Tito–Stalin split

The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948. This was the beginning of the Informbiro period, marked by poor relations with the USSR, that came to an end in 1955.

Views

It was said by the Soviets to be caused by Yugoslavia's disloyalty to the USSR, while in Yugoslavia and the West it was presented as Josip Broz Tito's national pride and refusal to submit to Joseph Stalin's will in making Yugoslavia a Soviet satellite state. The scholar Perovic considered the cause was Stalin's rejection of Tito's plans to absorb the People's Republic of Albania and the Kingdom of Greece in cooperation with the People's Republic of Bulgaria, thereby setting up a powerful Eastern European bloc outside Moscow's control which would be known as the Balkan Federation[1]

Origins

During the Second World War, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis. The occupying powers were opposed by several resistance groups; the Communist resistance, led by Marshal Josip Broz Tito, was the largest and took control of the country by 1945, with minimal Soviet intervention. At this point, Tito was loyal to Moscow.

Tito's leading role in liberating Yugoslavia not only greatly strengthened his position in his party and among the Yugoslav people, but also caused him to be more insistent that Yugoslavia would get more room to follow its own interests than other Eastern Bloc leaders who had more reason (and came under more pressure) to recognize Soviet efforts in helping them liberate their own countries from Axis control. This had already led to some friction between the two countries before World War II was even over. Although Tito was formally an ally of Stalin after World War II, the Soviets had set up a spy ring in the Yugoslav party as early as 1945, resulting in an uneasy alliance.[2]

In the immediate aftermath of World War II, there occurred several armed incidents between Yugoslavia and the Western Bloc. Following the war, Yugoslavia successfully captured the territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka that had formed part of Italy from the 1920s. This move was of direct benefit to the Slavic populations of the regions (i.e. mainly Croats and Slovenes). Yugoslav leadership was looking to incorporate Trieste into the country as well, which was opposed by the Western Allies and by Stalin. This led to several armed incidents, notably Yugoslav fighter planes shooting down American transport aircraft, causing angry criticism from the West and from Stalin. From 1945 to 1948, at least four US aircraft were shot down.[3] Stalin was opposed to these provocations, as he felt that the USSR was unready to face the West in open war so soon after the losses of World War II.

In addition, Tito was openly supportive of the communist side in the Greek Civil War, while Stalin kept his distance, having agreed with Churchill not to support communism there with the Percentages agreement. Tito planned to absorb Albania and Greece in cooperation with Bulgaria, thereby setting up a powerful Eastern Europe bloc outside Moscow's control. Stalin could not tolerate that threat.[1]

First Cominform

However, the world still saw the two countries as the closest of allies. This was evident at the first meeting of the Cominform in 1947, where the Yugoslav representatives were the most strident critics of the national Communist parties viewed to be insufficiently devoted to the cause, specifically the Italian and French parties for engaging in coalition politics. They were thereby essentially arguing Soviet positions. The headquarters for Cominform were even set up in Belgrade. However, all was not well between the two countries, due to a number of disputes.

Trip to Moscow

The friction that led to the ultimate split had many causes, many of which can ultimately be linked to Tito's regional focus and his refusal to accept Moscow as the supreme Communist authority. The Yugoslavs were of the opinion that the joint-stock companies favored in the Soviet Union were not effective in Yugoslavia. In addition, Tito's deployment of troops in Albania to prevent the civil conflict in Greece from spreading into neighbouring countries (including Yugoslavia), carried out without consulting the Soviets, had greatly angered Stalin.

Stalin was also enraged by Tito's aspirations to merge Yugoslavia with Bulgaria (and therefore create a true "Land of the South Slavs"), an idea with which he agreed in theory, but which had also taken place without prior Soviet consultation.[4] He summoned two of Tito's officials, Milovan Đilas and Edvard Kardelj, to Moscow to discuss these matters. As a result of these talks, Đilas and Kardelj became convinced that Yugoslav-Soviet relations had already reached an impasse.

