Todd-AO is an American post-production company founded in 1953, providing sound-related services to the motion picture and television industries. The company operates three facilities in the Los Angeles area. Todd-AO is also the name of the widescreen, 70 mm film format that was developed by Mike Todd and the American Optical Company in the mid-1950s. Todd-AO had been founded to promote and distribute this system.
|Industry||Post-production, broadcast media, motion pictures, television|
Todd-AO began as a high resolution widescreen film format. It was co-developed in the early 1950s by Mike Todd, a Broadway producer, in partnership with the American Optical Company in Buffalo, New York. It was developed to provide a high definition single camera widescreen process to compete with Cinerama, or as characterized by its creator, "Cinerama outta one hole". Where Cinerama used a complicated setup of three separate strips of film photographed simultaneously, Todd-AO required only a single camera and lens. The company's focus began to shift after Mike Todd's sudden death in an airplane accident in 1958. The 70 mm Todd-AO process was adopted by Panavision, Cinerama and others. As the production and exhibition markets became saturated with Todd-AO System hardware, the focus of the company gradually began to narrow down to the audio post-production side of the business, and Todd-AO became an independent sound mixing facility for commercial motion picture films and television after acquiring Glen Glenn Sound in 1986.
In May 2014, Todd-AO's parent company, Todd Soundelux, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. As part of the bankruptcy proceedings, the company closed its Hollywood and Santa Monica facilities, leaving only their Burbank location operational.
On November 17, 2014, Sounddogs acquired the Todd-Soundelux Trademarks (Todd AO and Soundelux) and Copyrights (Sound Effects Library) through Federal Bankruptcy Court (Central District Case No. 2:14-bk-19980)
The Todd-AO process uses two separate film stocks; a 65 mm negative is used during production and then used to produce the 70 mm positives for distribution. The sprocket holes perforations on the two are the same, and the positives are printed using contact printing with the negatives centered on the larger 70 mm film. Contact printing was used on prints that were to be "double system," using a separate, synchronized 35 mm full-coat magnetic film for the 6 sound tracks, in addition to the 70 mm film for the picture. The much more common 70 mm release prints used a slightly optically reduced picture, and placed 4 of the soundtracks on either edge outside of the perforations, and 2 more soundtracks inside the perforations, providing a total of 6 soundtraks, on a 7.5 mm magnetic surface. It is a common error to suppose that only 5 mm of space was devoted to the soundtracks, perhaps because writers do the math and find that 70 - 65 = 5, not allowing for a slightly reduced picture area to accommodate 2 tracks inside the sprocket holes, as well as 4 outside, and perhaps because the souvenir program for Around the World in 80 Days (1956) made this very same error! Anyone with a release print in front of them would immediately see the tracks between the picture and the holes, as well as the wider tracks (to hold 2 tracks each) outside the holes. In fact, they can be seen in Figure 1 of this article, above the caption "positive 70 mm." Todd-AO soundtracks were very high fidelity, indeed, and could hold their own with modern digital tracks above 40 Hz. Even though there were no subwoofers in theaters in those days, Todd-AO delivered high impact bass using crisp sounding horn loaded speakers. Four lens options covered a 128, 64, 48 or 37 degree field of view. The aspect ratio of this format was 2.20:1.
Both film sizes had been used in the past, in the 70 mm Fox Grandeur process in 1929–1930, however Todd-AO's physical format was not compatible with this format. The use of 65 mm photography and 70 mm printing became the standard adopted by others: Super Panavision 70 (essentially the Panavision company's version of Todd-AO) and Ultra Panavision 70 (the same mechanically, but with a slight 1.25:1 anamorphic squeeze to accommodate extremely wide aspect ratio images) are both 65/70 processes. The Soviet film industry also copied Todd-AO with their own Sovscope 70 process, identical, except that both the camera and print stock were 70 mm wide.
The IMAX format also uses 65 mm camera and lab film to create 70 mm prints for projection (also known as the 65/70 mm process); conforming to the pitch and perforation standard for 70 mm Todd-AO film. However, IMAX frame is 15-perfs long and runs horizontally through the projector, whereas the Todd-AO frame is only 5-perfs high and runs vertically through the projector.
The original version of the Todd-AO process used a frame rate of 30 frames per second, faster than the 24 frames per second that was (and is) the standard. The difference does not seem great, but the sensitivity of the human eye to flickering declines steeply with frame rate and the small adjustment gave the film noticeably less flicker, and made it steadier and smoother than standard processes. The original system generated an image that was "almost twice as intense as any ever seen onscreen before, and so hot that the film has to be cooled as it passes through the Todd-AO projector".
