Tokmok (Kyrgyz: Токмок, Tokmok ('hammer'); Russian: Токмак, Tokmak) is a city in the Chuy Valley, northern Kyrgyzstan, east of the country's capital of Bishkek. Its area is 41 square kilometres (16 sq mi), and its resident population was 53,231 in 2009(according to other data, "over 58,000"). Its geographical location is ; its altitude is 816 m above sea level. From 2004 until 19 April 2006 it served as the administrative seat of Chuy Region. Just to the north is the Chu River and the border with Kazakhstan.
Tokmok was established as a northern military outpost of the Khanate of Kokand ca. 1830. Thirty years later, it fell to the Russians who demolished the fort. The modern town was founded on 13 May 1864 by Major-General Mikhail Chernyayev.
Currently, the city of Tokmok is a district-level administrative unit of Chui Province. Although the city is surrounded by the province's Chuy District (whose administrative center is the village of Chuy, adjacent to Tokmok), it is not a part of it.
Airplane monument in Tokmok
Location in Kyrgyzstan
|• Mayor||Anvarbek Omorkanov (since May 2012)|
|• Total||41 km2 (16 sq mi)|
|Elevation||816 m (2,677 ft)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (KGT)|
Despite its relatively modern origin, Tokmok stands in the middle of the Chuy Valley, which was a prize sought by many medieval conquerors. The ruins of Ak-Beshim, the capital of the Western Turkic Khaganate, are situated 8 km southwest from Tokmok. Yusuf Has Hajib Balasaguni, author of the Kutadgu Bilig is said to have been born in this area.
About 15 km south of Tokmok is the 11th-century Burana Tower, located on the grounds of an ancient citadel of which today only a large earthen mound remains. This is believed to be the site of the ancient city of Balasagun, founded by the Sogdians and later for some time the capital of the Kara-Khanid empire. A large collection of ancient gravestones and bal-bals is nearby. Excavated Scythian artifacts have been moved to museums in St. Petersburg and Bishkek.
According to the Population and Housing Census of 2009, the population of Tokmok was 53,231.
|Historical populations in Tokmok|
|Note: enumerated de facto population; Source:,|
The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for Tokmok is "Dfb" or a Warm Summer Continental Climate. The average annual temperature is 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) and the coolest month is January with an average temperature of −5.3 °C (22.5 °F). The average annual precipitation is 434.2mm (17") and has an average of 108.3 days with precipitation. The wettest month is April with an average of 70mm (2.8") of precipitation and the driest month is August with an average of 12.1mm (0.5") of precipitation.
|Climate data for Tokmok|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||9.0||9.3||12.0||11.8||12.4||10.2||7.6||5.5||4.9||7.7||9.2||8.7||108.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74.0||75.1||68.5||55.4||53.3||46.9||44.1||43.7||46.2||56.2||67.1||75.3||58.8|
|Source: "The Climate of Tokmok". Weatherbase. Retrieved 5 August 2014.|
The glass manufacturer Interglass LLC is based in Tokmok. The Tokmok plant produces about 2,800 tons of liquid glass per day and 600 tons of glass is produced of the mass per day. Annual production is 200 000 tons. At present, raw materials for glass production are mainly provided by Russia and Kazakhstan.