowned for his management of four different franchises.Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame
The Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame was instituted in 1995 to recognize the careers of former Boston Red Sox baseball players. A 15-member selection committee of Red Sox broadcasters and executives, past and present media personnel, and representatives from The Sports Museum of New England and the BoSox Club are responsible for nominating candidates.Dick O'Connell
Richard Henry O'Connell (September 19, 1914 – August 18, 2002) was an American front office executive in Major League Baseball. He was executive vice president of the Boston Red Sox from 1961 through 1977 and served as general manager of the team from September 16, 1965, through October 24, 1977, a period during which he played a pivotal role in restoring the Red Sox to contending status, won two American League pennants, and helped make the team a flagship MLB franchise.Edward F. Kenney Sr.
Edward F. Kenney Sr. (1921–2006) was an American professional baseball executive.
A native of Massachusetts, Kenney was born in Medford and raised in Winchester where he captained the high school baseball team. He later spent three years as the starting shortstop for the Boston College, where he graduated in 1943 and enlisted in the United States Army. At the conclusion of World War II, he was signed by Hugh Duffy, a Boston Red Sox scout and former manager, who converted him to a pitcher. Kenney joined the Boston organization as a prospect in 1946, but his pitching career was curtailed prematurely by arm problems. During the Red Sox drive to the American League pennant that season, he worked in the club's ticket office.In 1948, Kenney joined the Red Sox Minor League department. One year later became assistant farm director to Johnny Murphy and later to Neil Mahoney. That department was divided into two sections in 1968, and Kenney became director of minor league operations until 1978, when was promoted to vice president. From 1989 until his 1991 retirement, Kenney served as vice president of baseball development.In his 43-year tenure with the Red Sox organization, Kenney contributed to develop a significant number of outstanding players such as Wade Boggs, Roger Clemens, Dwight Evans, Carlton Fisk, Bruce Hurst, Fred Lynn and Jim Rice.
His father, Thomas Kenney, worked as an assistant for Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey for several years beginning in 1934, while his son, Edward Kenney, Jr., worked in baseball operations for both the Red Sox and Orioles.Kenney died on October 25, 2006 in Braintree, Massachusetts at the age of 85, due to complications related to diabetes.
In 2008, Kenney was selected for induction into the Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame.Frank Baumann (baseball)
Frank Matt Baumann (born July 1, 1933) is an American former pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for the Boston Red Sox, Chicago White Sox and Chicago Cubs between 1955 and 1965. He batted and threw left-handed, stood 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and weighed 205 pounds (93 kg).
Baumann signed with the Red Sox in 1952 out of high school in his native St. Louis, receiving a $90,000 bonus from owner Tom Yawkey, who nicknamed him "Beau". He won 10 of 11 decisions for the Triple-A Louisville Colonels in 1953, his second season in professional baseball, before being drafted into United States Army service during the Korean War.
When he mustered out of the Army in mid-1955, he joined the MLB Red Sox in late July. In his debut, he earned a victory with 52⁄3 innings of scoreless relief, as Boston defeated the Detroit Tigers, 3–2. Early in his career Baumann was touted as "a Herb Score with control". But an arm injury incurred during his military service hampered his Red Sox tenure. He needed return trips to the minor leagues from 1956–58 before making the Red Sox roster for the full 1959 campaign. Then, that November, he was traded to the White Sox for lanky first baseman and power-hitting prospect Ron Jackson.
The trade set the stage for Baumann's most successful season. In 1960, as a member of the defending American League champions, he had a 13–6 mark for the White Sox, and led AL pitchers with a 2.67 ERA. In 47 games pitched, including 20 starts, he compiled seven complete games and two shutouts. He added four saves as a relief pitcher. But he followed in 1961 with a disappointing 10–13 record, led the AL in earned runs allowed, and his ERA ballooned by almost three full runs, to 5.61. His effectiveness largely returned in 1962, but thereafter he made only one more start over his final two years with the ChiSox and in 1964 he again struggled on the mound. His ERA climbed to 6.19, and Baumann was traded to the cross-town Cubs during the off-season. He made four appearances out of the Cub bullpen in 1965, posted an ERA over 7.00, and was sent to Triple-A during the May roster cutdown from 28 to 25 men. His active career concluded after that season.