Only the first two Todd-AO films, Oklahoma! and Around the World in Eighty Days, employed 30 frames per second photography. Because of the need for conventional versions at 24 frames per second, every scene of the former film was shot twice in succession: once in Todd-AO and once in 35 mm CinemaScope. The latter film was shot with two 65 mm Todd-AO cameras simultaneously, the speed of the second camera was 24 frames per second for wide release as optical reduction prints. All subsequent Todd-AO films were shot at 24 frames per second on a 65 mm negative and optically printed to 35 mm film as needed for standard distribution. In all, around 16 feature films were shot in Todd-AO.
Todd-AO was developed and tested in Buffalo, New York at the Regent Theatre. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II went there to see Todd-AO test footage, which led them to approve its use for Oklahoma!. Ampex Corporation engineers were in charge of developing the Todd-AO sound system. Ampex would later go on to manufacture the sound system, including selectable four-track composite (CinemaScope) or six-track composite (Todd-AO) or four-track interlocked or six-track interlocked or optical sound sources.
The Todd-AO Company also offered a 35 mm anamorphic process technically similar to 35 mm Panavision or CinemaScope. This may cause some confusion if a Todd-AO credit (not necessarily the more specific Todd-AO 35 credit) appears in some widescreen films made in the 1970s and 1980s. It becomes even more confusing as 70 mm prints were made for films which, unlike earlier pictures made in the process, were shown in multiplexes, like Dune and Logan's Run.
During the late 1970s through the early 1990s 65 mm photography such as that used in processes like Todd-AO or Super Panavision became rare. However, some major films had 70 mm prints made by blowup from 35 mm negatives mostly for the benefit of six-track sound. These prints would typically play only in a few theatres in a few large cities while everyone else viewed the film in 35 mm. The advent of multichannel digital sound in the 1990s obviated these very expensive prints. "Blow-up" 70 mm prints also followed the Todd-AO layout, although in the case of films made with a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, it was retained in the 70 mm version, with the sides of the 70 mm frame left black.
While Todd-AO was intended to be "Cinerama out of one hole", the extreme wide angle photography and projection onto a very deeply curved screen (which is what that would imply) saw little use. Most Todd-AO theatre installations had only moderately curved screens and the extreme wide angle camera lenses were used only on a few shots here and there. Todd-AO films made after 1958 used a conventional flat widescreen, and resembled ordinary films, except for their greater clarity and six-track stereo sound. A variation on Todd-AO called Dimension 150 did, however, make use of Cinerama-like deeply curved screens. Only two films were made in Dimension 150 – The Bible: In the Beginning, directed by John Huston, and Patton, starring George C. Scott. In some venues, however, Todd-AO and Dimension 150 films received their first run in Cinerama theatres in order that they be shown on a deeply curved screen – such as the first Atlanta showings of The Sound of Music.
Todd-AO films were closely associated with what was called roadshow exhibition. At the time, before multiplex theatres became common, most films opened at a large single screen theatre in the downtown area of each large city before eventually moving on to neighborhood theatres. With the roadshow concept, a film would play, often in 70 mm at a movie palace downtown theatre exclusively, sometimes for a year or more. Often a "hard ticket" policy was in effect, with tickets sold for specific numbered seats, and limited showings per day. Most Todd-AO films through the late 1960s, including Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines and The Sound of Music, were initially shown on a roadshow basis.
In some US cities, individual theaters were converted for use in the 1950s as dedicated Todd-AO "Cinestage" showplaces. These theaters showed exclusive roadshow engagements of Todd-AO and other 70 mm films on large, deeply curved screens. They included the Rivoli Theatre in New York City, the Cinestage Theatre in Chicago, and Hunt's Cinestage Theatre in Columbus, Ohio.
The roadshow era ended in the early 1970s, although a very few films (among them Gandhi) were shown in roadshow format after that.
In the 1970s, under the leadership of Dr. Richard Vetter, Todd-AO made an attempt to compete with Panavision in the 35 mm motion picture camera rental market. The company built a series of anamorphic lenses in the 2.35:1 scope format, and owned several camera bodies (Mitchell and Arriflex) that they would provide with the lens package. Of the five original Planet of the Apes films, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes is the only entry filmed in Todd-AO 35 using ARRI Arriflex 35IIC cameras with lenses provided by The Carl Zeiss Group, (the other Apes pictures were filmed in Panavision).
By the 1980s the venture was moribund, and was abandoned. Eventually all of the Todd-AO cameras and lenses, both 35 mm and 65 mm (70 mm), were sold to Cinema Products in Los Angeles. Cinema Products is now defunct.
