The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular metropolitan" (highest rank), "titular archbishop" (intermediary rank) or "titular bishop" (lowest rank), which normally goes by the status conferred on the titular see.
The term is used to signify a diocese that no longer functionally exists, often because the diocese once flourished but the territory was conquered by Muslims or no longer functions because of a schism. The Greek–Turkish population exchange of 1923 also contributed to titular bishoprics. The see of Maximianoupolis along with the town that shared its name was destroyed by the Bulgarians under Emperor Kaloyan in 1207; the town and the see were under the control of the Latin Empire, which took Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Parthenia, in north Africa, was abandoned and swallowed by desert sand.
Titular sees are also used to avoid causing offense or confusion when a bishop of one church serves its faithful in a place where he states no claim of jurisdiction over the faithful of another church dominant there.
During the Muslim conquests of the Middle East and North Africa, some bishops fled to Christian-ruled areas. Even if they did not return and the Christian population of their dioceses dispersed or adopted Islam, they are seen as bishops of those dioceses, who could give rise, even after long interruption (exile and/or vacancy), to a 'restored' line of apostolic succession on each see.
The Ordinary or hierarch of a Catholic titular see may be styled a "Titular Metropolitan" (highest rank), "Titular Archbishop" (intermediary rank) or "Titular bishop" (lowest rank), which normally goes by the status conferred on the titular see (mostly corresponding to its historical rank), but exceptions ad hoc are being made, either above or below the titular see's rank, while titular sees have repeatedly been promoted and/or demoted.
Exceptionally, a pre-diocesan jurisdiction can also be maintained in titular form (although this cannot serve to confer a consecrated bishop a diocesan title), as with two Egyptian titular apostolic vicariates, Heliopolis of Egypt and Port-Said., Both have—without a single proper incumbent—been united on November 30, 1987, with Egypt's present only Latin Ordinary, whose full title thus became Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria of Egypt–Heliopolis of Egypt–Port-Said.
After a name change, an abandoned name may be 'restored' as a titular see, even though a residential successor see exist(ed). Furthermore, the Catholic church may create more than one titular see named after a single city, by creating one or more lines of apostolic succession assigned to the Latin and/or one or more Eastern Catholic rites, which are not necessarily of the same rank.
The term in partibus infidelium, often shortened to in partibus or i.p.i., meaning "in the lands of the unbelievers", was added to the name of the see conferred on titular (non-diocesan) Latin Church bishops. Formerly, when bishops fled from invading Muslims, they were welcomed by other churches, while preserving their titles and their rights to their own dioceses. They were entrusted with the administration of vacant sees of other dioceses. In later days it was deemed fitting to preserve the memory of ancient Christian churches that had fallen into the hands of Muslims; this was done by giving their names to auxiliary bishops or bishops in missionary countries. These bishops do not reside in the sees whose titles they bear, cannot exercise any power over them, and are not entrusted with their care. They are therefore called titular bishops, as opposed to diocesan bishops, and the sees themselves are called titular sees, as opposed to residential sees.
According to Auguste Boudinhon, in Catholic Encyclopedia, Prospero Fagnani said that the regular appointment of titular bishops dates back to the time of the Fifth Lateran Council, in 1514; cardinals alone were authorized to ask for them for their dioceses. Pope Pius V extended the privilege to the sees in which it was customary to have auxiliary bishops. Since then the practice has become more widespread.
