Tom Misteli, Ph.D. is a Swiss-born (Solothurn) cell biologist and pioneer in the field of genome cell biology. He is an NIH Distinguished Investigator at the National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States and the Director of the NCI Center for Cancer Research at the NIH. He was the Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of Cell Biology (2009-2015) and is the editor of Current Opinion in Cell Biology. He co-authored the influential report by the US National Academy of Sciences "Toward Precision Medicine".
Tom Misteli is best known for his work on elucidation of how genomes function in living cells.[Ref 1] While a post-doc at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, United States, he developed methods to visualize proteins in the nucleus of living mammalian cells allowing for the first time to study gene expression in intact cells. His more recent work focuses on the role of genome organization and nuclear architecture on differentiation and disease. His cell biological elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the pre-mature aging disease Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome have revealed novel mechanisms of human aging.[Ref 2]
For his work he has won numerous awards including the Flemming Award, The Gold Medal of the Charles University, The Beerman Award, and the Feulgen Prize. He is an elected Fellow of the American Society for Cell Biology.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many.
Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.Gene gating
Gene gating is a phenomenon by which transcriptionally active genes are brought next to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) so that nascent transcripts can quickly form mature mRNA associated with export factors. Gene gating was first hypothesised by Günter Blobel in 1985. It has been shown to occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster as well as mammalian model systems.The proteins that constitute the NPCs, known as nucleoporins, have been shown to play a role in DNA binding and mRNA transport, making gene gating possible. In addition, gene gating is orchestrated by two protein complexes, Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) and transcription–export complex 2 (TREX-2 complex). SAGA is a chromatin remodeling complex responsible for activating the transcription of certain inducible genes. The SAGA complex binds to gene promoters and also interacts with the TREX-2 complex. In turn, the TREX-2 complex interacts with the NPC, thus favouring the relocation of actively transcribed genes to the periphery of the cell nucleus. In contrast, the rest of the periphery, i.e. those parts not associated with NPCs, is transcriptionally silent heterochromatin.Journal of Cell Biology
Journal of Cell Biology is an international, peer-reviewed journal owned by The Rockefeller University and published by Rockefeller University Press.June 12
June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 202 days remaining until the end of the year.Mendel Lectures
The Mendel Lectures is a series of lectures given by the world´s top scientists in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, medicine and related areas which has been held in the refectory of the Augustian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno, Czech Republic since May 2003. The lectures were established to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by James Watson (1928) and Francis Crick (1916-2004). The Mendel Lectures are named in honour of Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of genetics, who lived and worked in the Augustinian Abbey in Brno 1843-1884. Based on his experiments conducted in the abbey between 1856 and 1863, Mendel established the basic rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance. The Mendel Lectures are organized by the Masaryk University, the Mendel Museum, the St. Anne´s University Hospital Brno, and the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna, Austria. The fourteenth season of the Mendel Lectures is running at present. More than 100 top scientists, including many Nobel Prize winners, have visited Brno to give a Mendel Lecture, for example Tim Hunt, Jack W. Szostak, John Gurdon, Elizabeth Blackburn, Paul Nurse, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Günter Blobel, Kurt Wüthrich, Jules A. Hoffmann, Aaron Ciechanover, Ada Yonath, Paul Modrich, Eric F. Wieschaus and others.Solothurn
Solothurn (German: Solothurn pronounced [ˈzoːlotʊrn] (listen); French: Soleure [sɔlœʁ]; Italian: Soletta [soˈletːa]; Romansh: Soloturn) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare and on the foot of the Weissenstein Jura mountains.
The town is the only municipality of the district of the same name.
The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement. From 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-only old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, and Swiss ideas. The town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites.
Agriculture, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent. Most people today are employed in manufacturing and education.
The official language of Solothurn is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.Thomas Cremer
Thomas Cremer (born July 7, 1945 in Miesbach, Germany ), is a German professor of human genetics and anthropology with a main research focus on molecular cytogenetics and 3D/4D analyses of nuclear structure studied by fluorescence microscopy including super-resolution microscopy and live cell imaging. Thomas Cremer is the brother of the German physicist Christoph Cremer and Georg Cremer, Secretary General of the German Caritas Association.