(films photographed in Todd-AO 35 not included)
|2013||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Django Unchained||Wylie Stateman, Michael Minkler, Tony Lamberti, |
|2009||Academy Award||Best Sound Mixing||Nominated||Inglourious Basterds||Michael Minkler, Tony Lamberti and Mark Ulano|
|2007||Academy Award||Best Sound Mixing||Won||The Bourne Ultimatum||Scott Millan, David Parker and Kirk Francis|
|2006||Academy Award||Best Sound Mixing||Won||Dreamgirls||Michael Minkler, Bob Beemer and Willie D. Burton|
|2006||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Babel||José Antonio García, Jon Taylor, Christian P. Minkler, |
|2006||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Crash||Richard Van Dyke, Sandy Gendler, Adam Jenkins, |
|2005||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Collateral||Elliott Koretz, Lee Orloff, Michael Minkler, |
|2004||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Kill Bill: Volume 1||Michael Minkler, Myron Nettinga, Wylie Stateman, Mark Ulano|
|2003||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Won||Chicago||Michael Minkler, Dominick Tavella, David Lee|
|2002||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Chicago||Michael Minkler, Dominick Tavella and David Lee|
|2002||BAFTA Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Black Hawk Down||Michael Minkler, Myron Nettinga, Chris Munro|
|2001||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Black Hawk Down||Michael Minkler, Myron Nettinga and Chris Munro|
|2000||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Gladiator||Scott Millan, Bob Beemer and Ken Weston|
|1998||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Saving Private Ryan||Gary Rydstrom, Tom Johnson, Gary Summers and Ron Judkins|
|1997||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||L.A. Confidential||Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer and Kirk Francis|
|1996||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Evita||Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer and Ken Weston|
|1995||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Apollo 13||Rick Dior, Steve Pederson, Scott Millan and David MacMillan|
|1995||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Braveheart||Andy Nelson, Scott Millan, Anna Behlmer and Brian Simmons|
|1994||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Legends of the Fall||Paul Massey, David Campbell, Christopher David and Douglas Ganton|
|1994||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Speed||Gregg Landaker, Steve Maslow, Bob Beemer and David MacMillan|
|1993||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Schindler's List||Andy Nelson, Steve Pederson, Scott Millan and Ron Judkins|
|1992||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||The Last of the Mohicans||Chris Jenkins, Doug Hemphill, Mark Smith and Simon Kaye|
|1990||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Dick Tracy||Chris Jenkins, David E. Campbell, D.M. Hemphill and Thomas Causey|
|1988||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Who Framed Roger Rabbit||Robert Knudson, John Boyd, Don Digirolamo and Tony Dawe|
|1987||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Empire of the Sun||Robert Knudson, Don Digirolamo, John Boyd and Tony Dawe|
|1985||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Out of Africa||Chris Jenkins, Gary Alexander, Larry Stensvold and Peter Handford|
|1982||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial||Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don Digirolamo and Gene S. Cantamessa|
|1979||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||1941||Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don MacDougall and Gene S. Cantamessa|
|1978||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Hooper||Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don MacDougall and Jack Solomon|
|1977||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Sorcerer||Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Richard Tyler and Jean-Louis Ducarme|
|1977||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Close Encounters of the Third Kind||Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don MacDougall and Gene S. Cantamessa|
|1976||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||A Star is Born||Robert Knudson, Dan Wallin, Robert Glass and Tom Overton|
|1973||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||The Exorcist||Robert Knudson and Chris Newman|
|1972||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||Cabaret||Robert Knudson and David Hildyard|
|1965||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||The Sound of Music||Fred Hynes|
|1963||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Cleopatra||Fred Hynes|
|1961||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||West Side Story||Fred Hynes|
|1960||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||The Alamo||Fred Hynes|
|1959||Academy Award||Best Sound||Nominated||Porgy and Bess||Fred Hynes|
|1958||Academy Award||Best Sound||Won||South Pacific||Fred Hynes|
|1957||Academy Award||Academy Scientific and Technical Award||Won||Todd-AO System||Todd-AO Corp |
|1955||Academy Award||Best Sound Recording||Won||Oklahoma||Fred Hynes|
|2013||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Nominated||Game of Thrones: And Now His Watch Is Ended||Mathew Waters, Onnalee Blank, Ronan Hill|
|2013||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||Game of Thrones: And Now His Watch Is Ended||Tim Kimmel, Paula Fairfield, Jed M. Dodge, Bradley C. Katona, David Klotz, Brett Voss, Jeffrey Wilhoit, James Moriana|
|2013||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Nominated||Mad Men: The Flood||Ken Teaney, Alec St. John, Peter Bentley|
|2013||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||Nikita: Aftermath||George Haddad, Ruth Adelman, Chad J. Hughes,|
Steve Papagiannis, Dale Chaloukian, Ashley Revell,
James M. Bailey
|2013||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Nominated||Game of Thrones: Blackwater||Onnalee Blank, Mathew Waters, Ronan Hill and Brett Voss|
|2013||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Nominated||Mad Men: Commissions and Fees||Ken Teaney, Alec St. John, Peter Bentley|