When healthy, he was a reliable pitcher, effective as a starter, set-up man and occasional closer. In his 11-season MLB career, Baumann posted a 45–38 record with a 3.90 ERA and 13 saves in 244 games pitched, 78 as a starter. In 7971⁄3 innings pitched, he allowed 856 hits and 300 base on balls, with 384 strikeouts.Georgetown Light
Georgetown Light on North Island at the entrance to Winyah Bay southeast of Georgetown, South Carolina, is an active light. The light is maintained by the U.S. Coast Guard, and the lighthouse is now under the control of State of South Carolina as part of the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center Heritage Preserve. The lighthouse is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The original lighthouse was a cypress tower. It was destroyed by a storm in 1806. In 1812, a 72 feet (22 m) brick tower was built. A fourth-order Fresnel lens was installed in 1857. It was rebuilt and raised to 87 feet (27 m) in 1867 after suffering damage during the Civil War.The light was automated in 1986. The focal plane is 85 feet (26 m) above mean high water.Harry Agganis
Aristotle George "Harry" Agganis (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Γεώργιος Αγγάνης) (April 20, 1929 – June 27, 1955), nicknamed "The Golden Greek", was an American first baseman and college football star who played two seasons with the Boston Red Sox of the American League (1954–1955), after passing up a potential professional football career.
Born in Lynn, Massachusetts to Greek immigrants, Georgios Agganis and Georgia Papalimperis, Agganis first gained notice as a college football player at Boston University, becoming the first person in school history to be named All-American. He passed a professional career with the Cleveland Browns in order to play his favorite sport, baseball, close to his hometown. Agganis was signed to a bonus baby contract, and after one season playing minor league baseball, Agganis became the starter at first base for the Red Sox.
In 1955, Agganis became gravely ill early in the season and was hospitalized for two weeks for pneumonia. He rejoined the Red Sox for one week before being rehospitalized with a viral infection. After showing some signs of recovery, Agganis died of a pulmonary embolism on June 27. Agganis' sudden death is considered one of the greatest tragedies to hit Boston's sporting community.Jean R. Yawkey
Jean Remington Yawkey (January 24, 1909 – February 26, 1992) was the wife of Tom Yawkey and owner of the Boston Red Sox from 1976 to her death in 1992.
She was born Jean Hollander in Brooklyn, New York. She grew up in Freeport, Long Island, and was a New York City fashion model for ten years before marrying Yawkey in 1944, in Georgetown, South Carolina.Joe Mooney (groundskeeper)
Joe Mooney (born September 6, 1930) is a retired groundskeeper who worked for the Boston Red Sox of Major League Baseball (MLB).Born in Dunmore, Pennsylvania, Mooney began his career as a youngster by serving as a clubhouse boy and assistant groundskeeper from 1948 through 1951 for the Double-A Scranton Red Sox. In the mid-1950s, he was groundskeeper for the Triple-A Louisville Colonels. In the late 1950s, he was groundskeeper for the Triple-A Minneapolis Millers.He went on to work at D.C. Stadium, later renamed RFK Stadium, during the time that Vince Lombardi coached the NFL's Washington Redskins and Ted Williams managed MLB's Washington Senators; Mooney was hired by the Senators in December 1960. In February 1969, someone stole home plate from RFK stadium, and a UPI photo showing Mooney and a security guard investigating the theft appeared in various newspapers.Mooney joined the Red Sox after the 1970 MLB season, upon recommendation by Williams to the team's owner, Tom Yawkey. Mooney became the head groundskeeper at Fenway Park and held that post for the next 31 years. In October 1975, he again appeared in various newspapers when Game 6 of the World Series had to be postponed three times, in consideration of rain and the condition of the field at Fenway Park.During his long stint with the Red Sox, Mooney became a legend at Fenway while contributing in different functions as Superintendent of Grounds, Park, and Maintenance. He was succeeded by Dave Mellor in January 2001. Mooney was given the title of Director of Grounds Emeritus, and was enshrined in the Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame in 2012. In 2015, Mooney was inducted into the MLB Groundskeepers Hall of Fame.List of South Carolina heritage preserves
This is a list of South Carolina heritage preserves managed by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources.
