Tokyo

Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō, English: /ˈtoʊkioʊ/,[8] Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (listen); lit. "Eastern Capital"), officially Tokyo Metropolis (東京都 Tōkyō-to), one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869.[9][10] As of 2014, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world.[4] The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.[11] Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市 Tōkyō-shi). Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.

The 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were formerly Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million.[3] The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people[4] and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. As of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time.[12] Tokyo ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development Index. The city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.

Tokyo ranks first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The GaWC's 2008 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city[13] – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets").[14] As of 2015 Tokyo ranked as the 11th-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm,[15] and also the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.[16] In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle.[17] The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.[18][19] Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index.[20] The QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016[21] and 2nd in 2018.[22] Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Tokyo

東京都
Tokyo Metropolis
Clockwise from top: Nishi-Shinjuku business district, Rainbow Bridge, National Diet Building, Shibuya, Tokyo Skytree
Flag of Tokyo
Flag
Official seal of Tokyo
Seal
Official logo of Tokyo

Symbol
Anthem: Tokyo Metropolitan Song (東京都歌 Tōkyō-to Ka)[1]
Location within Japan
Location within Japan
Coordinates: 35°41′N 139°41′E / 35.683°N 139.683°ECoordinates: 35°41′N 139°41′E / 35.683°N 139.683°E
Country Japan
RegionKantō
IslandHonshu
Divisions23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefectures
Government
 • TypeMetropolis
 • GovernorYuriko Koike (TF)
 • CapitalTokyo[2]
 • Representatives42
 • Councillors11
Area
 • Metropolis2,187.66 km2 (844.66 sq mi)
 • Metro
13,572 km2 (5,240 sq mi)
Area rank45th
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
(September 2018)[3]
 • Metropolis13,839,910
 • Density6,224.66/km2 (16,121.8/sq mi)
 • Metro38,140,000 – Greater Tokyo Area
 • Metro density2,662/km2 (6,890/sq mi)
 • 23 Wards
8,967,665
 (2015 per prefectural government)
Demonym(s)江戸っ子 (Edokko), 東京人 (Tōkyō-jin), 東京っ子 (Tōkyōkko), Tokyoite
GDP
 (Nominal; 2015)[5][6][7]
 • TotalUS$869 billion
 • Per capitaUS$64,269
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
ISO 3166-2
JP-13
FlowerSomei-Yoshino cherry blossom
TreeGinkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba)
BirdBlack-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)
Websitewww.metro.tokyo.jp/english/
Tokyo
Tokyo (Chinese characters)
Tōkyō in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji東京
Hiraganaとうきょう
Katakanaトーキョー
Kyūjitai東亰

Etymology

Tokyo was originally known as Edo (江戸), which means "estuary".[23] Its name was changed to Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō, "east", and kyō "capital") when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868,[24] in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital () in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto (京都), Beijing (北京) and Nanjing (南京)).[23] During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";[25] however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.[26]

The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku (Secret Plan of Commingling), written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi (織田完之), he got the idea from that book.

History

Pre-1869 (Edo period)

Commodore Perry expedition LOC LC-USZ62-3319
A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew Perry expedition and his first arrival in Japan in 1853

Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province (his lifelong base) to Kantō region. When he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.[27] But Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. (That was caused by the Meiji Restoration in 1868.)[28] The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.[29] The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.[30] Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.[31] Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun, Yoshinobu, in 1867.[32] After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

‪Kidai Shōran (熈代勝覧), 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo. ‬
Kidai Shōran (熈代勝覧), 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo.

1869–1943

Ginza in 1933
Ginza area in 1933

In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo, and in accordance, the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center,[33] and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889.

Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.[34]

1943–present

Firebombing of Tokyo
Tokyo burning in 1945

In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.[35] The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid;[36] as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.[37][38] Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".[39]

Tokyo Tower and around Skyscrapers
The Tokyo Tower, built in 1958
2011 Japan Earthquake Tokyo Tower
The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower.

After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial[40] airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).

Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world[41] as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",[42] from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennōzu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.

Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed[43] for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial[44] within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,[45] although activity in the city was largely halted.[46] The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.[47][48]

On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.[49]

Geography

Tokyo Landsat
Satellite photo of Tokyo's 23 Special wards taken by NASA's Landsat 7

The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft).[50] Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards.

Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.

Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (), translated as metropolis.[51] Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別 -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.

In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities ( -shi), five towns ( -chō or machi), and eight villages ( -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards, and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are located in Shinjuku Ward.

Special wards

Tokyo special wards map
A map of Tokyo's 23 special wards

The special wards (特別区 tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city.

While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).

The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.[52]

The special wards of Tokyo are:

The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population.[53] Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country.[54] Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda.

Tama Area (Western Tokyo)

Western Tokyo map
A map of cities in the western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above.

To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns, and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.

While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base, such as Tachikawa. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo.

Cities

Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area,[55] as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.

Nishi-Tama District

Tokyo Nishitama District Area Map
Map of Nishi-Tama District in green

The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takanosu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake (929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara).

多摩ニュータウンの全景(2013年10月12日撮影)

Tama

Takao-san HachiojiUrbanDistrict

Hachioji

Musashino in the afternoon

Musashino

Islands

Map of Izu Islands
Map of the Izu Islands in black labels
Ogasawara islands
Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels

Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them.