|2012||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: Blown Away||Timothy I. Kimmel, Brad Katona, Ruth Adelman, Todd Niesen, Skye Lewin, Joseph Sabella and James Bailey|
|2012||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Game of Thrones: Blackwater||Peter Brown, Kira Roessler, Tim Hands, Paul Aulicino, Stephen P. Robinson, Vanessa Lapato,|
Brett Voss, James Moriana, Jeffrey Wilhoit and David Klotz
|2012||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Won||Game of Thrones: Blackwater||Mathew Waters, Onnalee Blank, Ronan Hill, Mervyn Moore|
|2012||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) and Animation||Nominated||Entourage: The End||Tom Stasinis, Dennis Kirk, Todd Orr|
|2011||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) and Animation||Won||Family Guy: Road to the North Pole||James F. Fitzpatrick and Patrick Clark|
|2011||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Nominated||Mad Men: The Suitcase||Ken Teaney, Todd Orr, Peter Bentley|
|2011||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||Nikita: Pandora||George Haddad, Dale Chaloukian, Ruth Adelman, Chad J. Hughes, Ashley Revell, James Bailey and Joseph T. Sabella|
|2011||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: NY: Life Sentence||Mark Relyea, Edmund Lachmann, David Barbee, Ruth Adelman, Kevin McCullough, Joshua Winget, Joseph T. Sabella and James M. Bailey|
|2010||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Won||The Pacific: Part Two||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Andrew Ramage|
|2010||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||The Pacific: Part Five||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Craig Mann, Andrew Ramage|
|2010||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||'The Pacific: Part Eight||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Marc Fishman, Gary Wilkins|
|2010||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||The Pacific: Part Nine||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, and Gary Wilkins|
|2010||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) And Animation||Won||Entourage: One Car, Two Car, Red Car, Blue Car'||Tom Stasinis CAS, Dennis Kirk, Alec St. John and Todd Orr|
|2010||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Won||Mad Men: Guy Walks Into an Advertising Agency||Ken Teaney, Todd Orr, Peter Bentley|
|2009||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) And Animation||Won||Entourage: Pie||Tom Stasinis CAS, Dennis Kirk and Bill Jackson|
|2009||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Mascara||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke, Joseph Sabella and James Bailey|
|2008||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Won||John Adams: Don't Tread On Me||Marc Fishman and Tony Lamberti|
|2008||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||John Adams: Join Or Die||Michael Minkler and Bob Beemer|
|2008||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Fight Night||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke, Chad Hughes, Joseph Sabella, Zane Bruce|
|2008||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) and Animation||Nominated||Entourage: Adios Amigo||Dennis Kirk and Bill Jackson|
|2007||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (Half-Hour) And Animation||Won||Entourage: One Day In The Valley||Dennis Kirk and Mark Fleming|
|2007||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Won||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Living Doll||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2007||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)||Nominated||The Sopranos: Stage 5||Kevin Burns and Todd Orr|
|2007||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: No Man's Land||Tim Kimmel, Ruth Adelman, Todd Niesen, Bradley C. Katona, Skye Lewin, Zane Bruce, Joseph Sabella|
|2006||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: A Bullet Runs Through It||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2006||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: A Bullet Runs Through It: Part 1||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Mark Allen, Zane Bruce, Troy Hardy, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Won||The Life and Death of Peter Sellers||Anna MacKenzie, Victoria Brazier, Felicity Cottrell, Zack Davis, Richard Ford, Tim Hands, Laura Lovejoy, James Mather, Geoff Rubay, Ruth Sullivan|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: Lost Son||Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Ann Hadsell, Bradley C. Katona, Skye Lewin, Todd Nieson, Joseph Sabella|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Down the Drain||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Christine Luethje, Todd Nieson, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Down the Drain||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Won||Warm Springs||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||The Life and Death of Peter Sellers||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Lackawanna Blues||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Nominated||And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself||Tony Lamberti, Zack Davis, Lou Kleinman, Michael Lyle, Carey Milbradt, Allan K. Rosen, Geoffrey G. Rubay, Bruce Tanis, Karen Vassar, Nicholas Viterelli, Dave Williams, Joshua Winget|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Grissom vs. The Volcano||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: Irregular Around The Margins||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Traffic: Part 1||Marc Fishman, Tony Lamberti, Kevin Burns|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Something the Lord Made||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Won||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Fight Night||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Sheri Ozeki, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Revenge Is Best Served Cold"||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith]]|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: Whoever Did This||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Won||Live From Baghdad||Adam Jenkins, Rick Ash, Drew Webster|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||The Music Man||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2003||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||A Painted House||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2002||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Chasing the Bus||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Sheri Ozeki, Joe Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2002||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Another Toothpick||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2002||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Band of Brothers: Carentan||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2001||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: 35K OBO||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, |