Although the normal constitution of the hierarchy has always been built on the idea of local jurisdiction of the bishops, there are indications, in the early history of the Church, of many who did not enjoy what is usually called ordinary jurisdiction. Besides those who were endowed with the episcopal character, in order to assist the local bishops there were those who had been driven from their dioceses by infidels or by heretics, or who for other reasons could not reside in the places to which they had been appointed. The spread of Islam through Muslim conquests in Asia and Africa was responsible for hundreds of abandoned sees. During the Crusades, the Latins, who established new Christian communities, composed of Europeans and belonging to the Latin Rite, procured the erection of new dioceses for their benefit, and these in turn, during the growth of the Ottoman Empire, increased the number of abandoned sees. The final development of the list of sees, called in partibus infidelium, took shape, at first, from the attempt of the Holy See to keep up the succession of bishops in these dioceses, in the hope of reconquering their territory from the infidel. When all hope of such redemption was given up, these titles were still conferred on those who were chosen to assist the diocesan bishops in their labors. After the 14th century the large increase of population in the great centers rendered such assistance particularly necessary. In the 16th century the Holy See inaugurated the policy of consecrating nuncios and other prelates, delegated to represent the Pope in his relations with the different nations, so that they would be equals with the diocesan bishops of the countries in which they were ambassadors.
The foundation of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, in 1622, gave a great impetus to the missionary work of the Church in China and Japan, and elsewhere a great increase in the number of bishops became necessary and those received their titles from the ancient abandoned sees.
Only about 1850, was any attempt made to compile a list of such sees. Gaetano Moroni had already, in 1840, began publication of his 103 volume Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica with a separate six volume index. Moroni acknowledged the great difficulties in compiling this work, even after he thoroughly examined all the sources available to him.
In 1851, the Annuario Pontificio began to have such a list, but it did not purport to be complete. On the contrary, it contained only those that were in general use. Names of dioceses disappeared and were listed again when the titles were actually assigned.
Until 1882, these titles were given as in partibus infidelium. According to Corrigan, the story goes that King George I of Greece (a Lutheran) complained to Pope Leo XIII that he and his people were injured by this appellation, saying to Leo XIII, "we are not infidels, we are Christians; we are Catholics." Leo XIII, through a Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith decree, in 1882, abolished the phrase in partibus infidelium and ordered that future appointments should be made as "titular bishops". The custom, when Boudinhon wrote his article, was to join to the name of the see that of the district to which it formerly belonged, or else merely to say "titular bishop".
The Annuaire Pontifical Catholique published a very complete list of the titular sees and titular bishops. Although it did not claim to be perfect, it contained the names of the sees and the bishops who had held the titles as far back, in some cases, as the 14th century.
Titular sees, according to Corrigan in 1920, were conferred on
In the context of improved relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy after the Second Vatican Council, the Holy See, while continuing to appoint bishops to titular sees in North Africa, ceased to make such appointments to sees that were historically part of the Eastern patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. It began instead to treat as titular sees also those Catholic dioceses in any country no longer used as titles of diocesan bishops because of having been absorbed into other dioceses or having been renamed due to a change of the bishop's place of residence. (For example, several of the sees added by this change of policy are in the western and central United States, such as Grass Valley, California.) The change of practice is reflected in the inclusion from then on of such sees in the official lists of titular sees in editions of the Annuario Pontificio.
Previously, titular sees were routinely (yet not always) assigned not only to auxiliary bishops, similar pseudo-diocesan offices and pre-diocesan apostolic vicars or (Eastern Catholic) apostolic exarchs (not apostolic prefects), but also to retired bishops by way of emeritate (sometimes with a 'promotion' from a suffragan see to an archiepiscopal titular see; however sometimes transferred to another during an incumbent emeritus bishop's life) and even to coadjutor bishops. That practice was largely replaced for the last categories by the present one of referring to a retired bishop as a bishop emeritus of the see that he held, and to a coadjutor bishop simply as coadjutor bishop of the see to which he has been appointed. This change too is reflected in editions of the Annuario Pontificio of the period, which include information on renunciation by retired and coadjutor bishops of titular sees to which they had been appointed.
When Bishop Jacques Gaillot of the residential Diocese of Évreux, controversial for his positions on religious, political and social matters, refused in 1995 to retire (and thus become Bishop Emeritus of Évreux), he was transferred to the titular see of Partenia.