The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village.

The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan.[56] Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ.[57] The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but hosts Japan Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-Jima and Haha-Jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.

National parks

Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo, Japan
Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.[58]

A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also artworks and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.

Seismicity

Common seismicity

Temporarygatheringplace
A bilingual sign with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake (Shibuya)

Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's 2000  km long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only to foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.[59]

Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011;[60][61] the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of kilometers away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area.

Climate

The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[62] with hot, humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876, while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004. The record highest low temperature is 30.3 °C (86.5 °F) on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over 30 °C (86.0 °F).[63] Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.[64] Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with 780 millimetres (30 in) of rain,[65] including 270.5 mm (10.65 in) on the ninth of that month;[66] the last of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995.[63] Annual precipitation has ranged from 879.5 mm (34.63 in) in 1984 to 2,229.6 mm (87.78 in) in 1938.[63]

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa).

Tokyo's offshore territories' climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichi-jima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000  km south of the Greater Tokyo Area resulting in different climatic conditions.

Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.[71]

Cityscape

Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II.[72] Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.[72] Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower, and the new Tokyo Skytree, which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[73]

Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree
Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree

Environment

Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.[74] Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.[75][76] According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government,[77] the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."[78]

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill.[79] From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.[80]

Demographics

As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.[81] During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.[82]

In 1889, the Home Ministry recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu.[83] In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was British (209 residents), followed by United States nationals (182) and nationals of the Qing dynasty (137).[84]

Tokyo historical population
Tokyo historical population since 1920
Growth rate map of municipalities of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan
This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.
Increase
  10.0% and over
  7.5 – 9.9%
  5.0 – 7.4%
  2.5 – 4.9%
  0.0 – 2.4%
Decrease
  0.0 – 2.4%
  2.5 – 4.9%
  5.0 – 7.4%
  7.5 – 9.9%
  10.0% and over

Economy

Tokyo Skytree 2014 Ⅲ
Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world
Ginza Wako Clock
Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo as one of the most luxurious shopping districts in the world.
Bank of Japan headquarters in Tokyo, Japan
Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo
Tokyo Tower at night 8
Tokyo Tower at night
Shibuya crossing
Shibuya attracts many tourists.

Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Greater Tokyo Area (Tokyo-Yokohama) of 38  million people had a total GDP of $2  trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list.

Tokyo is a major international finance center;[86] it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.[87]

Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London.[88] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore and Hong Kong).[89] The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.[90] Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.[91] Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,[92] according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.

Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81  a million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4  trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly for school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233).

The Tsukiji Fish Market in Tokyo is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world, and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihonbashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.[93] It moved to the new Toyosu Market in October 2018.[94]

Transportation

Tokyo station from marunouchi oazo
Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.
10000x6300 01
Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.
Shuto expressway shibaura jct ii
Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground. However, its airspace has been under the US military's exclusive rights after World War II and some flight routes are returned to Japan.[95] Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient[96] trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.[97]

As a result of World War II, Japanese planes are forbidden to fly over Tokyo.[98] Therefore, Japan constructed airports outside Tokyo. Narita International Airport in Chiba Prefecture is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well All Nippon Airways have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport on the reclaimed land at Ōta offers domestic and international flights.

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads.[99] Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

Education

YasudaAuditorium
Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo in Bunkyō

Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, and Keio University.[100] Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:

There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language, including the Globis University Graduate School of Management, International Christian University, Sophia University, and Waseda University

Tokyo is also the headquarters of the United Nations University.

Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and Primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public Secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:

Culture

Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for Kabuki.[101] Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan.

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion[102] and cosplay.

Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.[103]

Sports

Tokyo Dome night
Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants
Ryogoku Kokugikan Tsuriyane 05212006
Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami.[104] Tokyo also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013.

In popular culture

Akihabara Night
Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga, and games.
Fuji TV headquarters and Aqua City Odaiba - 2006-05-03 edit
Fuji TV headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, video games, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.

Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, and Inception.

Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces.[105][106][107][108][109]

International relations

Tokyo is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements

As of 2016, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:[110]

  • New York City, United States (since February 1960)
  • Beijing, China (since March 1979)
  • Paris, France ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1982)[111]
  • Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984)
  • Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988)
  • Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989)
  • São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990)
  • Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990)
  • Moscow, Russia (since July 1991)
  • Berlin, Germany (since May 1994)
  • Rome, Italy ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1996)
  • London, United Kingdom (since October 2015)