Stan Jones, Joe Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian,
David Van Slyke
|2001||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: D-Girl||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Fred Tator|
|2001||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||South Pacific||Rick Ash, Joe Earle, Joel Moss|
|2001||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Dirty Pictures||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Tom Perry|
|2000||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||The Others: Eyes||Mace Matiosian, Harry Cohen, Ruth Adelman, Mike Broomberg, Zane Bruce, Diane Griffen, Jivan Tahmizian and Guy Tsujimoto|
|2000||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: D-Girl||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Tom Perry|
|1999||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||Buffy The Vampire Slayer: Lover's Walk||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Fernand Bos, Zane Bruce, Mark Cleary, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau, Joe Sabella and Ray Spiess, Jr.|
|1999||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: I Dream Of Jeannie Cusamano||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Benjamin Beardwood, Zane Bruce, Mark, Kathryn Dayak, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau, Joe Sabella, Ray Spiess, Jr. and Bruce Swanson|
|1999||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: A Hit Is A Hit||Todd Orr, Ron Evans, Adam Sawelson|
|1999||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Nominated||A Soldier's Sweetheart||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Ron Finn, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Jason Lezama, Chris Moriana, Cindy Rabideau, Catherine Rose, Raymond Spiess III and Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1999||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Nominated||Houdini||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, Skip Adams, William Angarola, Zane Bruce, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau, Joe Sabella, Ray Spiess, Jr. and Jeanette Surga|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Nominated||The Visitor: Pilot||Anna MacKenzie, William Angarola, Michael Broomberg, Mark J. Cleary, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Jimmy Moriana, Cindy Rabideau, Jay Richardson, Raymond Spiess III, Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||A Lesson Before Dying||Rich Ash and Gary Alexander|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Nominated||Creature||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Steve Bissinger, Mark J. Cleary, Robert Guastini, Ellen Heuer, Rick Hinson, Jason Lezama, Aaron Martin, Craig Ng, Cindy Rabideau, Raymond Spiess III, Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Won||12 Angry Men||Adam Jenkins and David E. Fluhr|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: Le Voyage Dans La Lune||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: 1968||Scott Millan and Brad Sherman|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: That's All There Is||Rich Ash and Adam Sawelson|
|1997||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Special||Won||Titanic||Adam Jenkins, Don Digirolamo, Davide E. Fluhr|
|1997||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Special||Nominated||Apollo 11||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Jon Taylor|
|1997||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing||Won||Flipper||Jon Taylor, Kevin Burns and Todd Orr|
|1996||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing||Won||Flipper||Kevin Burns, Jon Taylor and Chris Minkler|
|1993||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Doogie Got a Gun||Joe Kenworthy, Mike Getlin, Dean Okrand and Bill Thiederman|
|1992||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Lonesome Doog||Joe Kenworthy, Bill Thiederman, Dean Okrand and Mike Getlin|
|1992||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Law & Order: Heaven||David Hankins, Frank A. Fuller Jr., Peter Bergren, David A. Cohen, Richard Thomas, Barbara Issak, James Hebenstreit, Albert Edmund Lord III and Barbara Schechter|
|1991||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Doogenstein||Joe Kenworthy, Dean Okrand, Bill Thiederman and Mike Getlin|
|1987||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries or a Special||Won||Unnatural Causes||Vince Gutierrez, William H. Angarola, Clark Conrad, Doug Gray, Mace Matiosian,Anthony Mazzei, Michael J. Mitchell, Matt Sawelson, Edward F. Suski, Dan Carlin Sr., James Wolvington, Barbara Issak and Jon Johnson|
|1987||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Max Headroom: Blipverts||Doug Grindstaff, Richard Corwin, Clark Conrad, Brad Sherman, Richard Taylor, James Wolvington and Dick Bernstein|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Live And Tape Sound Mixing And Sound Effects For A Series||Won||Cheers: The Executive's Executioner||Doug Gray, Michael Ballin, Thomas J. Huth and Sam Black|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing For A Limited Series Or A Special||Won||Space: Part 5||Clark King, David J. Hudson, Mel Metcalfe and Terry Porter|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing For A Series||Won||Cagney & Lacey: Heat||Maury Harris, John Asman, Bill Nicholson and Ken S. Polk|