The crusading William IV, Count of Nevers, dying in the Holy Land in 1168, left the building known as the Hospital of Panthenor in the town of Clamecy in Burgundy, together with some land, to the Bishops of Bethlehem, in case Bethlehem should fall under Muslim control. After Saladin took Bethlehem in 1187, the Bishop took up residence in 1223 in his property, which remained the seat of titular Bishops of Bethlehem for almost 600 years, until the French Revolution of 1789.
The Roman Catholic Archbishopric of Nazareth first had two centuries of Metropolitan Archbishops of Nazareth in Barletta (southern Italy), and gave rise in the 19th century to two separately 'restored' titular successor sees: a Latin titular archbishopric of Nazareth and a Maronite (Antiochian Rite) titular (Arch)bishopric of Nazareth, both suppressed only in the early 20th century.
One reason is to avoid causing offense or confusion when an Orthodox bishop serves a place which is also the see of a bishop of a different jurisdiction: the Orthodox bishop residing in Oxford, England, is titled Bishop of Diokleia; the bishop of the Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh is the Russian Orthodox Church's bishop in the United Kingdom.
Aprus or Apros (Ancient Greek: Ἄπρος), also Apri or Aproi (Ἄπροι), was a town of ancient Thrace and, later, a Roman city established in the Roman province of Europa.Arsuz
Arsuz (Arabic: أرسوز, Greek: Αρσούς), also known as Uluçınar is a city in Hatay Province, southern Anatolia (Asian Turkey), and under its Ancient name Rhosus (Ancient Greek: Ῥῶσός) a former bishopric and titular see.Barca (ancient city)
Barca (Arabic: برقة, Barqa; Berber: Berqa), also called Barce (Greek: Βάρκη, Bárkē), was an ancient city and former bishopric, which survives as both a Latin Catholic and an Orthodox titular see.Calama (Numidia)
Calama was a colonia in the Roman province of Numidia situated where Guelma in Algeria now stands.G. Mokhtar places it just within the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, to the east of Numidia, but it is generally believed to have been in Numidia, a province created probably in 198–199.Castabala (city)
Castabala (Greek: Καστάβαλα), also known as Hieropolis and Hierapolis (Greek: Ίεράπολις) was a city in Cilicia (modern southern Turkey), near the Ceyhan River (ancient Pyramus).
The Turkish town of Kırmıtlı, in the Osmaniye district of Osmaniye Province, sits atop the ruins of the ancient city.Chalcedon
Chalcedon ( or ;Greek: Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar) and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works. Except for a tower, almost no above-ground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy today; artifacts uncovered at Altıyol and other excavation sites are on display at the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.
The site of Chalcedon is located on a small peninsula on the north coast of the Sea of Marmara, near the mouth of the Bosphorus. A stream, called the Chalcis or Chalcedon in antiquity and now known as the Kurbağalıdere (Turkish: stream with frogs), flows into Fenerbahçe bay. There Greek colonists from Megara in Attica founded the settlement of Chalcedon in 685 BC, some seventeen years before Byzantium.
The Greek name of the ancient town is from its Phoenician name qart-ħadaʃt, meaning "New Town", whence Karkhēd(ōn), as similarly is the name of Carthage. The mineral chalcedony is named for where it came from outside Chalcedon.Dalisandus in Pamphylia
Dalisandus or Dalisandos (Ancient Greek: Δαλισανδός) was an ancient city and bishopric in eastern Pamphylia, in Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian Turkey) and remains a Latin titular see.
