Tium (Greek: Τῖον) was an ancient settlement, also known as Filyos (Greek: Φίλειος), on the south coast of the Black Sea at the mouth of the river Billaeus in present-day Turkey. Ancient writers variously assigned it to ancient Paphlagonia or Bithynia.
The town was founded as a colony from the Greek city of Miletus in the 7th century BCE. According to Strabo, the town was only remarkable as the birthplace of Philetaerus, founder of the royal dynasty of Pergamon. At the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, Amastrine (Amastris), the niece of the last Persian king Darius III, who was the wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, and after his death the wife of Lysimachus caused a synoecism of Sesamus, Cytorus, Cromna, all towns mentioned in the Iliad, and Tium after her separation from Lysimachus, to form the new community of Amastris. Tium, says Strabo, soon detached itself from the community, but the rest kept together, probably in 282 BCE, recovered its autonomous status.
Tium was part of Kingdom of Bithynia, which on the death of King Nicomedes IV in 74 BC became a Roman province. Emperor Theodosius I (379–392) incorporated it into Honorias, when he carved out this new province from portions of Bithynia and Paphlagonia and named it after his younger son Honorius. In 535, the Emperor Justinian united Honorias with Paphlagonia in a decree that expressly mentioned Tium among the cities that were affected. There are coins of Tium as late as the reign of Gallienus, on which the ethnic name appears as Τιανοί, Τεῖοι, and Τειανοί.
This see figures in all the Notitiae episcopatuum.
Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.
The town is today much appreciated for its beaches and natural setting, which has made tourism the most important activity for its inhabitants. In 2010 the population was 6,500. Amasra has two islands: the bigger one is called Büyük ada ('Great Island'), the smaller one Tavşan adası ('Rabbit Island').Amastrine
Amastris (Greek: Ἄμαστρις; killed c. 284 BC) also called Amastrine, was a Persian princess. She was the daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Persian King Darius III.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Bithynian coinage
Bithynian coinage refers to coinage struck by the Kingdom of Bithynia that was situated on the coast of the Black Sea.Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Charlotte Cortlandt Ellis
Charlotte Cortlandt Ellis (27 June 1874 – 17 March 1956) was an American botanist and plant collector active in New Mexico. She discovered several plant species and collected numerous plant specimens.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Cycladic culture
Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Honorias
Honorias (Greek: Ὁνωριάς) was a late Roman province encompassing parts of Bithynia and Paphlagonia in Asia Minor (modern Asian Turkey).
Its capital was Claudiopolis (modern Bolu), and its governor held the modest rank of praeses.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Paideia
In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.Psyllium (Bithynia)
Psyllium or Psyllion (Ancient Greek: Ψύλλιον), or Psylleium or Psylleion (Ψύλλειον), or Psillium or Psillion, or Psylla (Ψύλλα), was a fortified emporium on the coast of ancient Bithynia located on the Pontus Euxinus between Crenides and Tium. The Tabula Peutingeriana erroneously calls it Scylleum.
Its site is located near Ağva in Asiatic Turkey.Rhodiapolis
Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Tommaso Struzzieri
Tommaso Struzzieri, C.P. (30 March 1706 – 21 January 1780) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Todi (1775–1780), Bishop of Amelia (1770–1775), and Titular Bishop of Tium (1764–1770).Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.