|1984||Emmy Award||Outstanding Live and Tape Sound Mixin and Sound Effects for a Series||Won||Real People: Hawaii Show - Sarah's Wedding||Mark Hanes, Stu Fox, Dean Okrand and Edward F. Suski|
|1984||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a Limited Series or a Special||Won||A Streetcar Named Desire||Richard Raguse, William L. McCaughey, Mel Metcalfe and Terry Porter|
|1983||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a Limited Series or a Special||Won||The Scarlet and the Black||John W. Mitchell, Gordon L. Day, Stan Wetzel and Howard Wilmarth|
|1983||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Hill Street Blues: Stan the Man||Sam Horta, Donald W. Ernst, Avram D. Gold, Eileen Horta, Constance A. Kazmer and Gary Krivacek|
|1982||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||Hill Street Blues: Personal Foul||Bill Marky, Robert W. Glass Jr., Bill Nicholson and Howard Wilmarth|
|1980||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||The Ordeal of Dr. Mudd||Ray Barons, David E. Campbell, Robert Pettis and John T. Reitz|
|1979||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Editing||Won||Friendly Fire||Bill Wistrom|
|1970||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||Mission: Impossible||Dominick Gaffey and Gordon L. Day|
70 mm Grandeur film, also called Fox Grandeur or Grandeur 70, is a 70mm widescreen film format developed by Fox Film Corporation and used commercially on a small scale in 1929–31.70 mm film
70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format. As used in cameras, the film is 65 mm (2.6 in) wide. For projection, the original 65 mm film is printed on 70 mm (2.8 in) film. The additional 5 mm are for four magnetic strips holding six tracks of stereophonic sound. Although later 70 mm prints use digital sound encoding, the vast majority of existing and surviving 70 mm prints predate this technology. Each frame is five perforations tall, with an aspect ratio of 2.2:1. The vast majority of cinemas have projectors unable to handle 70 mm film, and so original 70 mm films are shown using either 35 mm prints in the regular CinemaScope/Panavision aspect ratio of 2.35:1, using the original print with a rented/temporary/donated 70mm projector, or by means of digital projectors at these venues.Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing
The Academy Award for Best Sound Mixing is an Academy Award that recognizes the finest or most euphonic sound mixing or recording and is generally awarded to the production sound mixers and re-recording mixers of the winning film. Compare this award to the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing. In the lists below, the winner of the award for each year is shown first, followed by the other nominees.
For the second and third years of this category (the 4th Academy Awards, 5th Academy Awards) only the names of the film companies were listed. Paramount Publix Studio Sound Department won both years.Around the World in 80 Days (1956 film)
Around the World in 80 Days (sometimes spelled as Around the World in Eighty Days) is a 1956 American epic adventure-comedy film starring Cantinflas and David Niven, produced by the Michael Todd Company and released by United Artists.
The epic picture was directed by Michael Anderson and produced by Mike Todd, with Kevin McClory and William Cameron Menzies as associate producers. The screenplay was written by James Poe, John Farrow, and S. J. Perelman based on the classic novel of the same name by Jules Verne. The music score was composed by Victor Young, and the Todd-AO 70 mm cinematography (shot in Technicolor) was by Lionel Lindon. The film's seven-minute-long animated title sequence, shown at the end of the film, was created by award-winning designer Saul Bass.The film won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture.Baraka (film)
Baraka is a 1992 non-narrative documentary film directed by Ron Fricke. The film is often compared to Koyaanisqatsi, the first of the Qatsi films by Godfrey Reggio for which Fricke served as the cinematographer. It is also the most recent film to be photographed in the 70mm Todd-AO format, and the first film ever to be restored and scanned at 8K resolution.Can-Can (film)
Can-Can is a 1960 American musical film made by Suffolk-Cummings productions and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It was directed by Walter Lang, produced by Jack Cummings and Saul Chaplin, from a screenplay by Dorothy Kingsley and Charles Lederer, loosely based on the musical play by Abe Burrows with music and lyrics by Cole Porter, with some songs replaced by songs from earlier Porter musicals. Art direction was by Jack Martin Smith and Lyle R. Wheeler, costume design by Irene Sharaff, and dance staging by Hermes Pan. The film was photographed in Todd-AO. It was, after Ben-Hur, the top-grossing film of 1960, although it was a box office disappointment, failing to make back its production costs.
The film stars Frank Sinatra, Shirley MacLaine, Maurice Chevalier and Louis Jourdan, and introduced Juliet Prowse in her first film role. Sinatra, who was paid $200,000 along with a percentage of the film's profits, acted in the film under a contractual obligation required by 20th Century Fox after he walked off the set of Carousel in 1955.Cinerama
Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the Cinerama corporation. It was the first of a number of novel processes introduced during the 1950s, when the movie industry was reacting to competition from television. Cinerama was presented to the public as a theatrical event, with reserved seating and printed programs, and audience members often dressed in their best attire for the evening.
The Cinerama projection screen, rather than being a continuous surface like most screens, is made of hundreds of individual vertical strips of standard perforated screen material, each about 7⁄8 inch (~22 mm) wide, with each strip angled to face the audience, so as to prevent light scattered from one end of the deeply curved screen from reflecting across the screen and washing out the image on the opposite end. The display is accompanied by a high-quality, seven-track discrete, directional, surround-sound system.
