Tokmok (Kyrgyz: Токмок, Tokmok ('hammer'); Russian: Токмак, Tokmak) is a city in the Chuy Valley, northern Kyrgyzstan, east of the country's capital of Bishkek. Its area is 41 square kilometres (16 sq mi), and its resident population was 53,231 in 2009(according to other data, "over 58,000"). Its geographical location is ; its altitude is 816 m above sea level. From 2004 until 19 April 2006 it served as the administrative seat of Chuy Region. Just to the north is the Chu River and the border with Kazakhstan.
Tokmok was established as a northern military outpost of the Khanate of Kokand ca. 1830. Thirty years later, it fell to the Russians who demolished the fort. The modern town was founded on 13 May 1864 by Major-General Mikhail Chernyayev.
Currently, the city of Tokmok is a district-level administrative unit of Chui Province. Although the city is surrounded by the province's Chuy District (whose administrative center is the village of Chuy, adjacent to Tokmok), it is not a part of it.
Airplane monument in Tokmok
Location in Kyrgyzstan
|• Mayor||Anvarbek Omorkanov (since May 2012)|
|• Total||41 km2 (16 sq mi)|
|Elevation||816 m (2,677 ft)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (KGT)|
Despite its relatively modern origin, Tokmok stands in the middle of the Chuy Valley, which was a prize sought by many medieval conquerors. The ruins of Ak-Beshim, the capital of the Western Turkic Khaganate, are situated 8 km southwest from Tokmok. Yusuf Has Hajib Balasaguni, author of the Kutadgu Bilig is said to have been born in this area.
About 15 km south of Tokmok is the 11th-century Burana Tower, located on the grounds of an ancient citadel of which today only a large earthen mound remains. This is believed to be the site of the ancient city of Balasagun, founded by the Sogdians and later for some time the capital of the Kara-Khanid empire. A large collection of ancient gravestones and bal-bals is nearby. Excavated Scythian artifacts have been moved to museums in St. Petersburg and Bishkek.
According to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, the population of Tokmok was 53,231.
|Historical populations in Tokmok|
|Note: enumerated de facto population; Source:,|
Tokmok has a hot, dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa). The average annual temperature is 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) and the coolest month is January with an average temperature of −5.3 °C (22.5 °F). The average annual precipitation is 434.2mm (17") and has an average of 108.3 days with precipitation. The wettest month is April with an average of 70mm (2.8") of precipitation and the driest month is August with an average of 12.1mm (0.5") of precipitation.
|Climate data for Tokmok|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||9.0||9.3||12.0||11.8||12.4||10.2||7.6||5.5||4.9||7.7||9.2||8.7||108.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74.0||75.1||68.5||55.4||53.3||46.9||44.1||43.7||46.2||56.2||67.1||75.3||58.8|
|Source: "The Climate of Tokmok". Weatherbase. Retrieved 5 August 2014.|
The glass manufacturer Interglass LLC is based in Tokmok. The Tokmok plant produces about 2,800 tons of liquid glass per day and 600 tons of glass is produced of the mass per day. Annual production is 200 000 tons. At present, raw materials for glass production are mainly provided by Russia and Kazakhstan.
Balasagun was an ancient Soghdian city in modern-day Kyrgyzstan, located in the Chuy Valley between Bishkek and Issyk-Kul Lake.
Balasagun was founded by Soghdians, a people of Iranian origin and the Soghdian language was still in use in this town until the 11th century.It was the capital of the Kara-Khanid Khanate from the 10th century until it was taken by the Kara-Khitan Khanate in 1134. It was then captured by the Mongols in 1218. The Mongols called it Gobalik ("pretty city"). It should not be confused with the city of Karabalghasun in Mongolia which was the capital of the Uyghur Khaganate.
Founded by the Kara-Khanid Khanate in the 9th century, Balasagun soon supplanted Suyab as the main political and economical centre of the Chuy Valley; its prosperity declined after the Mongol conquest. The poet Yusuf Has Hajib, known for writing the Kutadgu Bilig, is thought to have been born in Balasagun in the 11th century. The city also had a sizable Nestorian Christian population; one graveyard was still in use in the 14th century. Since the 14th century, Balasagun is a village with plenty of ruins, 12 km southeast of Tokmok.