Letter exchange

Between the trip to Moscow and the second meeting of the Cominform, the Soviet Communist Party and the Yugoslav Communist Party (CPY) exchanged a series of letters detailing their grievances. The first CPSU letter, on March 27, 1948, accused the Yugoslavs of denigrating Soviet socialism via statements such as "socialism in the Soviet Union has ceased to be revolutionary".[5] It also claimed that the CPY was not democratic enough, and that it was not acting as a vanguard that would lead the country to socialism. Stalin retorted, "we cannot consider this kind of organization of the Communist Party as truly Marxist-Leninist or Bolshevik. 'One does not feel any policy of class struggle in the Yugoslav Party."[6]

The CPY response on April 13 was a strong denial of the Soviet accusations, both defending the revolutionary nature of the party, and re-asserting its high opinion of the Soviet Union. However, the CPY noted also that "no matter how much each of us loves the land of socialism, the USSR, he can in no case love his own country less."[7] The Soviet answer on May 4 admonished the CPY for failing to admit and correct its mistakes, and went on to accuse the CPY of being too proud of their successes against the Germans, maintaining that the Red Army had "saved them from destruction". The CPY's response on May 17 reacted sharply to Soviet attempts to devalue the success of the Yugoslav resistance movement, and suggested that the matter be settled at the meeting of the Cominform to be held that June.

Second Cominform

Tito did not even attend the second meeting of the Cominform, fearing that Yugoslavia was to be openly attacked. On June 28, the other member countries expelled Yugoslavia, citing "nationalist elements" that had "managed in the course of the past five or six months to reach a dominant position in the leadership" of the CPY. The resolution warned Yugoslavia that it was on the path back to bourgeois capitalism due to its nationalist, independence-minded positions.

Results

The expulsion effectively banished Yugoslavia from the international association of socialist states. After the expulsion, Tito suppressed those who supported the resolution, calling them "Cominformists".[8] Many were sent to a gulag-like prison camp at Goli otok ("Barren Island").[9] Between 1948 and 1952, the Soviet Union encouraged its allies to rebuild their military forces—especially Hungary, which was to be the leading force in a possible war against Yugoslavia.

Titoism was denounced by Moscow as a heresy that said Communist countries should take a nationalist road to socialism different from that of the Soviet Union. Across Eastern Europe, Communist leaders suspected of Tito-like tendencies were purged by pro-Moscow elements.[10]

After Stalin's death and the repudiation of his policies by Nikita Khrushchev, peace was made with Tito and Yugoslavia re-admitted into the international brotherhood of socialist states. However, relations between the two countries were never completely rebuilt; Yugoslavia would continue to take an independent course in world politics, shunning the influence of both west and east. The Yugoslav Army maintained two official defense plans, one against a NATO invasion and one against a Warsaw Pact invasion.

Tito used the estrangement from the USSR to obtain US aid via the Marshall Plan, as well as to found the Non-Aligned Movement, in which Yugoslavia was a leading force.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jeronim Perovic, "The Tito–Stalin Split: A Reassessment in Light of New Evidence." Journal of Cold War Studies (Spring 2007) 9#2 pp: 32-63
  2. ^ Richard West, Tito (1994)
  3. ^ Air victories of Yugoslav Air Force
  4. ^ Perovic, "The Tito–Stalin Split: A Reassessment in Light of New Evidence."
  5. ^ Stephen Clissold, ed. Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, 1939-1973: A Documentary Survey (1975) p 172
  6. ^ Edvard Kardelj, Reminiscences--the Struggle for Recognition and Independence: The New Yugoslavia, 1944-1957 (1982) p 217
  7. ^ Dennison Rusinow (1978). The Yugoslav Experiment 1948-1974. U. of California Press. p. 28.
  8. ^ Paul Garde, Vie et mort de la Yougoslavie, Fayard, Paris, 2000, p. 91
  9. ^ Serge Métais, Histoire des Albanais, Fayard, Paris 2006, p. 322
  10. ^ Alec Nove (2005). Stalinism and After: The Road to Gorbachev. Routledge. p. 97.
  11. ^ John R. Lampe , Russell O. Prickett, Ljubisa S. Adamovic (1990). Yugoslav-American economic relations since World War II. Duke University Press Books. p. 47. ISBN 0-8223-1061-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Further reading

