Tokusō


Tokusō (Japanese: 得宗) was the title (post) held by the head of the mainline Hōjō clan, who also monopolized the position of shikken (regents to the shogunate) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan during the period of Regent Rule (1199–1333). Its important to not confuse a regent to the shogunate with a regent to the Emperor (the latter are called Sesshō and Kampaku). Shikkens were the first regents to the shogunate.

The tokusō from 1256 to 1333 was the military dictator of Japan as de facto head of the bakufu (shogunate); despite the actual shōgun being merely a puppet. This implies that all other positions in Japan—the Emperor, the Imperial Court, Sesshō and Kampaku, and the shikken (regent of the shōgun)—had also been reduced to figureheads.[1]

Origin

The name tokusō is said to have come from Tokushū (徳崇), the Buddhist name of Hōjō Yoshitoki, but Hōjō Tokimasa is usually regarded as the first tokusō. There were eight tokusō:

  1. Hōjō Tokimasa
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori
  6. Hōjō Tokimune
  7. Hōjō Sadatoki
  8. Hōjō Takatoki

The political structure of the tokusō dictatorship was set up by Yasutoki and was consolidated by his grandson Tokiyori. The tokusō line held overwhelming power over the gokenin and the cadet lines of the Hōjō clan. Tokiyori often worked out policies at private meetings (寄合 yoriai) at his residence instead of discussing them at the Hyōjō (評定), the council of the shogunate. This made the tokusō's private retainers (御内人 miuchibito) stronger. In 1256, Tokiyori separated the positions of shikken and tokusō for the first time. Because of an illness, he installed his infant son Tokimune as the tokusō while Nagatoki, a collateral relative, was appointed shikken to assist Tokimune.

See also

References

  1. ^ 「執権 (一)」(『国史大辞典 6』(吉川弘文館、1985年) ISBN 978-4-642-00506-7)
Campus Special Investigator Hikaruon

Campus Special Investigator Hikaruon (学園特捜ヒカルオン, Gakuen Tokusō Hikaruon) is a Japanese original video animation produced by AIC. Directed by Kazuhiro Ochi, the OVA was released in 1987. The OVA is a one-shot tribute to the Metal Hero genre of live-action superhero shows that were prevalent in the 80's and 90's, specifically to the Space Sheriff trilogy of Gavan, Sharivan and Shaider. The one-shot deals with dark subject matters such as bullying and teen suicide.

Chikama Tokiie

Chikama Tokiie (千竃時家) was a gokenin and simultaneously a retainer of the Hōjō clan of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.

The Chikama clan originated from Chikama, Owari Province (modern-day Minami-ku, Nagoya) and remained the ruler of Chikama as a gokenin, or vassal of the shogunate. At some time in history, it became a private retainer of the Hōjō Tokusō family, the de facto ruler of the shogunate, and moved to Kawanabe District of Satsuma Province, a property of the Tokusō family, as a deputy jitō and the ruler of the district.

Chikama Tokiie is known for a set of documents he created in 1306. In these documents he listed properties to be inherited by his family members, namely his three sons, two daughters and two wives. These properties were distributed among the following:

Chikama, Owari Province,

Kawanabe District, Satsuma Province,

Asabata, Suruga Province, and

Wakamori, Hitachi Province.Kawanabe District and Wakamori were properties of the Tokusō family, and the Chikama clan served it as a deputy ruler. It is significant that the villages enumerated in the Kawanabe District were located in the Manose River valley because the Mottaimatsu Site, which is considered to have served as a major trading center, was downstream of the Manose River. Apart from the Manose River, he also owned Bōnotsu, a trading port that was connected to Hakata, China and southern islands.What historians find most fascinating is that these documents include various southern islands, including (some of) the Ōsumi Islands, the Tokara Islands (the Seven), and Kikai Island, Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima (and probably Okinoerabu) of the Amami Islands. Although the Amami Islands were traditionally not considered to be part of Japan, they were treated as the territories of a Japanese lord. Another source probably making reference to this is a map of Japan stored at the Kanazawa Bunko, a library of the Hōjō clan. It depicts a land mass outside the boundary of Japan where the caption reads "龍及國宇嶋身人頭鳥雨見嶋私領郡" (*U-shima, State/Province of Ryūkyū [where people have] a human body but a bird head; Amami Island(s), a privately owned district). The latter half suggests that (the Hōjō clan considered that) the Amami Islands were not part of Japan but anyway owned by Japanese.

Hōjō Akitoki

Hōjō Akitoki (北条顕時; 1248 – 7 May 1301) was a Japanese military leader during the Kamakura period (1185–1333). He was the third head of the Kanesawa-ryū of the Hōjō clan.

