Tokusō (Japanese: 得宗) was the title (post) held by the head of the mainline Hōjō clan, who also monopolized the position of shikken (regents to the shogunate) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan during the period of Regent Rule (1199–1333). Its important to not confuse a regent to the shogunate with a regent to the Emperor (the latter are called Sesshō and Kampaku). Shikkens were the first regents to the shogunate.

The tokusō from 1256 to 1333 was the military dictator of Japan as de facto head of the bakufu (shogunate); despite the actual shōgun being merely a puppet. This implies that all other positions in Japan—the Emperor, the Imperial Court, Sesshō and Kampaku, and the shikken (regent of the shōgun)—had also been reduced to figureheads.[1]


The name tokusō is said to have come from Tokushū (徳崇), the Buddhist name of Hōjō Yoshitoki, but Hōjō Tokimasa is usually regarded as the first tokusō. There were eight tokusō:

  1. Hōjō Tokimasa
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori
  6. Hōjō Tokimune
  7. Hōjō Sadatoki
  8. Hōjō Takatoki

The political structure of the tokusō dictatorship was set up by Yasutoki and was consolidated by his grandson Tokiyori. The tokusō line held overwhelming power over the gokenin and the cadet lines of the Hōjō clan. Tokiyori often worked out policies at private meetings (寄合 yoriai) at his residence instead of discussing them at the Hyōjō (評定), the council of the shogunate. This made the tokusō's private retainers (御内人 miuchibito) stronger. In 1256, Tokiyori separated the positions of shikken and tokusō for the first time. Because of an illness, he installed his infant son Tokimune as the tokusō while Nagatoki, a collateral relative, was appointed shikken to assist Tokimune.

See also


  1. ^ 「執権 (一)」(『国史大辞典 6』(吉川弘文館、1985年) ISBN 978-4-642-00506-7)
Campus Special Investigator Hikaruon

Campus Special Investigator Hikaruon (学園特捜ヒカルオン, Gakuen Tokusō Hikaruon) is a Japanese original video animation produced by AIC. Directed by Kazuhiro Ochi, the OVA was released in 1987. The OVA is a one-shot tribute to the Metal Hero genre of live-action superhero shows that were prevalent in the 80's and 90's, specifically to the Space Sheriff trilogy of Gavan, Sharivan and Shaider. The one-shot deals with dark subject matters such as bullying and teen suicide.

Chikama Tokiie

Chikama Tokiie (千竃時家) was a gokenin and simultaneously a retainer of the Hōjō clan of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.

The Chikama clan originated from Chikama, Owari Province (modern-day Minami-ku, Nagoya) and remained the ruler of Chikama as a gokenin, or vassal of the shogunate. At some time in history, it became a private retainer of the Hōjō Tokusō family, the de facto ruler of the shogunate, and moved to Kawanabe District of Satsuma Province, a property of the Tokusō family, as a deputy jitō and the ruler of the district.

Chikama Tokiie is known for a set of documents he created in 1306. In these documents he listed properties to be inherited by his family members, namely his three sons, two daughters and two wives. These properties were distributed among the following:

Chikama, Owari Province,

Kawanabe District, Satsuma Province,

Asabata, Suruga Province, and

Wakamori, Hitachi Province.Kawanabe District and Wakamori were properties of the Tokusō family, and the Chikama clan served it as a deputy ruler. It is significant that the villages enumerated in the Kawanabe District were located in the Manose River valley because the Mottaimatsu Site, which is considered to have served as a major trading center, was downstream of the Manose River. Apart from the Manose River, he also owned Bōnotsu, a trading port that was connected to Hakata, China and southern islands.What historians find most fascinating is that these documents include various southern islands, including (some of) the Ōsumi Islands, the Tokara Islands (the Seven), and Kikai Island, Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima (and probably Okinoerabu) of the Amami Islands. Although the Amami Islands were traditionally not considered to be part of Japan, they were treated as the territories of a Japanese lord. Another source probably making reference to this is a map of Japan stored at the Kanazawa Bunko, a library of the Hōjō clan. It depicts a land mass outside the boundary of Japan where the caption reads "龍及國宇嶋身人頭鳥雨見嶋私領郡" (*U-shima, State/Province of Ryūkyū [where people have] a human body but a bird head; Amami Island(s), a privately owned district). The latter half suggests that (the Hōjō clan considered that) the Amami Islands were not part of Japan but anyway owned by Japanese.