  • Banac, Ivo. With Stalin against Tito: Cominformist Splits in Yugoslav Communism (Cornell University Press, 1988)
  • Dimić, Ljubodrag (2011). "Yugoslav-Soviet Relations: The View of the Western Diplomats (1944-1946)". The Balkans in the Cold War: Balkan Federations, Cominform, Yugoslav-Soviet Conflict. Beograd: Institute for Balkan Studies. pp. 109–140.
  • Iatrides, John O.; Linda Wrigley (2004). Greece at the Crossroads: The Civil War and Its Legacy. Penn State University Press. pp. 267–75.
  • Karchmar, Lucien. "The Tito-Stalin Split in Soviet and Yugoslav Historiography," in Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., At the Brink of War and Peace: The Tito-Stalin Split in a Historic Perspective (New York: Social Science Monographs, 1982), pp. 253–271.
  • Lees, Lorraine M. Keeping Tito Afloat: The United States, Yugoslavia, and the Cold War, 1945-1960 (Penn State Press, 2010)
  • Mehta, Coleman. "The CIA Confronts the Tito-Stalin Split, 1948–1951." Journal of Cold War Studies (2011) 13#1 pp: 101-145.
  • Nyrop, Richard F., ed. Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. 1981.
  • Perovic, Jeronim. "The Tito–Stalin Split: A Reassessment in Light of New Evidence." Journal of Cold War Studies (Spring 2007) 9#2 pp: 32-63, online; online at Project MUSE
  • Ridley, Jasper. Tito. (Constable, London. 1994); popular history
  • Stokes, Gale, ed. From Stalinism to Pluralism: A Documentary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945. Oxford University Press, New York. 1996.
  • West, Richard. Tito: And the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. Sinclair-Stevenson, London. 1994.
  • Perovic, Jeronim. "The Tito–Stalin Split: A Reassessment in Light of New Evidence." Journal of Cold War Studies (Spring 2007) 9#2 pp: 32-63, online; online at Project MUSE

External links

Arso Jovanović

Arsenije "Arso" Jovanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Арсо Јовановић; 1907–1948) was a Yugoslav partisan general and their foremost military commander to participate in World War II in Yugoslavia.

Educated through the Yugoslav Royal Army academies, General Jovanović was one of the best-educated generals among the partisan forces in Yugoslavia, speaking French, Russian and English. His military reports distinguished him, sometimes running to as many as ten pages, and he stayed close to the partisan High Command, lecturing in the first partisan officer school in Drvar, 1944. After the Tito–Stalin Split in 1948, General Jovanović openly sided with the Soviet Union. He was killed by Yugoslav border guards while trying to escape to Romania with two other Montenegrin dissidents, Vlado Dapčević and Branko Petričević, who were captured alive.

Bled agreement (1947)

The Bled agreement (also referred to as the "Tito–Dimitrov treaty") was an agreement signed on the 1 August 1947 in Bled, PR Slovenia, FPR Yugoslavia. It was signed by Georgi Dimitrov, Bulgarian leader, and Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav leader, which paved the way for future unification between the states in a new Balkan Federative Republic. It also foresaw the unification of Vardar Macedonia and Pirin Macedonia and the return of Western Outlands to Bulgaria. The agreement abolished visas and allowed for a customs union. It was also the first time that Bulgaria recognized ethnic Macedonians and the Macedonian language.

These agreements mark the mutual aspirations and efforts to develop new relations between the two countries. They agreed that the government will take over NR Bulgaria to ensure the rights of ethnic Macedonians in Pirin Macedonia (now Blagoevgrad Province) in free national economic and cultural development.

The Bled agreement was accepted with the Treaty on Friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance between Yugoslavia and the People's Republic of Bulgaria, signed and published in Evksinograd. The treaty contains: several of the Agreement on economic cooperation, on customs facilitation, agreement for preparation of a customs union, the facilitation of border crossings, border crossing on the border of population and of the citizenship between the two countries. The Yugoslav Government negotiated in the conference of Bled that Bulgaria would waive $25 million in war damages owed by Yugoslavia.

The policies resulting from the agreement were reversed after the Tito–Stalin split in June 1948, when Bulgaria, being subordinated to the interests of the Soviet Union, took a stance against Yugoslavia.

When the Cominform campaign against Yugoslavia severed the Yugoslav Communist party leadership, the government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria on 1 October 1949 deleted the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance of Bled with all agreements, except the decision of pardon of war damages.

Cold War (1947–1953)

The Cold War (1947–1953) is the period within the Cold War from the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the conclusion of the Korean War in 1953. The Cold War emerged in Europe a few years after the successful US–USSR–UK coalition won World War II in Europe, and extended to 1989–91. In 1947, Bernard Baruch, the multimillionaire financier and adviser to presidents from Woodrow Wilson to Harry S. Truman, coined the term “Cold War” to describe the increasingly chilly relations between two World War II Allies: the United States and the Soviet Union.

Some conflicts between the West and the USSR appeared earlier. In 1945–46 the US and UK strongly protested Soviet political takeover efforts in Eastern Europe and Iran, while the hunt for Soviet spies made the tensions more visible. However historians emphasize the decisive break between the US–UK and the USSR came in 1947–48 over such issues as the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the Berlin Blockade, followed by the formation of NATO in 1949.The Cold War took place worldwide, but it had a partially different timing outside Europe.

Hortobágy National Park

Hortobágy (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈhortobaːɟ]) is an 800 km2 national park in eastern Hungary, rich with folklore and cultural history. The park, a part of the Alföld (Great Plain), was designated as a national park in 1973 (the first in Hungary), and elected among the World Heritage sites in 1999. The Hortobágy is Hungary's largest protected area, and the largest semi-natural grassland in Europe.Until recently it was believed that this alkaline steppe was formed by the clear cutting of huge forests in the Middle Ages, followed by measures to control the course of the Tisza River, allegedly resulting in the soil's current structure and pH. However, Hortobágy is much older, with alkalinization estimated to have started ten thousand years ago, when the Tisza first found its way through the Great Hungarian Plain, cutting off many streams from their sources in the Northern Mountains. The formation was finished by grazing animals and wild horses during the Ice Age, followed by domesticated animals.One of its most iconic sites is the Nine-holed Bridge. Traditional T-shaped sweep wells dot the landscape, as well as the occasional mirage of trees shimmering in the reflected heat of the Puszta. Part of the national park is a dark sky preserve.Hortobágy has also had negative connotations. Hortobágy was a place where Hungarian Stalinists sent their political opponents to work in forced labour, especially after the Resolution of Informbiro (Cominform or Communist Information Bureau). In much the same way as prison Goli otok functioned in Tito's Yugoslavia (see Tito–Stalin split) and Bărăgan in Romania.

Ikarus S-49

The Ikarus S-49 was a Yugoslav single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft built for the Yugoslav Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Ratno vazduhoplovstvo i protivvazdušna obrana – RV i PVO) shortly after World War II. Following the Tito–Stalin Split in 1948, the RV i PVO was left with an aircraft inventory consisting of mostly Soviet aircraft. Unable to acquire new aircraft or spare parts for its existing fleet, the RV i PVO turned to its domestic aviation industry in order to create an indigenous design to fulfill the need for additional aircraft.

The result was the S-49A, designed by Kosta Sivčev, Svetozar Popović and Slobodan Zrnić, on the basis of the pre-war Rogožarski IK-3. The S-49A was surpassed by the improved S-49C, featuring an all-metal construction and a more powerful engine. A total of 45 S-49A and 113 S-49C were produced by the Ikarus Aircraft Factory in Zemun. The last aircraft were retired from RV i PVO service in 1960/61, having been replaced by more modern jet-powered aircraft.