Aiken Gopher Tortoise Heritage Preserve/Wildlife Management Area
Altamaha Towne Heritage Preserve
Ashmore Heritage Preserve/WMA
Bald Rock Heritage Preserve
Bay Point Shoal Seabird Sanctuary
Bear Branch Heritage Preserve
Belvue Springs Heritage Preserve
Bennett's Bay Heritage Preserve
Bird Key - Stono Seabird Sanctuary
Blackwell Heritage Preserve
Botanty Bay Plantation Heritage Preserve/WMA
Brasstown Creek Heritage Preserve/WMA
Bunched Arrowhead Heritage Preserve
Buzzard Island Heritage Preserve
Buzzard Roost Heritage Preserve/WMA
Capers Island Heritage Preserve
Cartwheel Bay Heritage Preserve/WMA
Cathedral Bay Heritage Preserve
Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve/WMA
Childsbury Towne Heritage Preserve
Clear Creek Heritage Preserve
Congaree Bluffs Heritage Preserve
Congaree Creek Heritage Preserve
Crab Bank Seabird Sanctuary
Crosby Oxypolis Heritage Preserve
Daws Island Heritage Preserve
Deveaux Bank Seabird Sanctuary
Ditch Pond Heritage Preserve/WMA
Dungannon Plantation Heritage Preserve/WMA
Eastatoe Creek Heritage Preserve/WMA
Eva Russell Chandler Heritage Preserve/WMA
Fort Frederick Heritage Preserve
Fort Lamar Heritage Preserve
Forty Acre Rock Heritage Preserve/WMA
Glassy Mountain Heritage Preserve
Gopher Branch Heritage Preserve
Great Pee Dee River Heritage Preserve/WMA
Green's Shell Enclosure Heritage Preserve
Henderson Heritage Preserve/WMA
Janet Harrison High Pond Heritage Preserve
Joiner Bank Seabird Sanctuary
Laurel Fork Heritage Preserve/WMA
Lewis Ocean Bay Heritage Preserve
Lighthouse Inlet Heritage Preserve
Little Pee Dee Heritage Preserve/WMA
Little Pee Dee State Park Bay Heritage Preserve
Long Branch Bay Heritage Preserve
Longleaf Pine Heritage Preserve/WMA
Lynchburg Savanna Heritage Preserve/WMA
Nipper Creek Heritage Preserve
North Santee Bar Seabird Sanctuary
Old Island Heritage Preserve/WMA
Pacolet River Heritage Preserve
Peachtree Rock Heritage Preserve
Peters Creek Heritage Preserve
Poinsett Bridge Heritage Preserve
Rock Hill Blackjacks Heritage Preserve/WMA
Savage Bay Heritage Preserve
Savannah River Bluffs Heritage Preserve
Segars-McKinnon Heritage Preserve
Shealy's Pond Heritage Preserve
South Bluff Heritage Preserve
St. Helena Sound Heritage Preserve
Stevens Creek Heritage Preserve/WMA
Stoney Creek Battery Heritage Preserve
Stumphouse Mountain Heritage Preserve/WMA
Tillman Sand Ridge Heritage Preserve/WMA
Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center Heritage Preserve
Victoria Bluff Heritage Preserve/WMA
Waccamaw River Heritage Preserve
Wadakoe Mountain Heritage Preserve/WMA
Wateree Heritage Preserve/WMA
Watson-Cooper Heritage Preserve/WMA
Woods Bay Heritage PreserveWinyah Bay
Winyah Bay is a coastal estuary that is the confluence of the Waccamaw River, the Pee Dee River, the Black River, and the Sampit River in Georgetown County, in eastern South Carolina. Its name comes from the Winyaw, who used to inhabit the region during the eighteenth century. The historic port city of Georgetown is located on the bay, and the bay generally serves as the terminating point for the Grand Strand.