See also

References

  1. ^ 東京都歌・市歌 (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" 都庁は長野市. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Shinjuku is the location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office. But Tokyo is not a "municipality". Therefore, for the sake of convenience, the notation of prefectural is "Tokyo".
  3. ^ a b 東京都の人口(推計)– Population of Tokyo (estimate). Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Statistics Department. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c United Nations (March 12, 2017). "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations.
  5. ^ 都民経済計算(都内総生産等)平成27年度年報. www.metro.tokyo.jp.
  6. ^ "Yearly Average Rates". OFX. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015.
  7. ^ "2015 Japan Population" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Tokyo definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  9. ^ "There is no laws to define where Japan's capital is. Because Tokyo was built to stabilize East and North." the Legislative Bureau House of Councillors
  10. ^ "Japan's Local Government System". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on August 11, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  11. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tōkyō" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 981–982 at Google Books; in "Kantō" p. 479 at Google Books
  12. ^ Fortune. "Global Fortune 500 by countries: Japan". CNN. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
  13. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. April 13, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  14. ^ "Tokyo Tops Among Global Travelers, According To TripAdvisor World City Survey". TripAdvisor. TripAdvisor LLC. May 20, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  15. ^ "2015 Cost of Living Rankings". Mercer. Mercer LLC. June 17, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  16. ^ "Uptown top ranking". The Economist. June 17, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  17. ^ "The Monocle Quality of Life Survey 2015 – Film".
  18. ^ 「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に. Michelin Japan. November 24, 2010.
  19. ^ "Tokyo is Michelin's biggest star". The Times. November 20, 2007.
  20. ^ "Safe Cities Index 2015 Infographic – NEC: Safe Cities". January 7, 2015.
  21. ^ "QS Best Student Cities 2016". Top Universities.
  22. ^ "QS Best Student Cities 2018". Top Universities. April 30, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  23. ^ a b Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company (1996), p. 360. ISBN 0-7864-1814-1.
  24. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Volume 5, p. 759; excerpt, "The Mikado, on assuming the exercise of power at Yedo, changed the name of the city to Tokio".
  25. ^ Fiévé, Nicolas & Paul Waley (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. p. 253.
  26. ^ 明治東京異聞~トウケイかトウキョウか~東京の読み方 (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Archives. 2004. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  27. ^ McClain, James, James; et al. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. p. 13.
  28. ^ Sorensen, Andre (2004). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty-First Century. p. 16.
  29. ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. pp. 33, 55.
  30. ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. pp. 182–183.
  31. ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. p. 186.
  32. ^ Naitō, Akira (2003). Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. p. 188.
  33. ^ "History of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
  34. ^ "Tokyo-Yokohama earthquake of 1923". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  35. ^ Tipton, Elise K. (2002). Modern Japan: A Social and Political History. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-585-45322-4.
  36. ^ "9 March 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy". Wired. Condé Nast Digital. March 9, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  37. ^ "1945 Tokyo Firebombing Left Legacy of Terror, Pain". Common Dreams.
  38. ^ Cybriwsky, Roman (1997). Historical Dictionary of Tokyo. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow. p. 22.
  39. ^ Hewitt, Kenneth (1983). "Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 73 (2): 257–284. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1983.tb01412.x.
  40. ^ "Tokyo Narita International Airport (NRT) Airport Information (Tokyo, Japan)". Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  41. ^ "Rail Transport in The World's Major Cities" (PDF). Japan Railway and Transport Review. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
  42. ^ Saxonhouse, Gary R. (ed.); Robert M. Stern (ed.) (2004). Japan's Lost Decade: Origins, Consequences and Prospects for Recovery. Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-4051-1917-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  43. ^ "Shift of Capital from Tokyo Committee". Japan Productivity Center for Socio-Economic Development. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  44. ^ "Policy Speech by Governor of Tokyo, Shintaro Ishihara at the First Regular Session of the Metropolitan Assembly, 2003". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
  45. ^ "Despite Major Earthquake Zero Tokyo Buildings Collapsed Thanks to Stringent Building Codes". Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  46. ^ Williams, Carol J. (March 11, 2011). "Japan earthquake disrupts Tokyo, leaves capital only lightly damaged". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  47. ^ "Tokyo Radiation Levels". Metropolis Magazine. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  48. ^ "Tokyo radiation levels – daily updates – April". Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  49. ^ "IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games". Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  50. ^ "Population of Tokyo, Japan". mongabay. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  51. ^ "Local Government in Japan" (PDF). Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  52. ^ The Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Archived December 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (Tokyo government webpage)
  53. ^ Population of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved on July 4, 2009)
  54. ^ "Pray For Tokyo: Chiyoda". Karis Japan. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  55. ^ "Development of the Metropolitan Centre, Subcentres and New Base". Bureau of Urban Development, Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  56. ^ "Ogasawara Islands: World Natural Heritage" (Adobe Flash). Ogasawara Village Industry and Tourist Board. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  57. ^ Yoshikawa, Yukie (2005). "Okinotorishima: Just the Tip of the Iceberg". Harvard Asian Quarterly. 9 (4). Archived from the original on November 4, 2013.