Informbiro period

Informbiro (also the Informbiro period or the time of the Informbiro) was a period in the history of Yugoslavia which spanned from 1948 to 1955, characterised by conflict and schism with the Soviet Union. The word Informbiro is the Yugoslav name for the Cominform, an abbreviation for "Information Bureau," from "Communist Information Bureau".

The term refers to the Cominform Resolution of June 28, 1948 (resulting from the Tito–Stalin Split) that accused the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), among other things, of "depart[ing] from Marxism-Leninism", exhibiting an "anti-Soviet attitude," "meeting criticism with hostility" and "reject[ing] to discuss the situation at an Informbureau meeting." Following these allegations, the resolution expelled the KPJ from Cominform. As a result, Yugoslavia fell outside of the Soviet sphere of influence, and the country's brand of communism, with its independence from the Soviet line, was called Titoism by Moscow and considered treasonous. Party purges against suspected "Titoites" were conducted throughout Eastern Europe.

JUSTA

JUSTA, standing for "Jugoslovensko-sovjetsko akcionarsko društvo za civilno vazduhoplovstvo/Југословенско-совјетско акционарско друштво за цивилно ваздухопловство", was mixed Yugoslav-Soviet society intended for the civil air traffic. It was organized in the period of the close ideological friendship between the Yugoslavia and Soviet Union after the Second World War. JUSTA existed for two years, and provided domestic and international airline service. The first flights were held in summer of 1947, and after the Tito-Stalin split it ceased its work in the beginning of 1949.It was one of the Yugoslav-Soviet mixed companies created just after Second World War. JUSTA used as hub the Butmir airfield in Sarajevo, and established routes linking the city with Belgrade and Zagreb. Founded with the right to take over the most important international and domestic routes from JAT, as the agreement

between Yugoslavia and the USSR entitled it to do, JUSTA also takes complete control over Yugoslav civilian airports, but it however operates a much smaller amount of flights than the agreement originally entitled it to during 1948 as it had only four passenger and two freight airplanes and it didn't have enough airplanes its seet to make these flights happen. However, JUSTA pushes JAT down on second place during 1947. While JAT flew 26.423 passengers and 89,5 metric tons of cargo during 1947, JUSTA flew only 6.294 passengers and 77 tons of freight in the same year. Conversely, the situation changed completely in 1948; JUSTA flew 14.117 passengers whilst JAT flew only 13.612, a decrease of almost 100% from the previous year and one of the worst examples how politics often went ahead of business strategy in the former Yugoslavia. After Tito-Stalin split, JUSTA is forced to formally cease operations on the April 1, that year. JAT benefited greatly from this event, as it now could regain its former position in the market and further expand as it got an influx of flight crews and mechanics from JUSTA further strengthening operations.JUSTA served as a Soviet intent to take over traffic control over Yugoslav airspace and confine the fledgling Yugoslav airline JAT to a few lesser domestic routes. JUSTA was operating just over a year when the Yugoslav government, because of the conflict with the USSR, made a decision to back JAT and JUSTA ended up losing in this conflict. JUSTA was liquidated in 1948.JUSTA operated Douglas DC-3 and Lisunov Li-2 aircraft, having had two accidents, one with 23 fatalities near Rumija in Montenegro, and another with no fatalities in Bari, Italy.