The bay is evidence of a drowned coastline, created by a rise in sea level in recent geologic time. It was a prime site for fishing by generations of Native American cultures. This area was developed by English colonists as a seaport and center of rice culture and timbering.
The entrance to the bay is flanked by North Island, South Island and Cat Island. Today these comprise the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center, as the islands were willed to the State by Tom Yawkey, former owner of the Boston Red Sox.
Winyah Bay is the fourth-largest estuary on the US East Coast, when classified by discharge rate (Voulgaris et al. 2002). It is home to many aquatic and terrestrial species, including sturgeon, sharks, dolphins, red drum, stingrays, star drum, white shrimp, blue crabs, pelicans, bald eagles, cormorants, and various species of seagulls.Yawkey Baseball League of Greater Boston
The Yawkey Baseball League of Boston is one of the elite amateur baseball leagues in New England. It has ten franchises, composed of players from all levels of elite baseball backgrounds – current and former collegiate student athletes, along with former professional baseball players. It is also named after former owner of the Boston Red Sox, and Baseball Hall of Famer, Tom Yawkey. The YBL is a wooden bat baseball league.
The league objective is to always be inclusive and field top amateur baseball talent to satisfy the competitive nature of its players and provide a free entertainment option in the communities where games are played.
The YBL plays a 31-game schedule that begins in May and ends in August with a championship series. The YBL plays seven-inning games under Major League rules with some adaptation of NCAA requirements to ensure player safety.
The 2017 season saw the YBL once again take home the championship trophy of the Eastern Massachusetts Baseball Classic. The Eastern Mass Classic annually pits All-Stars from the top four amateur baseball leagues (Park League, Intercity League and Cranberry League) in the Boston area against each other. This was the YBL’s 2nd title and 4th finals appearance, keeping a strong showing in the annual event. The National Semi Pro Baseball Hall of Fame has inducted YBL members and the YBL also has played All-Star games at Fenway Park. The league has also had many of its players be signed by professional baseball organizations.
The Brighton Braves franchise captured its first franchise title in its Yawkey League history in 2018, winning the title with a walk-off win in Game 7 of the YBL Championship Series played at Rogers Park in Brighton.
The league has its roots in Boston back to the 1950s and was also known as the: City League, the Twilight League, and until 1990, the Boston Junior Park League. 1990 was a coming of age for the league, when they were renamed in honor of Mr. Yawkey. The Yawkey Foundation is a major financial contributor. The league is very proud to continue the baseball tradition established by Tom and Jean Yawkey in Boston.
The Yawkey Baseball League, Inc. is a federally recognized 501(c)(3) public charity incorporated in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.Yawkey Way
Yawkey Way is the former name of a short street located in the Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood of the American city of Boston, Massachusetts. It was originally a continuation of Jersey Street, part of the Back Bay scheme of alphabetical streets, until 1977, when the two blocks immediately adjacent to Fenway Park were renamed for Tom Yawkey, owner of the Boston Red Sox from 1933 to 1976. It ran for two blocks from Brookline Avenue in the north to Boylston Street in the south, where it became Jersey Street.
On April 26, 2018, the city of Boston announced it would revert the name of the street to its original name of Jersey Street. The change became official on May 3.Fenway Park's address was 4 Yawkey Way. The original address was 24 Jersey Street. After the 2018 name change, the park's address is now 4 Jersey Street.
|Division championships (10)|
|Wild card berths (7)|
|J. G. Taylor Spink Award|
|Ford C. Frick Award|
Italics denotes players who have been voted in but not yet inducted.
Members of the Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame