Titiopolis or Titioupolis (Greek: Τιτιούπολις) was a town of ancient Cilicia and later in the Roman province of Isauria.

Name and location

Some refer to the town by the name Titopolis, but a coin minted there in the time of Emperor Hadrian bears on the reverse the word ΤΙΤΙΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ (Of the inhabitants of Titiopolis).[1][2] Other sources cited in the presentation about that coin to the Royal Numismatic Society give the same form.[1] These concern the names of bishops of Titiopolis (considered below) and also the information given by the Hieroclis Synecdemus, by George of Cyprus, and by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, according to which Titiopolis was one of the cities of the Isaurian Decapolis.[1][3] The editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World conjecture that the old Isaurian bishopric (and, now, titular see) of Cardabunta or Kardabounda may be identified with the town.[4]

The ruins of Titiopolis lie about 4 kilometres north-north-west of Anamur.[5]

Ecclesiastical History


Titiopolis was also the seat of an ancient Bishopric.[6][7][8][9]

Le Quien mentions three bishops of Titiopolis:[10]

The see of Titiopolis is mentioned in the 6th century Notitia episcopatuum of Antioch and, after Isauria was annexed to the Patriarchate of Constantinople in about 732, in the Notitia episcopatuum of that church and in that of Leo the Wise in about 900 and that of Constantine Porphyrogenitus in about 940.[3]

The last mention of Titiopolis as a residential see is by William of Tyre in the late 12th century. He speaks of it as one of the 24 suffragan sees of Seleucia in Isauria.[1]

The see of Titiopolis is now included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[12]

Titular Bishops

  • •Jean de Karlestadt, O.S.A. † ( 1389 Appointed - )
  • •Luís da Silva Teles, O.SS.T. † (1 Jul 1671 Appointed - 8 Mar 1677 Appointed, Bishop of Lamego)
  • •Bl. Niels Stensen) † (13 Sep 1677 Appointed - 5 Dec 1686 Died)[13][14]
  • •Marco Gradenigo † (22 Aug 1699 Appointed - 19 Nov 1714 Appointed, Bishop of Verona)
  • •Charles-Marin Labbé, M.E.P. † (12 Sep 1703 Appointed - 24 Mar 1723 Died)
  • •Angel Benito, O.S.B. † (4 Mar 1720 Appointed - )
  • •Gabriel Zerdahely † (11 Dec 1780 Appointed - 22 Dec 1800 Confirmed, Bishop of Banská Bystrica)
  • •Ferenc Miklósy † (20 Jul 1801 Appointed - 20 Jun 1803 Confirmed, Bishop of Oradea Mare {Gran Varadino, Nagyvárad})
  • •Vicente Alexandre de Tovar † (20 Jun 1803 Appointed - 8 Oct 1808 Died)
  • •Manuel del Villar † (4 Sep 1815 Appointed - 23 Sep 1816 Appointed, Bishop of Lérida)
  • •Nicolò Gatto † (21 Feb 1820 Appointed - 17 Nov 1823 Confirmed, Bishop of Patti)
  • •Giorgio Papas (Papasian) † (6 Dec 1826 Appointed - )
  • •Francis Kelly † (3 Aug 1849 Appointed - 18 Jun 1864 Succeeded, Bishop of Derry)
  • John Cameron † (11 Mar 1870 Appointed - 17 Jul 1877 Succeeded, Bishop of Arichat, Nova Scotia)
  • •Valentin Garnier, S.J. † (21 Jan 1879 Appointed - 14 Aug 1898 Died)
  • •Juan José Laguarda y Fenollera † (19 Jun 1899 Appointed - 9 Jun 1902 Appointed, Bishop of Urgell)
  • •Vilmos Batthyány † (3 Jan 1902 Appointed - 18 Mar 1911 Succeeded, Bishop of Nitra)
  • Domenico Raffaele Francesco Marengo, O.P. † (8 Mar 1904 Appointed - 25 Jul 1904 Succeeded, Archbishop of Izmir (Smirne))
  • Edward Joseph Hanna † (22 Oct 1912 Appointed - 1 Jun 1915 Appointed, Archbishop of San Francisco)
  • •Pierre Verdier † (22 Mar 1917 Appointed - 21 May 1924 Died)
  • •Joseph Alfred Langlois † (14 Jul 1924 Appointed - 10 Jul 1926 Appointed, Bishop of Valleyfield, Québec)
  • •Pedro Francisco Luna Pachón, O.F.M. † (17 Jul 1926 Appointed - 15 Mar 1967 Died)


  1. ^ a b c d Numismatic Chronicle, volume 1 (1839), pp. 213-217
  2. ^ Image of the coin
  3. ^ a b Simén Vailhé, "Titopolis" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1912)
  4. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 66, and directory notes accompanying.
  5. ^ Titiopolis Antique City
  6. ^ Handbook of the Geography and Statistics of the Church, Volume 1 (Bosworth & Harrison, 1859) p461.
  7. ^ Origines Ecclesiasticæ: The Antiquities of the Christian Church. With Two Sermons and Two Letters on the Nature and Necessity of Absolution, Volume 1 (H.G. Bohn, 1845) p404.
  8. ^ Joseph Bingham, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, 2 Volumes (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 10 Feb. 2006) 404.
  9. ^ John D. Beetham The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat. 1910.
  10. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Tomus II, coll. 1023-1024
  11. ^ Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1(university of Liverpool, 2005) p298.
  12. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 992
  13. ^ Karen Ascani, Gunver Skytte, Niccolo Stenone (1638-1686) Anatomista Geologo, Vescovo. Conf Proceedings Held 2000 Oct (L'erma di Bretschnedider, 2002)
  14. ^ Troels Kardel, Paul Maquet, Nicolaus Steno: Biography and Original Papers of a 17th Century Scientist (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012)

Coordinates: 36°05′38″N 32°48′39″E / 36.09401°N 32.81089°E

Apostolic Vicariate of El Beni

The Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of El Beni (or Beni for short) (Latin: Apostolicus Vicariatus Benensis) is an apostolic vicariate (missionary pre-dicoesean jurisdiction), hence exempt, i.e. not subject part of any ecclesiastical province. Its cathedral episcopal see 'Catedral de la Santísima Trinidad' (devoted to the Holy Trinity) is in the city of Trinidad in Bolivia's Amazonian interior.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Edward Joseph Hanna

Edward Joseph Hanna (July 21, 1860 – July 10, 1944) was an American clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of San Francisco from 1915 to 1935.

Graded bedding

In geology, a graded bed is one characterized by a systematic change in grain or clast size from one side of the bed to the other. Most commonly this takes the form of normal grading, with coarser sediments at the base, which grade upward into progressively finer ones. Normally graded beds generally represent depositional environments which decrease in transport energy (rate of flow) as time passes, but these beds can also form during rapid depositional events. They are perhaps best represented in turbidite strata, where they indicate a sudden strong current that deposits heavy, coarse sediments first, with finer ones following as the current weakens. They can also form in terrestrial stream deposits.

In reverse or inverse grading the bed coarsens upwards. This type of grading is relatively uncommon but is characteristic of sediments deposited by grain flow and debris flow. It is also observed in Aeolian processes. These deposition processes are examples of granular convection.

Isaurian Decapolis

The Isaurian Decapolis was a group of ten cities (Greek: Δεκάπολις) in ancient and medieval Isauria. According to the De Thematibus of the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, the Decapolis comprised the inland portions of Isauria, with the cities of Germanicopolis, Titiopolis, Dometiopolis, Zenopolis, Neapolis, Claudiopolis, Irenopolis, Diocaesarea, Lauzadus and Dalisandus.

Johann Wilhelm Baier

Johann Wilhelm Baier (11 November 1647 – 19 October 1695) was Lutheran theologian of the seventeenth century in the Lutheran scholastic tradition. He was born at Nuremberg, and died at Jena.

He studied philology, especially Oriental, and philosophy at Altdorf from 1664 to 1669, in which year he went to Jena and became a disciple of the celebrated Johannes Musäus, the representative of the middle party in the Syncretistic Controversy, whose daughter he married in 1674. Taking his doctor’s degree the same year, he became in 1675 professor of church history in the university, and lectured with great success on several different branches of theology.

In 1682 he was chosen to represent the Protestant side in the negotiations with the papal legate Nicolas Steno, bishop of Titiopolis, for reunion of the Churches. He was three times rector at Jena before he was called by the elector Frederick III, in 1694, as professor and provisional rector to the new university of Halle. Here his devotion to strict orthodoxy brought him into conflict with some of his colleagues, and the pietistic movement also gave him trouble, so that after a year he was glad to accept the combined positions of chief court preacher, superintendent, and pastor at Weimar — which, however, he held only a few months until his death. He left a name in the history of theology, especially by his dogmatic compendium, which still preserves the early Protestant traditions among High Lutherans, especially in America. The Jena theologians, and Johannes Musaeus in particular, had been asked by Ernest the Pious to draw up such a work, to take the place of the antiquated Hutter, and Musæus urged his son-in-law to do it. The first edition appeared in 1686, the second, enlarged, in 1691, and it has been frequently reprinted since. It was commended for general use as a textbook by its method, its conciseness, and its absence of mere polemics. It was obviously, however, intended by its author as a vindication of the Jena theology, which had been sharply attacked from Wittenberg, and lay under some suspicion of syncretism. Its dependence upon Musæus is really the distinguishing feature of the book, which is largely a compilation from him. Baier’s other works include polemical writings against Erbermann, a convert to Roman Catholicism and a Jesuit, and against the Quakers; and three other

compendiums, published after his death (1698), one of exegetical, and one of moral theology, as well as one of the history of dogma. His read significance lies in the fact that he handed on and popularized the theology of Musæus; and his work was continued by Buddeus, whom he left at Halle as professor of moral philosophy.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Nicolas Steno

Nicolas Steno (Danish: Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Steno or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 [NS: 11 January 1638 – 5 December 1686]) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology. The importance of Steno's foundational contributions to geology may be gauged from the fact that half of the twenty papers in a recent miscellany volume on The Revolution in Geology from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment focus on Steno, the "preeminent Baroque polymath and founder of modern geologic thought".Born to a Lutheran family, Steno converted to Catholicism in 1667. After his conversion, his interest for natural sciences rapidly waned giving way to his interest in theology. At the beginning of 1675, he decided to become a priest. Four months after, he was ordained in the Catholic clergy in Easter 1675. As a clergyman, he was later appointed Vicar Apostolic of Nordic Missions and Titular Bishop of Titopolis by Pope Innocent XI. Steno played an active role in the Counter-Reformation in Northern Germany. The canonization process for him was begun in 1938. Pope John Paul II beatified Steno in 1988.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.