Josip Kopinič

Josip Kopinič (Nom de guerre: Vokšin, Aleksandar, Vazduh, Valdes; 18 February 1911 in Radoviči, Slovenia – 26 May 1997 in Ljubljana)

In 1931 Kopinič joined the Communist Party of Slovenia (KPS), and shortly later was sent to Moscow. In 1936 he was sent by the Comintern as "military counsellor" to help the Republic as the Spanish Civil War started. There he became commander of the Spanish Republican Navy yard at Cartagena. Then, from 1936 to 1938 he served on the republican submarine flotilla. Together with I. A. Burmistrov and N. P. Yegipko, Kopinič, in spring 1938, Kopinič participated to the hazardous journeys which their submarines made from France, where they had been repaired, along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the Straits of Gibraltar to Cartagena, i.e., a route almost entirely controlled by the nationalist forces.After the Spanish Civil War Kopinič stayed in Paris as Spanish republican diplomat, provided also with a Soviet passport. During World War II Kopinič headed the chief Soviet intelligence center in Zagreb and was instructed by the Comintern to establish a new party organization independent from the KPJ.Kopinič set up a radio-transmitter in Zagreb in 1940 which become the major information point between the Italian and Greek communist parties and the Comintern in Moscow. Also for this reason, it seems, the KPJ preserved pre-eminence in the Southeastern European region, backed by the Comintern. That lasted up to the Cominform Resolution of 28 June 1948 (resulting from the Tito–Stalin split).

From 1946 to 1949 Kopinič was in Turkey but nothing is known about this period except that he continued to work as a Soviet intelligence officer. Following the Tito–Stalin split Kopinič returned to Yugoslavia. In 1951 he became director of the Uljanik shipyard in Pula, where he stayed until his retirement.

List of airlines of Yugoslavia

This is a list of airlines that were active in Yugoslavia.Yugoslavia was a country that existed between 1918 and 1992 (this article excludes data of the FR Yugoslavia that existed between 1992 and 2003 when it was renamed to Serbia and Montenegro). Created at the end of First World War in 1918 when Kingdom of Serbia absorbed South-Slav inhabited territories of Austro-Hungary, Yugoslavia existed as a monarchy until the start of Second World War, which for Yugoslavia was in 1941. In 1927 the first airline was created, Aeroput, which became the flag carrier and the 10th airline company founded in Europe and the 21st in the world. It operated all domestic and international flights to Central and South-Eastern Europe.

In 1945, at the end of Second World War, the monarchy was abolished and a communist regime came to power. In 1948, after Tito-Stalin split, Yugoslavia exited Eastern bloc, and, initiated a policy of world neutrality which later materialised in Yugoslavia becoming one of the founders and a leading force of the Non-Aligned Movement. This made Yugoslavia to be open and have access to both, Western and Eastern markets. Yugoslav companies operated both and also domestic-built aircraft, and were for decades the only ones from communist countries to operate Western-built aircraft. In 1947, Aeroput was reactivated and renamed to JAT Yugoslav Airlines becoming the flag carrier. Until early 1990s, JAT operated destinations to Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and North America. In the 1970s more companies were created, mostly for charter flights, namely Belgrade-based Aviogenex, Ljubljana-based Adria Airways (known until 1988 as Inex-Adria), and Zagreb-based Pan Adria (renamed in 1978 to Trans Adria).

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw a boom of creation of regional companies, some of them later becoming the flag carriers of the newly formed countries after the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1992. However, the entire airline industry, which was well developed and in continuous expansion, suffered a huge setback in the 1990s with the Yugoslav Wars and UN imposed sanctions.

Operation Koronis

Operation Koronis (Greek: Επιχείρηση «Κορωνίς», "crown" in Greek) was a military campaign launched by royalist government in Athens against the main stronghold of the communist forces during the Greek Civil War. The communist defenses were two lines of fortifications with minefields and concealed bunkers. Initial air attacks used small-sized bombs and inaccurate targeting, but eventually the frequency of attacks was more than tripled. After neutralizing the minefields by forcing herds of animals to walk over them, the government army launched simultaneous attacks from two sides. In the southwest, the hill of Kleftis changed hands repeatedly. With heavier casualties against a numerically superior opponent, the communists had their wounded and artillery moved across the border to the People's Republic of Albania, while the remaining 8,000 retreated to Mount Vitsi.

Operation Peristera

Operation Peristera (Greek: Επιχείρηση «Περιστερά», "dove" in Greek) was a military campaign for control of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Greek Civil War.