  58. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  59. ^ Matsu’ura, Ritsuko S. (January 28, 2017). "A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present". Geoscience Letters. 4 (1): 3. Bibcode:2017GSL.....4....3M. doi:10.1186/s40562-017-0069-4 – via BioMed Central.
  60. ^ Grunewald, Elliot D.; Stein, Ross S. (2006). "A New 1649–1884 Catalog of Destructive Earthquakes near Tokyo and Implications for the Long-term Seismic Process" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 111 (B12): B12306. Bibcode:2006JGRB..11112306G. doi:10.1029/2005JB004059. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  61. ^ "A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  62. ^ Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
  63. ^ a b c d 観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  64. ^ "Tokyo observes latest ever 1st snowfall". Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  65. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  66. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(10月としての値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  67. ^ The JMA Tokyo, Tokyo (東京都 東京) station is at 35°41.4′N 139°45.6′E, JMA: 気象統計情報>過去の気象データ検索>都道府県の選択>地点の選択. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  68. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  69. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  70. ^ 気象庁 / 気象統計情報 / 過去の気象データ検索 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  71. ^ 気象統計情報 / 天気予報・台風 / 過去の台風資料 / 台風の統計資料 / 台風の平年値. Japan Meteorological Agency.
  72. ^ a b Hidenobu Jinnai. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press (1995), pp. 1-3. ISBN 0-520-07135-2.
  73. ^ "Tokyo – GoJapanGo". Tokyo Attractions – Japanese Lifestyle. Mi Marketing Pty Ltd. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  74. ^ "World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)". Wbcsd.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
  75. ^ Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge (2003), p. 344. ISBN 0-415-27170-3.
  76. ^ Toshiaki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Shimodozono, and Keisuke Hanaki. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999): 3897–3909.
  77. ^ "Heat Island Control Measures". kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp. January 6, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  78. ^ Barry, Roger Graham; Chorley, Richard J. (1987). Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. London: Methuen Publishing. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-416-07152-8.
  79. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  80. ^ "2012 Action Program for Tokyo Vision 2020 – Tokyo Metropolitan Government". Metro.tokyo.jp. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  81. ^ 東京都の人口(推計). Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
  82. ^ a b "Population of Tokyo". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2009.
  83. ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 40–41. (National Diet Library Digital Archive) (digital page number 32)
  84. ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 66–67. (National Diet Library Digital Archive) (digital page number 46)
  85. ^ "Tokyo Statistical Yearbook 2018" (Excel 97). Bureau of General Affairs, Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  86. ^ "Financial Centres, All shapes and sizes". The Economist. September 13, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  87. ^ "Top 3 Things to See & Do in Shibuya – Tokyo's Busiest District". Apr 13, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  88. ^ Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07063-6.
  89. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 21" (PDF). Long Finance. March 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2017.
  90. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Melvin, Michael. "NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES - JAPAN'S BIG BANG AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS" (PDF). www.nber.org.
  91. ^ "Tokyo Stock Exchange". Stock-market.in. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  92. ^ Horticulture Statistics Team, Production Statistics Division, Statistics and Information Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (July 15, 2003). "Statistics on Cultivated Land Area" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  93. ^ Hannerz, Ulf (2005). "The Fish Market at the Center of the World (Review)". The Journal of Japanese Studies. 31 (2): 428–431. doi:10.1353/jjs.2005.0044.
  94. ^ Kato, Issei (September 29, 2018). "As Tokyo's historic Tsukiji market closes, fishmongers mourn". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  95. ^ Japan gets approval for new flight routes over Haneda airport using U.S. airspace Japan Times
  96. ^ "A Country Study: Japan". The Library of Congress. Chapter 2, Neighbourhoods. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
  97. ^ "Orientation – Tokyo Travel Guide | Planetyze". Planetyze. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  98. ^ U.S. military's Yokota Rapcon airspace is set in six different levels at altitudes between 2,450 and 7,000 meters, stretching over Tokyo and eight other prefectures. Japan Times
  99. ^ "Revamping Tokyo's expressways could give capital a boost". Yomiuri Shimbun. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
  100. ^ "QS University Rankings: Asia 2016". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  101. ^ Milner, Rebecca (2013). "Pocket Tokyo." 4th Edition. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74220-581-6
  102. ^ Perry, Chris (April 25, 2007). "Rebels on the Bridge: Subversion, Style, and the New Subculture" (Flash). Self-published (Scribd). Retrieved December 4, 2007.
  103. ^ "Tokyo 'top city for good eating'". BBC News. November 20, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
  104. ^ "Tokyo Keeps Gymnastics Worlds, Bolsters Olympics Ambitions". Aroundtherings.com. May 23, 2011. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  105. ^ BBC World Service: World Update. 'Carl Randall – Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC World Service, 2016
  106. ^ BBC News. 'Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC News – Arts & Entertainment, 2016
  107. ^ 'Tokyo Portraits by Carl Randall'., The Daiwa Anglo Japanese Foundation, London, 2014
  108. ^ 'The BP Portrait Awards 2013'., The National Portrait Gallery, London, 2012
  109. ^ 'Japan Portraits'., Carl Randall – artist website, 2016
  110. ^ "Sister Cities (States) of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government". Retrieved May 30, 2016.
  111. ^ "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Paris: Marie de Paris. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.

Bibliography

  • Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1409-4; OCLC 51527561
  • McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2987-3; OCLC 30157716
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Sorensen, Andre. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-415-22651-6; OCLC 48517502

Further reading

Guides

  • Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo (City Travel Guide) (2010)
  • Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo (2013)
  • Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp
  • Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter (2012)

Contemporary

  • Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp.
  • Bestor, Theodore. Neighbourhood Tokyo (1989). online edition
  • Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition
  • Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) ISBN 0-8014-8570-3.
  • Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp.
  • Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp.
  • Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 55#3 (1996) pp. 38+.
  • Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp.
  • Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000)
  • Taira, J. [re]TOKYO. (2018). San Francisco: ORO Editions. ISBN 978-1-940743-66-0
  • Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. ISSN 0042-0980 Fulltext: Ebsco

External links

1964 Summer Olympics

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai), was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

The 1964 Summer Games were the first Olympics held in Asia, and the first time South Africa was barred from taking part due to its apartheid system in sports. (South Africa was, however, allowed to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics, also held in Tokyo, where it made its Paralympic Games debut.) Tokyo was chosen as the host city during the 55th IOC Session in West Germany, on 26 May 1959.

These games were also the first to be telecast internationally without the need for tapes to be flown overseas, as they had been for the 1960 Olympics four years earlier. The games were telecast to the United States using Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, and from there to Europe using Relay 1. These were also the first Olympic Games to have color telecasts, albeit partially. Certain events like the sumo wrestling and judo matches, sports huge in Japan, were tried out using Toshiba's new colour transmission system, but only for the domestic market. History surrounding the 1964 Olympics was chronicled in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad, directed by Kon Ichikawa.

The games were scheduled for mid-October to avoid the city's midsummer heat and humidity and the September typhoon season. The previous Olympics in Rome in 1960 started in late August and experienced hot weather. The following games in 1968 in Mexico City also began in October.

The 1960's Olympics were also the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth, synthetic, all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Olympiad thereafter.

2020 Summer Olympics

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (Japanese: 第三十二回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013. These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympics twice, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer programme after 2008).

Haneda Airport

Tokyo International Airport (東京国際空港, Tōkyō Kokusai Kūkō), commonly known as Haneda Airport (羽田空港, Haneda Kūkō), Tokyo Haneda Airport, and Haneda International Airport (IATA: HND, ICAO: RJTT), is one of the two primary airports that serve the Greater Tokyo Area, and is the primary base of Japan's two major domestic airlines, Japan Airlines (Terminal 1) and All Nippon Airways (Terminal 2), as well as Air Do, Skymark Airlines, Solaseed Air, and StarFlyer. It is located in Ōta, Tokyo, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south of Tokyo Station.

Haneda was the primary international airport serving Tokyo until 1978; from 1978 to 2010, Haneda handled almost all domestic flights to and from Tokyo as well as "scheduled charter" flights to a small number of major cities in East Asia, while Narita International Airport handled the vast majority of international flights. In 2010, a dedicated international terminal was opened at Haneda in conjunction with the completion of a fourth runway, allowing long-haul flights during night-time hours. Haneda opened up to long-haul service during the daytime in March 2014, with carriers offering nonstop service to 25 cities in 17 countries. The Japanese government is currently encouraging the use of Haneda for premium business routes and the use of Narita for leisure routes and by low-cost carriers.Haneda handled 85,408,975 passengers in 2017; by passenger throughput, it was the third-busiest airport in Asia and the fourth-busiest in the world, after Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Beijing Capital International Airport (Asia's busiest), and Dubai International Airport. It is able to handle 90 million passengers per year following its expansion in 2010. With Haneda and Narita combined Tokyo has the third-busiest city airport system in the world, after London and New York City.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").Eleven countries (Australia, Canada, China, France, British India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) provided judges and prosecutors for the court. The defense comprised Japanese and American lawyers.

Twenty-eight Japanese military and political leaders were charged with 55 separate counts encompassing the waging of aggressive war, murder and conventional war crimes committed against prisoners-of-war, civilian internees and the inhabitants of occupied territories. The defendants included former prime ministers, former foreign ministers and former military commanders. In the course of the proceedings, the court ruled that 45 of the counts, including all the murder charges, were either redundant or not authorized under the IMTFE Charter.

Two defendants died during the proceedings and one was ruled unfit to stand trial. Chief of the Navy General Staff Admiral Soemu Toyoda was acquitted. All remaining defendants were found guilty of at least one count. Sentences ranged from seven years' imprisonment to execution.

The tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948.

Japan

Japan (Japanese: 日本; Nippon [ɲippoɴ] or Nihon [ɲihoɴ]; formally 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and often are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one. The population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest, of which 98.5% are ethnic Japanese. 90.7% of people live in cities, while 9.3% live in the countryside. About 13.8 million people live in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people.Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history.

From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, and the G20, and is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer.

Japan benefits from a highly skilled and educated workforce; it has among the world's largest proportion of citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Although it has officially renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles; it ranked as the world's fourth most-powerful military in 2015. Japan is a highly developed country with a very high standard of living and Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, anime, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology.

Japan Standard Time

Japan Standard Time or JST (日本標準時/-ja "Nippon Hyōjunji" and Japanese pronunciation: [nipːɔ̞n çɔ̞ː(d)ʒʉn(d)ʒi], or 中央標準時/Japanese pronunciation: [tʃʉːɔ̞ː çɔ̞ː(d)ʒʉn(d)ʒi] Chūō Hyōjunji) is the standard timezone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC (i.e. it is UTC+09:00). There is no daylight saving time, though its introduction has been debated several times. During World War II, it was often called Tokyo Standard Time.

Japan Standard Time is the same as Korean Standard Time, Indonesian Eastern Standard Time, East-Timorese Standard Time and Yakutsk Time (Russia).

Konami

Konami Holdings Corporation (Japanese: 株式会社コナミホールディングス, Hepburn: Kabushikigaisha Konami Hōrudingusu, TYO: 9766 OTC Pink: KNMCY), commonly referred to as Konami, is a Japanese entertainment and gaming conglomerate. It operates as a product distributor (which produces and distributes trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and arcade cabinets), video game developer and publisher company. It also operates health and physical fitness clubs across Japan.

