Tlos (Ancient Greek: Τλώς or Τλῶς) is an ancient ruined Lycian hilltop citadel near the resort town of Fethiye in the Mugla Province of southern Turkey, some 4 kilometres northwest of Saklikent Gorge. Tlos is believed to be one of the most important religious Lycian sites and settlement on the site is said to have begun more than 4,000 years ago.
Ruins of Tlos
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Mugla Province, Turkey|
|Cultures||Lycian, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman|
It is one of the oldest and largest settlements of Lycia (known as 'Tlawa' in Lycian inscriptions) and was subsequently inhabited by Romans, Byzantines and eventually Ottoman Turks, making it one of few Lycian cities to be continually inhabited up until the 19th century.
Tlos lies on the east side of the Xanthos valley atop a rocky outcrop that slopes up from a plateau from a modern village, but ends on the west, north and northeast in almost perpendicular cliffs.
The influence of many cultures upon Tlos has resulted in a patchwork of structures dominated by an acropolis and fortress. On the slopes leading up to the acropolis are numerous Lycian sarcophagi and many house-type of rock tombs and temple-type rock tombs cut into the rock face of the hill. One such is the Tomb of Bellerophon, a large temple-type tomb with an unfinished facade of four columns featuring a relief in its porch of the legendary hero Bellerophon riding on his winged horse so called as Pegasus Pegasus. A carving of a lion or leopard is inside the tomb.
At the top of the hill sits the remains of an acropolis and a Lycian fortress, which is evident by the remains of a Lycian wall and Roman-era wall. The Ottomans constructed a fort for the local feudal governor Kanlı Ali Ağa (Bloody Chief Ali) upon the foundations of the fortress.
Since early Lycian times, the city's settlement was likely concentrated on the southern slope and western slopes. Wide terraces with cisterns and the back walls of buildings carved from the rock are found there, as well as an agora, a Roman-era theatre, for plays and concerts, public Roman baths and the remains of an early Byzantine church.
At the foot of the hill is a Roman stadium with seating capacity for 2,500 people. Only the seats remain and the arena is now a local farmer's field. Granite columns were strewn about the area, which could indicate a columned portico on the north side of the arena.
Parallel with the stadium is what researchers presume is two-storey, 150-metre long market more than 30 feet wide with small rectangular doors and large arched doors in its west wall. The building is constructed of carefully jointed ashlar masonry. At the south end is a wider building with several chambers and four large arched doors. There is also a palaestra to the right of the market hall complex with public baths on its other side.
There are two adjacent baths, one smaller and one larger to its north consisting of three equal-size rooms. An apse with seven windows opens the most eastern room towards the south. Known locally as "Yedi Kapılar" ("Seven Gates"), its seven arches overlooks the Tlos Valley below. This room could be the "exedra in the public baths" donated by Opramoas to Tlos and would date the back to 100 –150 AD.
There is also a Roman theatre with 34 rows of seats. A portion of the stage building still stands and there are many highly decorated carvings scattered all around. An inscription records that donations have been made for the theatre from private citizens and religious dignitaries, ranging from 3,000 denarii by the priest of Dionysus and high priest of the Cabiria to lesser donations of 100 denarii. The philanthropist Opramoas also made a very large donation for the theatre. It is also known from inscriptions that the theatre was under construction for at least 150 years.
The smaller public bath comprises three rooms: two are in the western part of the building and the third is a large rectangular room to the east. Another room to the west may have been part of the complex. All the rooms had barrel-vaulted ceilings.
To the north of the smaller bath stood a palaestra. Also near the baths are the remains of a Byzantine church, temple and what is believed to have been the agora (The market place). The latter is located across the road from the theatre.
Tlos was one of the six principal cities of Lycia (and purportedly one of the most powerful). The city was dubbed "the very brilliant metropolis of the Lycian nation" during the Roman period.
There is evidence that Tlos was a member of the Lycian League, to which in 168 BC Rome granted autonomy instead of dependence on Rhodes. Opramoas of Rhodiapolis and another wealthy philanthropist financed much 2nd-century AD for the civic building works in the city.