Operation Pyrsos

Operation Pyrsos (Greek: Επιχείρηση «Πυρσός», "Torch") was the final campaign launched by the National Army of the internationally recognized Greek government against the communist forces during the Greek Civil War. After the success of the preceding Operation Pyravlos, communist forces in central Greece had been defeated and only the mountain strongholds of Grammos and Vitsi in northwestern Greece remained under their control. Yugoslavian assistance to the communists had come to an end in February 1949 amid the Tito–Stalin split. The National Army launched a diversionary attack on Grammos and their main force at Vitsi. Five days of fighting cost the National Army 1,682 casualties. 1,182 communists were killed in action and over 1,000 wounded were evacuated across the Albanian border. On August 25, following a massive attack by the National Army with aircraft and artillery, the Albanian government of Enver Hoxha cut off its assistance to the Greek communist forces and disarmed the Greek communists on its territory. The operation ended at 10 am on August 30. The Greek communists formally surrendered in mid-October, ending the Greek Civil War.

Panko Brashnarov

Panko Brashnarov (Bulgarian: Панко Брашнаров, Macedonian: Панко Брашнар, Panko Brašnar) (1883, Veles, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 1951, Goli Otok, Yugoslavia) was a revolutionary and member of the left wing of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) and IMRO (United) later. As with many other IMARO members of the time, historians from the Republic of Macedonia consider him an ethnic Macedonian, whereas historians in Bulgaria consider him a Bulgarian. However such Macedonian activists, who came from the IMARO and the IMRO (United) never managed to get rid of their strong pro-Bulgarian bias.He was born in Veles (then known by the name Köprülü) in the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire (present-day Republic of Macedonia) where he graduated from Bulgarian Exarchate's school. Brashnarov graduated from the Bulgarian pedagogical school in Skopje. In 1903 he took part in the Ilinden Uprising. In 1908 he joined the People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section). In 1903-1913 Brashnarov worked as Bulgarian teacher. In 1914-1915 he completed a two-year higher educational course in Plovdiv. He was mobilized in the Bulgarian army during the First World War and participated in the battles of Doiran. In 1919, he joined the Yugoslav Communist Party. In 1925 in Vienna, Brashnarov was elected as one of the leaders of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (United). Because of his political convictions, he was sentenced to seven years in prison in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After his release he remained politically passive.

When Bulgaria annexed Vardar Banovina in 1941, he was one of the founders of the Bulgarian Action Committees Until 1943, Brashnarov worked again as a Bulgarian teacher. Then he became politically active again and joined the Communist partizan's movement fighting against the Axis Powers. On 2 August 1944, the Antifascist assembly of the national liberation of Macedonia took place at the St. Prohor Pčinjski monastery. Brashnarov served as the first speaker. The modern Macedonian state was officially proclaimed as a federal state within Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia, receiving recognition from the Allies.

From the start of the new Yugoslavia, the authorities organised frequent purges and trials of Macedonian communists and non-party people were charged with autonomist deviation. Many of the former left-wing IMRO government officials were purged from their positions, then isolated, arrested, imprisoned or executed on various (in many cases fabricated) charges including pro-Bulgarian leanings, demands for greater or complete independence of Yugoslav Macedonia, collaboration with the Cominform after the Tito-Stalin split in 1948, forming of conspirative political groups or organisations, demands for greater democracy and the like. In 1948, being fully disappointed by the policy of the authorities, Brashnarov complained of it in letters to Joseph Stalin and to Georgi Dimitrov. He did so together with Pavel Shatev. As a result, he was arrested in 1950 and imprisoned in Goli Otok labor camp where he died the following year.

Radovan Zogović

Radovan Zogović (Cyrillic: Радован Зоговић) (August 19, 1907 – January 5, 1986) was a Montenegrin poet.

He was born in Mašnica, Plav, in northeastern Montenegro on 19 August 1907. Before World War II he lived in Skopje, Zagreb and Belgrade, working as a literary critic and a secondary school teacher, and joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. His first book of poetry, Glineni golubovi (Clay Pigeons, 1937), was banned by the Yugoslav royal regime.