The original system involved shooting with three synchronized cameras sharing a single shutter. This process was later abandoned in favor of a system using a single camera and 70mm prints. The latter system lost the 146° field of view of the original three-strip system, and its resolution was markedly lower. Three-strip Cinerama did not use anamorphic lenses, although two of the systems used to produce the 70mm prints (Ultra Panavision 70 and Super Technirama 70) did employ anamorphics. Later, 35mm anamorphic reduction prints were produced for exhibition in theatres with anamorphic CinemaScope-compatible projection lenses.List of 70 mm films
The following movies were filmed using 65mm or 70mm negative stock. Titles are followed by the photographic process(es) employed.
Releases produced in Todd-AO, Todd-70, Super Panavision 70 (also known as Panavision 70), Panavision System 65 (also known as Panavision Super 70), Dimension 150, Arri 765 and Superpanorama 70 (also known as MClS 70 and MCS Superpanorama 70) were photographed with spherical optics on 65 mm film with five perforations per frame, yielding an aspect ratio of 2.20:1.
Sovscope 70 and DEFA 70 releases were identical with the exception that they were photographed on 70 mm negative stock.
MGM Camera 65 and Ultra Panavision 70 releases employed the same film format, but the use of 1.25X anamorphic optics yielded a super-wide aspect ratio of approximately 2.75:1.
70 mm Cinerama releases were projected with special optics onto a deeply curved screen in an attempt to mimic the effect of the original 3-strip Cinerama process.
Hi Fi Stereo 70 (also known as Triarama and Stereovision 70) was a 3-D process. Two anamorphic images, one for each eye, were captured side by side on 65 mm film. A special lens on a 70 mm projector added polarization and merged the two images on the screen. A similar Soviet system known as Stereo 70 did not employ anamorphics, resulting in an aspect ratio of 1.37:1.Stereospace 2000 (a 3D process) and Kodak-Disney 3D used dual 65 mm cameras operating at 30fps.
Standard 70 mm theater prints were 70 mm wide, with the extra space used to accommodate the 6-channel magnetic soundtracks, consisting of five full-range channels (left, left-center, center, right-center and right) arrayed behind the screen, with the sixth channel providing surround effects.
Far and Away (1992), Baraka (1992) and Hamlet (1996) employed a modified arrangement of speakers, with left, center and right channels behind the screen, left and right surround channels and a low-frequency effects channel. More recent 70 mm releases (including The Hateful Eight) have used standard 5.1 DTS sound.
This list does not include any of the hundreds of 35 mm films which have been optically enlarged to 70 mm for deluxe exhibition, including such titles as Logan's Run, Jesus Christ Superstar and Akira.
Also not included are 70 mm releases which originated on horizontal 35 mm negative such as Vistavision and Technirama (see List of Technirama films), nor films made in the Showscan process. For films shot in the IMAX 70mm format, see List of IMAX films.Marshall Naify
Marshall Naify (March 23, 1920 – April 19, 2000) was a motion picture and media tycoon who was a long-term chairman of the board of United Artists and later became founder and co-chairman of the board of Todd-AO, the largest independent post-production sound studio in the United States which worked on Apollo 13 and other major films.Michael Minkler
Michael Minkler (born 14 May 1952) is a motion picture sound re-recording mixer. He has received Academy Awards for his work on Dreamgirls, Chicago and Black Hawk Down. His varied career has also included films like Inglourious Basterds, JFK and Star Wars, as well as television programs like The Pacific and John Adams. Minkler works at Todd-AO Hollywood. He is also the Managing Director of Moving Pictures Media Group, a company that specializes in film development, packaging projects for production funding acquisition.Mike Todd
Michael "Mike" Todd (born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen, June 22, 1909 – March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days, which won an Academy Award for Best Picture. He is known as the third of Elizabeth Taylor's seven husbands, and is the only one whom she did not divorce (he died in a private plane accident a year after their marriage). He was the driving force behind the development of the eponymous Todd-AO widescreen film format.Neighborhood theatre
Predating multiplex movie theatres, neighborhood theatres were the colloquial name given to smaller movie theatres located in local neighborhoods, as opposed to the large movie palaces located in downtown areas.
Neighborhood theatres were mostly discount theaters and typically showed films after their first run at cheaper prices, often double features. However, because of their size, they would usually show reduction prints of films shot in such larger-sized formats such as Todd-AO, Super Panavision 70, or Ultra Panavision.Oklahoma! (1955 film)
Oklahoma! is a 1955 American musical film based on the 1943 musical of the same name by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones (in her film debut), Rod Steiger, Charlotte Greenwood, Gloria Grahame, Gene Nelson, James Whitmore, and Eddie Albert. The production was the only musical directed by Fred Zinnemann. Oklahoma! was the first feature film photographed in the Todd-AO 70 mm widescreen process (and was simultaneously filmed in CinemaScope 35mm).