Konami is best known for their video games, including Metal Gear, Silent Hill, Castlevania, Contra, Frogger, Gradius, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Suikoden and Pro Evolution Soccer. Additionally, Konami also owns Bemani, known for Dance Dance Revolution and Beatmania, as well as the assets of former game developer Hudson Soft, known for Bomberman, Adventure Island, Bonk, Bloody Roar and Star Soldier. Konami is the twentieth-largest game company in the world by revenue.The company originated in 1969 as a jukebox rental and repair business in Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan, by Kagemasa Kōzuki, who remains the company's chairman. The name "Konami" (; Japanese pronunciation: [koꜜnami]) is a portmanteau of the names Kagemasa Kozuki, Yoshinobu Nakama, and Tatsuo Miyasako.Konami is currently headquartered in Tokyo. In the United States, Konami manages its video game business from offices in El Segundo, California and its casino gaming business from offices in Paradise, Nevada. Its Australian gaming operations are located in Sydney. As of March 2016, it owns 21 consolidated subsidiaries around the world.

Narita International Airport

Narita International Airport (成田国際空港, Narita Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA: NRT, ICAO: RJAA), also known as Tokyo Narita Airport, formerly and originally known as New Tokyo International Airport (新東京国際空港, Shin Tōkyō Kokusai Kūkō), is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is located approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of central Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture, straddling the border between the city of Narita and the adjacent town of Shibayama.

Narita is the predominant international airport in Japan, handling around 50% of the country's international passenger traffic and 60% of its international air cargo traffic. As of 2016, Narita was the second-busiest passenger airport in Japan (after Haneda Airport in Tokyo), and was the tenth-busiest air freight hub in the world. Its 4,000-metre (13,123 ft) main runway shares the record for longest runway in Japan with the second runway at Kansai International Airport in Osaka.Narita serves as the main international hub of Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways and Nippon Cargo Airlines, and as a hub for low-cost carriers Jetstar Japan, Peach and Vanilla Air.

In 2017, Narita served 40,631,193 passengers, making it the 49th busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic.

New Japan Pro-Wrestling

New Japan Pro-Wrestling Co., Ltd. (新日本プロレスリング株式会社, Shin Nihon Puroresuringu Kabushiki-kaisha) (NJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion based in Nakano, Tokyo. Founded in January 1972 by Antonio Inoki, the promotion was sold to Yuke's, who later sold it to Bushiroad in 2012. TV Asahi and Amuse, Inc. own minority shares of the company. Naoki Sugabayashi has served as the promotion's Chairman since September 2013, while Harold Meij has served as the President of the promotion since May 2018.Owing to its TV program aired on TV Asahi, NJPW is the largest professional wrestling promotion in Japan and the second largest promotion in the world. It was affiliated with the National Wrestling Alliance at various points in its history. NJPW has had agreements with various MMA and professional wrestling promotions around the world, including WWE, World Championship Wrestling, American Wrestling Association, World Class Championship Wrestling, Impact Wrestling, WAR, UWFi, Ring of Honor, Pride Fighting Championships, and Jersey All Pro Wrestling. NJPW's biggest event is the January 4 Tokyo Dome Show, held each year since 1992 and currently promoted under the Wrestle Kingdom banner.

Prefectures of Japan

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures (都道府県, Todōfuken), forming the first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They consist of 43 prefectures (県, ken) proper, two urban prefectures (府, fu, Osaka and Kyoto), one "circuit" or "territory" (道, dō, Hokkaido) and one "metropolis" (都, to, Tokyo).

The Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures (urban -fu and rural -ken) from 1868 to replace the urban and rural administrators (bugyō, daikan, etc.) in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.Each prefecture's chief executive is a directly-elected governor (知事, chiji). Ordinances and budgets are enacted by a unicameral assembly (議会, gikai) whose members are elected for four-year terms.

Under a set of 1888–1890 laws on local government until the 1920s, each prefecture (then only 3 -fu and 42 -ken; Hokkai-dō and Okinawa-ken were subject to different laws until the 20th century) was subdivided into cities (市, shi) and districts (郡, gun) and each district into towns (町, chō/machi) and villages (村, son/mura). Hokkaido has 14 subprefectures that act as branch offices (総合振興局, sōgō-shinkō-kyoku) and branch offices (振興局, shinkō-kyoku) of the prefecture. Some other prefectures also have branch offices that carry out prefectural administrative functions outside the capital. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a merged city-prefecture; a metropolis, it has features of both cities and prefectures.

SoftBank Group

SoftBank Group Corp. (ソフトバンクグループ株式会社, Sofutobanku Gurūpu Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese multinational holding conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. The company owns stakes in Softbank Corp., Softbank Vision Fund, Arm Holdings, Fortress Investment Group, Boston Dynamics, Sprint (ca.85%), Alibaba (29.5%), Yahoo Japan (48.17%), Brightstar (87.1%), Uber (15%), Didi Chuxing (ca.20%), Ola (ca.30%), Grab, Renren (42.9%), InMobi (45%), Hike (25.8%), Snapdeal (ca.30%), Brain, Fanatics (ca.22%), Guardant Health, Improbable Worlds (ca.50%), Mapbox, Nauto, One97 Communications (ca.20%), Oravel Stays (42%), OSIsoft, PingAn Heath Cloud (7.41%), Plenty United, Roivant Sciences, Slack Technologies (ca.5%), Vir Biotechnology, WeWork (ca.22%), Zhongan Online P&C Insurance (5%), Compass (ca.22%), AUTO1 Group (ca.20%), Wag (45%), Katerra (ca.28%), Cruise Automation (ca.19.6%), Ele.me, Getaround, Packet and ParkJockey. It also runs Vision Fund, the world's largest technology fund.The company is known for its leadership by founder Masayoshi Son. It now owns operations in broadband; fixed-line telecommunications; e-commerce; internet; technology services; finance; media and marketing; semiconductor design; and other businesses.