Inscriptions reveal that citizens of Tlos were divided into demes (social subdivisions), and the names of three of them are known: Bellerophon, Iobates and Sarpedon, famous Lycian heroes of legend. A Jewish community is also known to have existed with its own magistrates.
Tlos became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Mira, capital of the Roman province of Lycia. It was represented at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 by its bishop Andreas, who also was a signatory of the letter that in 458 the bishops of the province sent to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian about the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. Eustathius was at the synod convoked by Patriarch Menas of Constantinople in 536. Ioannes was at the Trullan Council of 692. Constantinus took part in the Second Council of Nicaea (787). Another Andreas was at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).
Among the titular bishops of Tlos were: George Hilary Brown (titular bishop 22 April 1842 – 29 September 1850, when he was created bishop of Liverpool), Charles-François Baillargeon (titular bishop 14 January 1851 – 25 August 1867, when he was created Archbishop of Quebec), Martin Griver (titular bishop 1 October 1869 – 22 July 1873, when he was created bishop of Perth, Australia); Eugène-Louis Kleiner (titular bishop from 17 June 1910 until his death on 19 August 1915); Paciano Aniceto (titular bishop from 7 April 1979 until 20 October 1983, when he was created Bishop of Iba); Carl Anthony Fisher (titular bishop from 23 December 1986 until his death on 2 September 1993).
Tlos was rediscovered by Charles Fellows in 1838 and he was followed by the explorer Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt, who thought that "a grander site for a great city could scarcely have been selected in all Lycia."
On the opposite hill top, the village of Yaka now co-exists with Tlos. Fields and pomegranate trees make for picturesque scenery. Tlos is a popular destination for tourist from the coastal town such as Fethiye, Kas and Kalkan.
At the entrance of the site stands a small white prefabricated ticket hut. Opposite the acropolis are some small cafés with toilet facilities and parking. There is also a natural spring.
Antiochis of Tlos (Greek: Ἀντιοχὶς Τλωὶς) was a Roman physician who lived in the 1st century BC or BCE. She was the daughter of Diodotus of Tlos. Through her medical practice, she gained notoriety of citizens and politicians throughout the Lycian region.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Arsada
Arsada or Arsadus was a city of ancient Lycia, located over the valley of the Xanthus between the ancient cities of Tlos and Xanthus.Its site is located near Arsaköy, Asiatic Turkey.The site was visited by Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt in the 19th century, where he found rock tombs, on two of which were Lycian inscriptions. "There are several Greek inscriptions; in two of them mention is made of the name of the place." One inscription is given in Spratt's Lycia, from which it appears that the ancient name was not Arsa, as it is assumed in the work referred to, but Arsadus, or Arsada (like Arycanda), as the ethnic name, which occurs twice in the inscription, shows (Ἀρσαδέων ὁ δῆμος, and Ἀρσαδέα, in the accusative singular.) The inscription is on a sarcophagus, and records that the Demus honoured a certain person with a gold crown and a bronze statue for certain services to the community. The inscription shows that there was a temple of Apollo at this place.Carl Anthony Fisher
Carl Anthony Fisher, SSJ (November 24, 1945 – September 2, 1993) was a Roman Catholic bishop.
Born in Pascagoula, Mississippi, Fisher was ordained to the priesthood for the Josephite Fathers on June 2, 1973. On December 23, 1986, he was appointed titular bishop of Tlos and auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles and was ordained on February 23, 1987. He died while in office.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Hallalhotsoot
Hallalhotsoot, also Hal-hal-tlos-tsot or "Lawyer" (c. 1797–1876) was a leader of the Niimíipu (Nez Perce) and among its most famous, after Chief Joseph. He was the son of Twisted Hair, who welcomed and befriended the exhausted Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805.His name appears as early as 1836 in a meeting with Marcus Whitman, and received the nickname "Lawyer" for his eloquence. He served as a guide for Whitman. In 1855, he took part in the Walla Walla Council and signed the Treaty of Stevens. This obtained for him a reservation to the greater part of his territory, between the Clearwater and Salmon rivers.
After gold was discovered in Pierce in 1860, Lawyer agreed to new cessions of land in the Treaty of 1863, in 1868, which Old Joseph (c.1785–1871) did not accept and considered it a betrayal. Therefore, in 1872, Hallalhotsoot was displaced by Chief Joseph as the only head of the tribe.