Set in Oklahoma Territory, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams (Jones) and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain (MacRae) and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry (Steiger). A secondary romance concerns Laurey's friend, Ado Annie (Grahame), and cowboy Will Parker (Nelson), who also has an unwilling rival. A background theme is the territory's aspiration for Statehood, and the local conflict between cattlemen and farmers.
The film received a rave review from The New York Times, and was voted a "New York Times Critics Pick". In 2007, Oklahoma! was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".Oklahoma! (soundtrack)
Oklahoma! is the original soundtrack album of the 1955 film Oklahoma!, an adaptation of the musical play of the same name. The soundtrack charted No. 1 on the Billboard Pop Album Chart in 1956 and has been in continual print. On July 8, 1958, it became the first album to be certified "gold" by the RIAA, and was later certified "2x multi-platinum" on April 1, 1992.It was originally released as a 42-minute album on the Capitol Records label, but only in mono at first. However, as with the 1956 film soundtracks of Carousel and The King and I (also issued by Capitol on LP), because the film's soundtrack had been recorded in then state-of-the-art stereo, it was possible for Capitol to issue a stereo version of the album in 1958. And again as with Carousel because of a difference between mono and stereo grooves, it was necessary to cut a very brief section of the music on the stereo release.
The album is ranked number 985 in All-Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd. edition, 2000) .
In 1956, less than a year after the first mono Capitol soundtrack LP was released, Goddard Lieberson of rival Columbia Records produced a studio cast LP of Oklahoma! featuring Nelson Eddy and a supporting cast, with the chorus and orchestra directed by Lehman Engel, and using the original orchestrations. The Columbia LP Nelson Eddy in Oklahoma (CL 828) was promoted as the "complete score" because it included the song "Lonely Room" and a track, "Entrance of Ensemble", which had not previously been released from the score.Robert Naify
Robert Naify is an American businessman and motion picture and media tycoon known for his ownership of the movie theaters chain United Artists Theatres, cable company United Artists Communications Inc and post-production and sound mixing firm Todd-AO.Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein refers to composer Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and lyricist-dramatist Oscar Hammerstein II (1895–1960), who together were an influential, innovative and successful American musical theatre writing team. They created a string of popular Broadway musicals in the 1940s and 1950s, initiating what is considered the "golden age" of musical theatre. Five of their Broadway shows, Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I and The Sound of Music, were outstanding successes, as was the television broadcast of Cinderella (1957). Of the other four that the team produced on Broadway during their lifetimes, Flower Drum Song was well-received, and none was an outright flop. Most of their shows have received frequent revivals around the world, both professional and amateur. Among the many accolades their shows (and film versions) garnered were thirty-four Tony Awards, fifteen Academy Awards, the Pulitzer Prize, and two Grammy Awards.
Their musical theatre writing partnership has been called the greatest of the 20th century.The Agony and the Ecstasy (film)
The Agony and the Ecstasy is a 1965 American film directed by Carol Reed, starring Charlton Heston as Michelangelo and Rex Harrison as Pope Julius II. The film was partly based on Irving Stone's biographical novel The Agony and the Ecstasy. This film deals with the conflicts of Michelangelo and Pope Julius II during the painting of the Sistine Chapel's ceiling. It also features a soundtrack co-written by prolific composers Alex North and Jerry Goldsmith.The film was shot in Todd-AO and Cinemascope versions. The Todd-AO version was used for the DVD release because of its superior picture quality.Todd
Todd or Todds may refer to:
Todd (given name)
Todd (album), a 1974 album by Todd Rundgren
Todd (elm cultivar)
Todd, North Carolina
Todd County, Kentucky
Todd County, Minnesota
Todds, Ohio, an unincorporated community
Todd County, South Dakota
Todd Fork, a river in Ohio
Todd Township, Minnesota
Todd Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania
Todd Township, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania
Todd (Cars), a character in Cars
The Todd (Scrubs), a character on Scrubs
Todd class, a characteristic class in algebraic topology
Todd (Stargate), a Wraith from the series Stargate Atlantis
Todd-AO, a company in film post-productionUltra Panavision 70
Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65 were, from 1957 to 1966, the marketing brands that identified motion pictures photographed with Panavision's anamorphic movie camera lenses. The 70 mm film gauge actually used 65 mm wide film in the camera to capture images in these processes. The projection print, however, was 70 mm film stock. The extra 5 mm on the positive projection print was used to accommodate six-track stereo sound. Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65 were shot at 24 frames per second (fps) using anamorphic camera lenses. Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65's anamorphic lenses compressed the image 1.25 times, yielding an extremely wide aspect ratio of 2.76:1 (when a 70 mm projection print was used).