SoftBank was ranked in the Forbes Global 2000 list as the 39th largest public company in the world, and the 4th largest publicly traded company in Japan after Toyota, MUFG, NTT.The logo of SoftBank is based on the Kaientai, a naval trading company that existed at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and is meant to represent a "21st century" version of their passion for the enterprise. Resembling an equals sign, it also represents how SoftBank "has an 'answer' it can provide for customers and help solve the various problems the world faces", as well as "interactive communication and the unlimited possibilities of the Internet".

Sony

Sony Corporation (ソニー株式会社, Sonī Kabushiki Kaisha, SOH-nee, stylized as SONY) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming, entertainment and financial services. The company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, and is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, and a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list.Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group (ソニー・グループ, Sonī Gurūpu), which is engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics (AV, IT & communication products, semiconductors, video games, network services and medical business), motion pictures (movies and TV shows), music (record labels and music publishing) and financial services (banking and insurance). These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, and others.

Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense.The company's current slogan is Be Moved. Their former slogans were The One and Only (1979–1982), It's a Sony (1982–2006), like.no.other (2006–2009), make.believe (2009– 2013) and BE MOVED (2013–present).Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group (SMFG) corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group.

Square Enix

Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling over 115 million. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide.

The original Square Enix Co., Ltd. was formed as the result of a merger between Enix Corporation and Square Co., Ltd. in April 2003, with Enix as the surviving company. Each share of Square's common stock was exchanged for 0.85 shares of Enix's common stock. At the time, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda was named its vice president, and the founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, the largest shareholder of the combined corporation, became its honorary chairman.

In October 2008, Square Enix conducted a company split between its corporate business and video game operations. Square Enix re-branded itself as Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd., a holding company, while its internally domestic video game operations were formed as a new subsidiary called Square Enix Co., Ltd. During the 2014 fiscal year, the company made over ¥150 billion in revenue (US$1.36 billion).In addition to its flagship subsidiary, Square Enix Holdings owns the arcade gaming corporation Taito, known for games such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble, and Darius. Square Enix also owned British game publisher Eidos Interactive, which was absorbed into Square Enix Europe in order to publish Eidos Interactive titles such as Tomb Raider, Deus Ex and Hitman under the Square Enix brand.

Studio Ghibli

Studio Ghibli, Inc. (Japanese: 株式会社スタジオジブリ, Hepburn: Kabushiki gaisha Sutajio Jiburi) is a Japanese animation film studio based in Koganei, Tokyo, Japan. The studio is best known for its anime feature films, and has also produced several short films, television commercials, and one television film. It was founded on 15 June 1985, after the success of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984), with funding by Tokuma Shoten. Studio Ghibli has also collaborated with video game studios on the visual development of several video games.Six of Studio Ghibli's films are among the 10 highest-grossing anime films made in Japan, with Spirited Away (2001) being the second highest, grossing over US$290 million worldwide. Many of their works have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award, and four have won the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year. Five of Studio Ghibli's films have received Academy Award nominations. Spirited Away won the Golden Bear in 2002 and the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Film in 2003. Totoro, a character from My Neighbor Totoro, is the studio's mascot.On 3 August 2014, Studio Ghibli temporarily halted production following the retirement of director Hayao Miyazaki, who co-founded the studio with the late Isao Takahata. In February 2017, Toshio Suzuki announced that Miyazaki had come out of retirement again to direct a new feature film, How Do You Live?, with Studio Ghibli.

TV Tokyo

TV Tokyo Corporation (or TX) (株式会社テレビ東京, Kabushiki-gaisha Terebi Tōkyō) TYO: 9413 is a television station headquartered in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Also known as "Teleto" (テレ東, Teretō), a blend of "terebi" and "Tokyo", it is the flagship station of TX Network. It is one of the major Tokyo television stations, particularly specializing in anime. The station is partly owned by Nihon Keizai Shimbun.

Tokyo Ghoul

Tokyo Ghoul (Japanese: 東京喰種(トーキョーグール), Hepburn: Tōkyō Gūru) is a Japanese dark fantasy manga series written and illustrated by Sui Ishida. It was serialized in Shueisha's seinen manga magazine Weekly Young Jump between September 2011 and September 2014, and it has been collected in fourteen tankōbon volumes as of August 2014. A sequel titled Tokyo Ghoul:re was serialized in the same magazine between October 2014 and July 2018, and was later collected into sixteen tankōbon volumes. A prequel titled Tokyo Ghoul [Jack] ran online on Jump Live.

A 12-episode anime television series adaptation by studio Pierrot aired on Tokyo MX between July 4, 2014, and September 19, 2014. A 12-episode second season, Tokyo Ghoul √A (pronounced Tokyo Ghoul Root A), which follows an original story, began airing on January 9, 2015, and concluded on March 27, 2015. In North America, Viz Media is publishing the manga while Funimation has licensed the anime series for streaming and home video distribution.