Akitoki was the son of Kanezawa Sanetoki and a daughter of Hōjō Masamura. In 1257 Akitoki had his genpuku coming-of-age ceremony under the tokusō Hōjō Tokiyori and took the name Tokikata (時方). In 1260 he became a guard of the shōgun; he attended Prince Munetaka and studied poetry and other subjects. He married Mugai Nyodai.Akitoki died 7 May 1301 and was succeeded by his son Hōjō Sadaaki. Akitoki's grave is in Shōmyō-ji in Kanagawa. He is said to have had a love of learning, like his father, and to have contributed to the establishment of the Kanazawa Bunko.

Hōjō Sadatoki

Hōjō Sadatoki (北条 貞時, April 20, 1271 – December 6, 1311) was the ninth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate (reigned 1284–1301), and tokusō (de facto ruler of Japan) from his appointment as regent until his death.

Born to the regent Tokimune and his wife from the Adachi family, Sadatoki became a shikken at age 14 upon the death of his father. Sadatoki was under the guardianship of Taira Yoritsuna.

Hōjō Takatoki

Hōjō Takatoki (北条 高時) (1303 – 23 May 1333) was the last Tokusō and ruling Shikken (regent) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate; the rulers that followed were his puppets. A member of the Hōjō clan, he was the son of Hōjō Sadatoki, and was preceded as shikken by Hōjō Morotoki.

Hōjō Tokimune

Hōjō Tokimune (北条 時宗, 5 June 1251 – 20 April 1284) of the Hōjō clan was the eighth shikken (officially regent of the shōgun, but de facto ruler of Japan) of the Kamakura shogunate (reigned 1268–84), known for leading the Japanese forces against the invasion of the Mongols and for spreading Zen Buddhism.

Tokimune was known to rule with an iron fist, and also eventually monopolized at one point all three titles of power, namely holding offices of tokusō (head of clan, since birth), and rensho (Vice Regent). During his lifetime, the following seats of power: Japanese Emperor, Imperial Regent (sesshō), and Imperial Chief Advisor kampaku, and the shōgun, all had been completely marginalized by the Hōjō Regents.

Hōjō Tokiyori

Hōjō Tokiyori (北条時頼, June 29, 1227 – December 24, 1263) was the fifth shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan.

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Outside drama series, his career includes other media and genres. In film, Mitsugi has three credits. He was a guest voice in an episode of the animated 1979 television show Takarajima. He has acted in stage productions in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. A vocalist, Mitsugi has released nine single recordings and one album.

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The protagonists of the Metal Hero Series are mainly space, military and police-based characters who are typically either androids, cyborgs, or human beings who don "metallic" armored suits. Henceforth, most of the Metal Heroes are also referenced as another of those of the "Henshin (transforming) Heroes" genre. Usually, the genre revolves around a technological theme where technology, in the right hands, can be used for the greater good.

The shows were produced by Toei (although it is rumored to be made by Shotaro Ishinomori) from 1982 through 1999 in conjunction with their other Tokusatsu superhero shows, Kamen Rider and Super Sentai. In addition to Japan, they are also popular in France, Brazil, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. During the 1990s, Saban Entertainment used some of the shows to produce programs similar to their Power Rangers series. Some of the Metal Hero Series even spawned such sequels which followed the continuity of the previous shows, resulting in the genre developing sub-categories based mainly on space, military and police-related characters.

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Rensho

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Shikken

The shikken (Japanese: 執権) was a titular post held by a member of Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, or during the Kamakura period, therefore it was head of the bakufu (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as Regent Rule (執権政治, Shikken Seiji).

During roughly the first half of that period, the shikken was the de facto military dictator of Japan (not including the independent Northern Fujiwara). The title of shikken was modified, as second in command to the Tokusō beginning in 1256, but by the Muromachi period (1333–1573) the position, though not abolished, did not even figure into the top ranks. The position ceased to exist after the Muromachi period.

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Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger (特捜戦隊デカレンジャー, Tokusō Sentai Dekarenjā, ) is the title given to the promotional material for the twenty-eighth production of the Super Sentai metaseries produced by Toei. It aired as a part of TV Asahi's 2004 Super Hero Time block with Kamen Rider Blade. The action footage from the show was used for the American series, Power Rangers S.P.D..

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Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger vs. Abaranger (特捜戦隊デカレンジャーVSアバレンジャー, Tokusō Sentai Dekarenjā Tai Abarenjā) is a V-Cinema superhero film released on March 21, 2005, featuring a crossover between the Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger and Bakuryū Sentai Abaranger casts and characters.

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