Hōjō Akitoki

Hōjō Akitoki (北条顕時; 1248 – 7 May 1301) was a Japanese military leader during the Kamakura period (1185–1333). He was the third head of the Kanesawa-ryū of the Hōjō clan.

Akitoki was the son of Kanezawa Sanetoki and a daughter of Hōjō Masamura. In 1257 Akitoki had his genpuku coming-of-age ceremony under the tokusō Hōjō Tokiyori and took the name Tokikata (時方). In 1260 he became a guard of the shōgun; he attended Prince Munetaka and studied poetry and other subjects. He married Mugai Nyodai.Akitoki died 7 May 1301 and was succeeded by his son Hōjō Sadaaki. Akitoki's grave is in Shōmyō-ji in Kanagawa. He is said to have had a love of learning, like his father, and to have contributed to the establishment of the Kanazawa Bunko.

Hōjō Sadatoki

Hōjō Sadatoki (北条 貞時, April 20, 1271 – December 6, 1311) was the ninth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate (reigned 1284–1301), and tokusō (de facto ruler of Japan) from his appointment as regent until his death.

Born to the regent Tokimune and his wife from the Adachi family, Sadatoki became a shikken at age 14 upon the death of his father. Sadatoki was under the guardianship of Taira Yoritsuna.

Hōjō Takatoki

Hōjō Takatoki (北条 高時) (1303 – 23 May 1333) was the last Tokusō and ruling Shikken (regent) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate; the rulers that followed were his puppets. A member of the Hōjō clan, he was the son of Hōjō Sadatoki, and was preceded as shikken by Hōjō Morotoki.

Hōjō Tokimune

Hōjō Tokimune (北条 時宗, 5 June 1251 – 20 April 1284) of the Hōjō clan was the eighth shikken (officially regent of the shōgun, but de facto ruler of Japan) of the Kamakura shogunate (reigned 1268–84), known for leading the Japanese forces against the invasion of the Mongols and for spreading Zen Buddhism.

Tokimune was known to rule with an iron fist, and also eventually monopolized at one point all three titles of power, namely holding offices of tokusō (head of clan, since birth), and rensho (Vice Regent). During his lifetime, the following seats of power: Japanese Emperor, Imperial Regent (sesshō), and Imperial Chief Advisor kampaku, and the shōgun, all had been completely marginalized by the Hōjō Regents.

Hōjō Tokiyori

Hōjō Tokiyori (北条時頼, June 29, 1227 – December 24, 1263) was the fifth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.

Kiyotaka Mitsugi

Kiyotaka Mitsugi (三ツ木清隆, Mitsugi Kiyotaka, born May 30, 1953) is a Japanese actor. His career has centered on television tokusatsu and jidaigeki. He starred in the 1967–68 television series Kōsoku Esper and the 1973 series Shirojishi Kamen, and played a supporting role as the ninja Saizō in Series III, Episodes 1–57, of Abarenbō Shōgun. In NHK's eleventh Taiga drama, Kunitori Monogatari, Mitsugi portrayed Akechi Mitsuharu. He appeared regularly in Episodes 436–509 of Tokusō Saizensen. A frequent guest actor, he made six appearances on Ōedo Sōsamō and four on Zenigata Heiji, three on Taiyō ni Hoero!', and two on Happyaku Yachō Yume Nikki. Fans of the tokusatsu Chikyuu Sentai Fiveman know him as Dr. Hoshikawa. The producers of Abarenbō Shōgun selected him to reprise his role in the 500th episode special, and again to portray the daimyō Tokugawa Munenao in Series VI.

Outside drama series, his career includes other media and genres. In film, Mitsugi has three credits. He was a guest voice in an episode of the animated 1979 television show Takarajima. He has acted in stage productions in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. A vocalist, Mitsugi has released nine single recordings and one album.

Metal Hero Series

The Metal Hero Series (メタルヒーローシリーズ, Metaru Hīrō Series) is a metaseries of tokusatsu superhero TV series produced by Toei for Japanese television.