Lawyer Creek in north central Idaho, a tributary of the Clearwater River, is named for him. It carved the 300-foot (90 m) deep Lawyer's Canyon, between Ferdinand and Craigmont, and flows east to its mouth at Kamiah. He died in Kamiah and is buried at its Nikesa Cemetery at the Presbyterian church, where he was an elder.Julia Tertulla
Julia Tertulla was a Roman woman who lived in the 1st century and 2nd century in the Roman Empire. Tertulla was the daughter of suffect consul Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus and the identity of her mother is unknown. Tertulla was born and raised in Perga, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia. She was the paternal aunt to Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus.
She married Lucius Julius Marinus Caecilius Simplex, a Roman Senator. He was Proconsul of Lycia et Pamphylia from 96-98 and served as a consul in 101 during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan in Rome. In the city of Tlos, Lycia there is an honorary inscription dedicated to her as the wife of Caecilius Simplex. This dedication was most probably done when her husband served as a legatus Augusti in that province.Kalkan
Kalkan is a town on the Turkish Mediterranean coast, and an important tourist destination. The area includes many historical sites (such as Tlos and Kekova) and many fine beaches (including Patara Beach & Kaputaş Beach).
Kalkan is an old fishing town, and the only safe harbour between Kaş and Fethiye; it is famous for its white-washed houses, descending to the sea, and its brightly coloured bougainvilleas. It averages 300 days of sunshine a year.
Until the early 1920s, the majority of its inhabitants were Greeks. They left in 1923 because of the Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey after the Greco-Turkish War and emigrated mainly to Attica, where they founded the new town of Kalamaki. Abandoned Greek houses can still be seen at Kalkan.Kalkan was an important harbour town until the 1970s as the only seaport for the environs. It declined after construction of Fethiye road but revived after the emergence of the tourism industry in the region.
Although part of the Antalya province administratively, Kalkan is connected more closely to Fethiye economically and for transportation.
British newspaper The Independent listed Kalkan among the best tourist destinations for 2007. The paper recommended Kalkan especially for those seeking a romantic vacation and who do not want to travel far from their home country in Europe.According to a 2012 survey 96% of visitors to Kalkan during 2011 were from the United Kingdom. The breakdown was: UK England (82%), UK Scotland (9%), UK Wales (3%), UK NI (2%).Lycia et Pamphylia
Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia. It was created by the emperor Vespasian (reigned AD 69- 79), who merged Lycia and Pamphylia into a single administrative unit. In 43 AD, the emperor Claudius had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia had been a part of the province of Galatia.
The borders drawn by Vespasian ran west of the River Indus (which flowed from its upper valley in Caria) from the Pisidian plateau up to Lake Ascanius (Burdur Gölü), to the south of Apamea. In the north and east it formed a line which followed the shores of the lakes Limna (Hoyran Gölü) and Caralis (Beyşehir Gölü), turned south towards the Gulf of Adalla (mare Pamphylium) and followed the Taurus Mountains (Toros Daǧlari) for some ten miles towards east up to Isauria. It then followed Cilicia Trachea to reach the sea to the west of Iotape. The borders were dawn taking into account geographical and economic factors. The whole of the basins of the rivers Xanthus, Cestrus (Ak Su) and Eurymedon (Köprü Irmak) were included. The main cities were at the mouth of the latter two rivers. In Pisidia e in Pamphylia they were in part followed by the few roads into the interior of Anatolia. The most important one was the road from Attalea (Antalya) to Apamea. In Lycia the road from Patara towards Laodicea on the Lycus followed the coast. Important cities were Side, Ptolemais, Gagae and Myra on the coast, Seleucia, inland and Cremna, Colbhasa and Comama,on the Pisidian Plateau, where Augustus had founded Roman colonies (settlements). on the Milyas plateau there were Oenoanda, Tlos, Nisa, Podalia, Termessus and Trebenna. Other important cities in Lycia were Pednelissus, Ariassus e Sagalassus; along the Eurymedon, Aspendus and Perge, which had a sanctuary of Artemis. The most important city in the region was Patara, at the mouth of the Xanthus.