The Burana zone, located at the edge of Tokmok and 6 km from the present village of Balasagun, was the west end of the ancient city. It includes the Burana Tower and a field of stone petroglyphs, the bal-bals. The Burana Tower is a minaret built in the 11th century on the ruins of the ancient city Balasagun. It is 24 m (79 ft) in height, though when it was first built it topped 46 m (138 ft). Several earthquakes through the centuries caused much damage, and the current building represents a major renovation carried out in the 1970s.Chu River
The Chu (Shu or Chui, Chuy) (Kazakh: Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Kyrgyz: Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Dungan: Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Russian: Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. Of the length of approximately 1 067 kilometres (663 miles), the first 115 kilometres are in Kyrgyzystan, then for 221 kilometres the river is the border between Kyrgyzystan and Kazakhstan, and the last 731 kilometres are in Kazakhstan. It's one of the longest rivers in Kyrgyzstan and in Kazakhstan.
Chuy Region, the northernmost and most populous administrative region of Kyrgyzstan, is named after the river; so are the Chuy Avenue, the main street of Bishkek, and the city of Shu in Kazakhstan's Jambyl Region.Chuy, Kyrgyzstan
Chüy (Kyrgyz: Чүй, Russian: Чуй) is a district (Russian: район) in the Chuy Region of Kyrgyzstan. Its population was 11,535 in 2009. It is adjacent to the former regional capital, the city of Tokmok, and is the administrative center of the Chuy District (one of the 8 administrative districts of the Chuy Region), which surrounds Tokmok.
Since Chuy is adjacent to Tokmok, the two settlements together are sometimes informally referred to as the "city of Chuy-Tokmok" (Чуй-Токмок; sometimes, Chuy-Tokmak, Чуй-Токмак).Chuy District
Chuy is a raion (district) of Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 1,756 square kilometres (678 sq mi), and its resident population was 47,017 in 2009. The district surrounds the city of Tokmok, but does not include it. The district capital lies at Chuy.Chuy Region
Chuy Region or Chui Region (Kyrgyz: Чүй облусу, translit. Çüy oblusu; Russian: Чуйская область, translit. Čujskaja oblastj) is the northernmost region (oblast) of the Kyrgyz Republic. It is bounded on the north by Kazakhstan, and clockwise, Issyk Kul Region, Naryn Region, Jalal-Abad Region and Talas Region. Its administrative center is Bishkek, but from 2003 to May 2006 it was Tokmok.Dungan people
Dungan (Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw [xwɛitsu], Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ; simplified Chinese: 东干族; traditional Chinese: 東干族; pinyin: Dōnggān zú; Wade–Giles: Tung1kan1-tsu2 [tʊ́ŋkán tsǔ]; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Russian: Дунгане, Dungane; Kyrgyz: Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Kazakh: Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin. Turkic-speaking peoples in Xinjiang Province in northwestern China also refer to members of this ethnic group as Dungans. In both China and the former Soviet republics where they reside, however, members of this ethnic group call themselves Hui because Dungans are descendants of Hui that came to Central Asia.