It was situated near Lake Seydişehri in Turkey.Derbe
Derbe (Greek: Δέρβη) was a city in the Roman province of Galatia in Asia Minor, and in the ethnic region of Lycaonia. It is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles at 14:6, 14:20, 16:1 and 20:4.Eucarpia
Eucarpia or Eukarpia (Ancient Greek: Εὐκαρπία) was a city in Phrygia and a bishopric in the late Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, in Asia Minor.Gabès
Gabès (Arabic: قابس Gābis), also spelled Cabès, Cabes, Kabes, Gabbs and Gaps, is the capital city of the Gabès Governorate in Tunisia. It is located on the coast of the Gulf of Gabès. With a population of 152,921, Gabès is the 6th largest Tunisian city.Ibora
Ibora was a city in the late Roman province of Helenopontus, which became a Christian bishopric. It is now called İverönü, Erbaa in present-day Tokat Province, Turkey. This is stated also by the Annuario Pontificio, which lists the bishopric as a titular see.The article by Siméon Vailhé in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia placed its site at modern Turhal in the same modern province.Kıyıköy
Kıyıköy, formerly Midye, ancient/medieval Medea (Greek: Μήδεια), is a village in the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province at northwestern Turkey. It is situated on the coast of the Black Sea. It is 36 km (22 mi) far from the district center and 95 km (59 mi) away from the province center. The village became a municipality in 1987. The population of Kıyıköy is 2,077 according to the 2010 National Census.Fishing and forestry are the main ways of living in addition to tourism in the summer. The town has a small beach. The area surrounding the town is covered by dense forests of mainly oak. Two streams, Kazandere and Pabuçdere, surround the town in the south and the north respectively. Flowing into the Black Sea, these streams are suitable for fishing, boating and swimming.
The Kasatura Bay Nature Reserve Area is 18 km (11 mi) south of the town along the Black Sea. The site harbors a pristine forest and a beach. The only naturally growing grove of black pine (Pinus nigra) in the European part Rumelia of Turkey is found at this site.
Medea is a Roman Catholic titular seeThe village is scheduled to host the onshore terminal of the Turkish Stream pipeline from Russia.Marciana (Lycia)
Marciana was a town in ancient Lycia, with a bishopric that was a suffragan of that of Myra.The author of the article in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia used the spelling Marciane.The town is not mentioned by any author and its exact location remains unknown, but the see figures in the Notitiae episcopatuum from the 6th to the 12th or 13th centuries.Nicopolis (Armenia)
Nicopolis (Greek: Νικόπολις, "city of victory") was a Roman colony in Lesser Armenia founded by Pompey in 63 BC after conquering the Kingdom of Pontus in the third Mithridatic War. It became part of the Roman province of Armenia Prima. Today, the city of Koyulhisar in northeastern Turkey occupies the site.Parium
Parium (or Parion; Greek: Πάριον) was a Greek city of Adrasteia in Mysia on the Hellespont. Its bishopric was a suffragan of Cyzicus, the metropolitan see of the Roman province of Hellespontus.Roman Catholic Diocese of Roskilde
The Roman-Catholic Diocese of Roskilde (Danish: Roskildes Stift) was a diocese within the Roman-Catholic Church which was established in Denmark some time before 1022 and lasted until the Lutheran Reformation.Thapsus
Thapsus (Greek: Θάψος, Thápsos), also known as Tampsus and as Thapsus Minor to distinguish it from Thapsus in Sicily, was a Carthaginian and Roman port near present-day Bakalta, Tunisia.Tharros
Tharros (also spelled Tharras, Archaic Greek: Θάρρας, Hellenistic Greek, Tarras or Tarrae, Τάρραι) was an ancient city and former bishopric on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy.
It is currently a Latin Catholic titular see and an archaeological site near the village of San Giovanni di Sinis, municipality of Cabras, in the Province of Oristano. It is located on the southern shore of the Sinis peninsula, which forms the northern cape of the Bay of Oristano, by the cape of San Marco. Tharros, mentioned by Ptolemy and in the Itineraries, seems to have been one of the most important places on the island.Titular bishop
A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop who is not in charge of a diocese.
By definition, a bishop is an "overseer" of a community of the faithful, so when a priest is ordained a bishop, the tradition of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches is that he be ordained for a specific place. There are more bishops than there are functioning dioceses. Therefore, a priest appointed not to head a diocese as its diocesan bishop but to be an auxiliary bishop, a papal diplomat, or an official of the Roman Curia is appointed to a titular see.