The protagonists of the Metal Hero Series are mainly space, military and police-based characters who are typically either androids, cyborgs, or human beings who don "metallic" armored suits. Henceforth, most of the Metal Heroes are also referenced as another of those of the "Henshin (transforming) Heroes" genre. Usually, the genre revolves around a technological theme where technology, in the right hands, can be used for the greater good.

The shows were produced by Toei (although it is rumored to be made by Shotaro Ishinomori) from 1982 through 1999 in conjunction with their other Tokusatsu superhero shows, Kamen Rider and Super Sentai. In addition to Japan, they are also popular in France, Brazil, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. During the 1990s, Saban Entertainment used some of the shows to produce programs similar to their Power Rangers series. Some of the Metal Hero Series even spawned such sequels which followed the continuity of the previous shows, resulting in the genre developing sub-categories based mainly on space, military and police-related characters.

Rangers Strike

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The Rensho (連署, "co-signatory") was the assistant to the shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.The rensho placed his signature next to that of the shikken on official orders. In 1224 the third shikken Hōjō Yasutoki appointed Hōjō Tokifusa as the first rensho. From then on, the rensho was chosen from influential members of the Hōjō clan, but not from the main line of the clan (tokusō), with the one exception of Tokimune, who temporarily occupied the position from 1264 to 1268.


The shikken (Japanese: 執権) was a titular post held by a member of Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, or during the Kamakura period, therefore it was head of the bakufu (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as Regent Rule (執権政治, Shikken Seiji).

During roughly the first half of that period, the shikken was the de facto military dictator of Japan (not including the independent Northern Fujiwara). The title of shikken was modified, as second in command to the Tokusō beginning in 1256, but by the Muromachi period (1333–1573) the position, though not abolished, did not even figure into the top ranks. The position ceased to exist after the Muromachi period.

Special Armored Battalion Dorvack

Special Armored Battalion Dorvack (Japanese: 特装機兵ドルバック, Hepburn: Tokusō Kihei Dorubakku) is an anime series aired from 1983 to 1984 in Japan and also aired in Hong Kong roughly at the same time. There were 36 episodes. Other loosely translated names are "Dorvack", "Dolbuk", "Special Powered Armor Troop Dorvack", "Special Machine Army Dorvack", "Machine Corps Dorvack", "Armored Trooper Dorvack", "Tokusou Kihei Dorvack", "Comando Dolbuck" (Brazil), "Dolbuk, Defensores de la Tierra" (Latin America).

Special Rescue Exceedraft

Special Rescue Exceedraft (特捜エクシードラフト, Tokusō Ekushīdorafuto) is the last part of the Rescue Police Series trilogy in Toei Company's Metal Hero Series franchise of superhero TV series. It was aired in Japan from February 2, 1992 to January 24, 1993. The series was initially conceived as taking place in a new continuity, leading to weaker ties to Solbrain and Winspector.

Special research police JUMPolice

Special research police JUMPolice (特捜警察ジャンポリス, Tokusō Keisatsu JANporisu) is a Japanese TV program which began airing on April 4, 2014. This is a variety show which features Weekly Shōnen Jump, V Jump, Jump Square, Saikyō Jump and their anime and games. JUMPolice is short for Jump Under Mission Police.

Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger

Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger (特捜戦隊デカレンジャー, Tokusō Sentai Dekarenjā, ) is the title given to the promotional material for the twenty-eighth production of the Super Sentai metaseries produced by Toei. It aired as a part of TV Asahi's 2004 Super Hero Time block with Kamen Rider Blade. The action footage from the show was used for the American series, Power Rangers S.P.D..

Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger vs. Abaranger

Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger vs. Abaranger (特捜戦隊デカレンジャーVSアバレンジャー, Tokusō Sentai Dekarenjā Tai Abarenjā) is a V-Cinema superhero film released on March 21, 2005, featuring a crossover between the Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger and Bakuryū Sentai Abaranger casts and characters.

Yukina Kashiwa

Yukina Kashiwa (柏 幸奈, Kashiwa Yukina, born August 12, 1994 in Kanagawa Prefecture) is a Japanese actress and former idol singer. She is a former member of the girl groups Momoiro Clover and Nogizaka46.


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