Under the administrative reforms of emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305), which doubled the number of Roman provinces by reducing their size, the Lycia et Pamphylia province was split into two separate provinces. The provinces were grouped into twelve dioceses which were under the four Praetorian prefectures of the empire. Lycia and Pamphylia were under of Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana), of the Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens (the East).Phellus
Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.
Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).Pixodarus
Pixodarus or Pixodaros (in Lycian 𐊓𐊆𐊜𐊁𐊅𐊀𐊕𐊀 Pixedara; in Greek Πιξώδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), was a ruler of Caria, nominally the Achaemenid Empire Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy. Lycia was also ruled by the Carian dynasts since the time of Mausolus, and the name of Pixodarus as ruler appears in the Xanthos trilingual inscription in Lycia.Praxidike
In Greek mythology, Praxidike (Ancient Greek: Πραξιδίκη, Greek pronunciation: [praksidíkeː]) is the goddess of judicial punishment and the exactor of vengeance, which were two closely allied concepts in the classical Greek world-view.
The Orphic hymn to Persephone identifies Praxidike as an epithet of Persephone: "Praxidike, subterranean queen. The Eumenides’ source [mother], fair-haired, whose frame proceeds from Zeus’ ineffable and secret seeds." As praxis "practice, application" of dike "justice", she is sometimes identified with Dike, goddess of justice.
The plural Praxidikai refers to the following groups of mythological figures who presided over exacting of justice:
1. Arete and Homonoia, daughters of Praxidike and Soter, sisters to Ktesios.2. Alalcomenia, Thelxionoea and Aulis, daughters of the early Boeotian king Ogyges. At Haliartos in Boeotia, Pausanias saw the open-air "sanctuary of the goddesses whom they call Praxidikae. Here the Haliartians swear, but the oath is not one they take lightly". Their images only portrayed their heads, and only heads of animals were sacrificed to them.According to Stephanus of Byzantium, a daughter of Ogygus named Praxidike was married to Tremilus or Tremiles (after whom Lycia had been previously named Tremile) and had by him four sons: Tlos, Xanthus, Pinarus and Cragus. Of them Tlos had a Lycian city named Tlos after himself. Cragus may be identical with the figure of the same name mentioned as the husband of Milye, sister of Solymus.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Terrorism Liaison Officer
A Terrorism Liaison Officer (TLO) is a public citizen in the United States of America who has been trained to report suspicious activity that may be encountered during the course of his or her normal occupation as part of the United States' War on Terror. Although the TLO program was designed prior to September 11, 2001, the 9/11 attacks on the United States were a catalyst for the program's implementation. In 2002, the first pilot program for Terrorism Liaison Officers was launched in California. The program linked local law enforcement to the state's fusion centers and Office of Homeland Security. By 2008, hundreds of people had been trained and dispatched in multiple states, and by 2014, California alone had more than 14,000 TLOs. While some of these individuals are members of local law enforcement agencies, others such as paramedics, utility workers, and railroad employees have also been recruited into the program. TLOs have been used to monitor Occupy Wall Street and Black Lives Matter protests and activists.Tlos (Caria)
Tlos, also known as Gelos, was a town of ancient Caria. The town name does not appear in ancient writers but is inferred from epigraphic evidence.Its site is tentatively located near Pinarlıbükü, Asiatic Turkey.University spin-off
University spin-offs transform technological inventions developed from university research that are likely to remain unexploited otherwise. As such, university/academic spin-offs are a subcategory of research spin-offs. Prominent examples of university spin-offs are Genentech, Crucell, Lycos and Plastic Logic. In most countries, universities can claim the intellectual property (IP) rights on technologies developed in their laboratories. In the United States, the Bayh–Dole Act permits universities to pursue ownership of inventions made by researchers at their institutions using funding from the federal government, where previously federal research funding contracts and grants obligated inventors (wherever they worked) to assign the resulting IP to the government. This IP typically draws on patents or, in exceptional cases, copyrights. Therefore, the process of establishing the spin-off as a new corporation involves transferring the IP to the new corporation or giving the latter a license on this IP. Most research universities now have Technology Licensing Offices (TLOs) to facilitate and pursue such opportunities.