In the censuses of the now independent states of the former Soviet Union, the Dungans, who are enumerated separately from Chinese, can be found in Kazakhstan (36,900 according to the 1999 census), Kyrgyzstan (58,409 according to the 2009 census), and Russia (801 according to the 2002 census).Elihan Tore
Elihan Tore (Uyghur: ئەلىخان تۆرە, March 21, 1884 – February 28, 1976) was the 1st president of the Second East Turkestan Republic. He was born in Tokmok, formerly known as Balasagun, Kyrgyzstan, and in 1920 he escaped from the Soviet Union to Kashgar in East Turkestan. In April 1944, Elihan Tore along with Abdulkerim Abbas and ten others formed a liberation organization in Ghulja (Yining) to free East Turkestan of Chinese Nationalist rule. On 11 November 1944, they launched the Ili Rebellion with the support of the Soviet Union.FC Ak-Maral Tokmok
FC Ak-Maral Tokmok is a Kyrgyzstani football club based in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan that played in the top division in Kyrgyzstan, the Kyrgyzstan League.Ivanovka, Kyrgyzstan
Ivanovka (Russian: Ивановка) is a village in the Ysyk-Ata District of the Chuy Region, of Kyrgyzstan, approximately midway between Tokmok and Kant. Its population was 16,052 in 2009. It is known for its multi-ethnic composition, including Kyrgyz, Russians and Dungans. Its economy focuses on agriculture in the Chuy Valley, Kyrgyzstan's largest northern agricultural area.Konstantin Semenov
Konstantin Sergeyevich Semenov (Russian: Константин Сергеевич Семёнов; born 9 June 1989, Tokmok) is a Russian beach volleyball player. He competed for Russia at the 2012 Summer Olympics with his teammate Sergey Prokopyev finishing at the shared 9th place. As of August 2013 he has won one tournament in the FIVB World Tour and two in the CEV European Tour alongside two other podium spots in the World Tour. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, Semenov and his new teammate Vyacheslav Krasilnikov finished as fourth.Kyrgyzstan Germans
There is a small population of Germans in Kyrgyzstan.List of airports in Kyrgyzstan
This is a list of airports in Kyrgyzstan, sorted by location.Suyab
Suyab (Persian: سوی آب; simplified Chinese: 碎叶; traditional Chinese: 碎葉; pinyin: Suìyè; Wade–Giles: Sui4-yeh4), also known as Ordukent (modern-day Ak-Beshim), was an ancient Silk Road city located some 50 km east from Bishkek, and 8 km west southwest from Tokmok, in the Chui River valley, present-day Kyrgyzstan.Tokmok Airport
Tokmok Airport (Kyrgyz: Токмок аэропорту, Russian: Токмакский аэропорт) (IATA: none (ТКМ), ICAO: UAFF) is an airport outside Tokmok, a town in the Chuy Region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. The Russian IATA code for Tokmok Airport is ТКМ.Tokmok Airport started its operations in the 1950s as a reserve landing strip where aircraft were diverted from the then Frunze Airport during bad weather conditions. The current runway and terminal were built in the 1970s. The airport has no instrument landing facilities and operates only during daylight hours.
Tokmok Airport is currently not in use by commercial airlines. However, it still serves as a reserve airport in Chuy Valley.Ysyk-Ata District
Ysyk-Ata District (Russian: Ысык–Атинский район) is one of the eight districts of the Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan. Its area is 2,415 square kilometres (932 sq mi), and its resident population was 132,759 in 2009. The administrative center of the district is the city of Kant (population 21,589 in 2009), and the district itself was known as Kant District in the past. The district is located on the southern side of the Chui River, about halfway between the national capital Bishkek and the former provincial capital Tokmok.Yūsuf Balasaguni
Yusuf Khass Hajib Balasaguni (Arabic: يوسف خاصّ حاجب; Yūsuf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib Balasağuni; Kazakh: Жүсіп Баласағұни; Uyghur: يۈسۈپ خاس ھاجىپ; Kyrgyz: Жусуп Баласагын) was an 11th-century Central Asian Uyghur poet, statesman, vizier, and philosopher from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in modern-day East Turkestan. He wrote the Kutadgu Bilig and most of what is known about him, comes from his own writings in this work. He is also referred to as Yūsuf Balasaguni derived from his city of origin.
Balasagun was located at the Burana archaeological site near the present-day city of Tokmok in Northern Kyrgyzstan. Yusuf Khas Hajib was about 50 years old when he completed the Kutadgu Bilig. After presenting the completed work to the prince of Kashgar he was awarded the title Khāṣṣ Ḥājib, an honorific similar to "Privy Chamberlain" or "Chancellor".
Some scholars suspect that the prologue to the Kutadgu Bilig, which is much more overtly Islamic than the rest of the text, was not written by Yūsuf, particularly the first prologue, which is in prose, unlike the rest of the text.
Some authors believed that Yusuf Khas Hajib died in 1085 at the age of 66 in the city of Kashgar, and was buried there. There is now a mausoleum erected on his alleged gravesite, first erected in the 11th century, being rebuilt in the 14th century and continuously renovated over the years with the most recent one being in 1980.