He joined the Partisans in 1941, and after World War II he was briefly one of the most prominent figures in Yugoslav government, as head of the propaganda of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, authoring several programmatic and polemical articles and criticism from the standpoint of dogmatic real socialism (Na poprištu, "At the scene", 1948). He was expelled from the League of Communists and put under house arrest in 1948 in connection with the Tito-Stalin split. He was accused of being Stalinist and for Montenegrin nationalism among else.

In the late 1960s Zogović was semi-rehabilitated, and in that period his best works were published: poetry collections Prkosne strofe ("Defiant verses", 1947), Žilama za kamen ("Veins for the rock"), Artikulisana riječ ("Articulated word", 1965), Lično, sasvim lično ("Personal, very personal"), Noć i pola vijeka ("A night and half a century", 1978) and Knjaževska kancelarija (The Prince's Office). He also wrote the novel Pejsaži i nešto se dešava ("The landscape and something happens", 1968).

His poetry at first was very socially engaged, critical and polemical towards social reality, while in the later songs predominate landscape and homeland motifs and reflection on youth, the passage of time and fate.

His poems have been translated in many languages, and he himself translated works from Russian, Bulgarian, Turkish and Macedonian authors, including Vladimir Mayakovsky, Anna Akhmatova and Nazim Hikmet.

Among his close friends were the Serbian poet Desanka Maksimović and the Montenegrin novelist Mihailo Lalić.

He was a member of the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts.

He died of cancer on 5 January 1986 in Belgrade.

His wife Vera (who died in 2003) was also a translator from Russian, and his daughter Mirka from Italian.

Savo Zlatić

Savo Vjerko Zlatić (12 July 1912 – 8 December 2007) was a Croatian physician, politician and chess composer.

Early in life, as a medical student, Zlatić became a high-ranking member of the then-illegal Communist Party. In World War II, he became the first Partisan physician in Croatia and one of the founders of Petrova Gora hospital. He was expelled from the Communist Party in 1949 and subsequently served two years in Goli Otok prison for siding with Stalin's position in the Tito–Stalin Split. After his release from prison, Zlatić focused on scientific work; he is considered one of the founders of clinical pharmacology in Croatia. Zlatić also had a long competitive career as a chess composer and was awarded the title of World Federation for Chess Composition Honorary Master in 1999.

Slovenes

The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians (Slovene: Slovenci [slɔˈʋéːntsi]), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovene as their native language.

When Father Was Away on Business

When Father Was Away on Business (Serbo-Croatian: Otac na službenom putu, Отац на службеном путу) is a 1985 Yugoslav film by director Emir Kusturica. The screenplay was written by the Bosnian dramatist Abdulah Sidran. Its subtitle is A Historical Love Film and it was produced by Centar Film and Forum, production companies based in Sarajevo.

Set in post-World War II Yugoslavia during the Informbiro period, the film tells the story from the perspective of a boy, Malik, whose father Meša (Miki Manojlović) was sent to a labour camp. When Father Was Away on Business won the Palme d'Or at the 1985 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

Yugoslav destroyer Split

The Yugoslav destroyer Split was a large destroyer designed for the Royal Yugoslav Navy in the late 1930s. Construction began in 1939, but she was captured incomplete by the Italians during the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. They continued to build the ship, barring a brief hiatus, but she was not completed before she was scuttled after the Italian surrender in September 1943. The Germans occupied Split and refloated the destroyer later that year, but made no efforts to continue work. The ship was scuttled again before the city was taken over by the Yugoslav Partisans in late 1944. Split was refloated once more, but the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was able to do little with her before the Tito–Stalin Split in 1948 halted most work. Aid and equipment from the United States and the United Kingdom finally allowed her to be completed 20 years after construction began. She was commissioned in July 1958 and served as the navy's flagship for most of her career. Split became a training ship in the late 1970s after a boiler explosion. She was decommissioned in 1980, and scrapped six years later.

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