A live-action film based on the manga was released in Japan on July 29, 2017. An anime adaptation based on the sequel manga Tokyo Ghoul:re began airing from April 3, 2018, and concluded on December 25, 2018, with the series being split into two seasons.

Toshiba

Toshiba Corporation (株式会社東芝, Kabushiki-gaisha Tōshiba, English: ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Its diversified products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems, electronic components and materials, power systems, industrial and social infrastructure systems, consumer electronics, household appliances, medical equipment, office equipment, as well as lighting and logistics.

Toshiba was founded in 1939 as Tokyo Shibaura Denki K.K. through the merger of Shibaura Seisaku-sho (founded in 1875) and Tokyo Denki (founded in 1890). The company name was officially changed to Toshiba Corporation in 1978.

It is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices, the Osaka Securities Exchange and the Nagoya Stock Exchange. Toshiba is the ninth largest semiconductor manufacturer in the world. In 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results because of uncertainties at Westinghouse, which had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Toshiba stated that "substantial doubt about the company's ability to continue as a going concern exists".Toshiba is organized into four groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group. Midea Group, a Chinese company, bought a controlling 80.1% stake in the Toshiba Home Appliances Group in 2016.

University of Tokyo

The University of Tokyo (東京大学, Tōkyō daigaku), abbreviated as Todai (東大, Tōdai) or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877 as the first imperial university, it is one of Japan's most prestigious universities.

The university has 10 faculties and enrolls about 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are international students. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Komaba, Kashiwa, Shirokane and Nakano. It is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness.The university has graduated many notable alumni, including 17 Prime Ministers, 16 Nobel Prize laureates, 3 Pritzker Prize laureates, 3 astronauts, and 1 Fields Medalist.

Transcriptions
RomanizationTōkyō
Revised HepburnToukyou
Climate data for Kitanomaru Park, Chiyoda ward, Tokyo (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1875–present)[67]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
24.9
(76.8)
25.3
(77.5)
29.2
(84.6)
32.2
(90.0)
36.2
(97.2)
39.5
(103.1)
39.1
(102.4)
38.1
(100.6)
32.6
(90.7)
27.3
(81.1)
24.8
(76.6)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
10.4
(50.7)
13.6
(56.5)
19.0
(66.2)
22.9
(73.2)
25.5
(77.9)
29.2
(84.6)
30.8
(87.4)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
16.3
(61.3)
11.9
(53.4)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.7
(42.3)
8.7
(47.7)
13.9
(57.0)
18.2
(64.8)
21.4
(70.5)
25.0
(77.0)
26.4
(79.5)
22.8
(73.0)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
7.6
(45.7)
15.4
(59.7)
Average low °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.7
(35.1)
4.4
(39.9)
9.4
(48.9)
14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
21.8
(71.2)
23.0
(73.4)
19.7
(67.5)
14.2
(57.6)
8.3
(46.9)
3.5
(38.3)
11.6
(52.9)
Record low °C (°F) −9.2
(15.4)
−7.9
(17.8)
−5.6
(21.9)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.2
(36.0)
8.5
(47.3)
13.0
(55.4)
15.4
(59.7)
10.5
(50.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
−6.8
(19.8)
−9.2
(15.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.3
(2.06)
56.1
(2.21)
117.5
(4.63)
124.5
(4.90)
137.8
(5.43)
167.7
(6.60)
153.5
(6.04)
168.2
(6.62)
209.9
(8.26)
197.8
(7.79)
92.5
(3.64)
51.0
(2.01)
1,528.8
(60.19)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2.0)
5
(2.0)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
11
(4.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 5.3 6.2 11.0 11.0 11.4 12.7 11.8 9.0 12.2 10.8 7.6 4.9 114.0
Average snowy days 2.8 3.7 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 9.7
Average relative humidity (%) 52 53 56 62 69 75 77 73 75 68 65 56 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 184.5 165.8 163.1 176.9 167.8 125.4 146.4 169.0 120.9 131.0 147.9 178.0 1,876.7
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[68][69][63]
Climate data for Ogouchi, Okutama town, Tokyo (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.1
(44.8)
10.3
(50.5)
16.3
(61.3)
20.5
(68.9)
23.0
(73.4)
26.8
(80.2)
28.2
(82.8)
23.9
(75.0)
18.4
(65.1)
13.8
(56.8)
9.3
(48.7)
17.1
(62.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41.0)
10.6
(51.1)
15.1
(59.2)
18.5
(65.3)
22.0
(71.6)
23.2
(73.8)
19.5
(67.1)
13.8
(56.8)
8.5
(47.3)
3.8
(38.8)
11.9
(53.4)
Average low °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.6
(33.1)
5.6
(42.1)
10.5
(50.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.7
(65.7)
19.7
(67.5)
16.3
(61.3)
10.3
(50.5)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
8.1
(46.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.1
(1.74)
50.0
(1.97)
92.5
(3.64)
109.6
(4.31)
120.3
(4.74)
155.7
(6.13)
195.4
(7.69)
280.6
(11.05)
271.3
(10.68)
172.4
(6.79)
76.7
(3.02)
39.9
(1.57)
1,623.5
(63.92)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.1 127.7 132.2 161.8 154.9 109.8 127.6 148.3 99.1 94.5 122.1 145.6 1,570.7
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[70]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.