Titan (mythology)

The Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, plural: Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, plural: Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) are a race of deities originally worshiped as part of Ancient Greek religion. They were often considered to be the second generation of divine beings, succeeding the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians, but also included certain descendants of the second generation. The Titans include the first twelve children of Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (Father Sky), who ruled during the legendary Golden Age, and also comprised the first pantheon of Greek deities.

Manual of mythology - Greek and Roman, Norse, and old German, Hindoo and Egyptian mythology (1875) (14596768039)
Rhea. Manual of mythology, 1875.

Etymology

Beekes connects the word "Titan" with τιτώ (a now-obscure word for "day").[1] Other scholars connect the word to the Greek verb τείνω ("teino", to stretch), through an epic variation τιταίνω and τίσις (titaino and tisis, "retribution" and "vengeance"). Hesiod appears to share that view when he narrates:

But their father, great Ouranos, called them Titans by surname, rebuking his sons, whom he had begotten himself; for he said they had "strained" (τιταίνοντας, titainontas) in their wickedness to perform a mighty deed, and at some later time there would be "vengeance" (τίσιν, tisin) for this.

— Hesiod, Theogony, 207–210.

Robert Graves suggested that Titans means 'lords'.[2]

Mythology

In Hesiod

Jacob Jordaens - La caída de los Gigantes, 1636-1638
"Fall of the Titans". Oil on canvas by Jacob Jordaens, 1638.

According to Greek mythology, the highest Titan, Kronos, overthrew his father Uranus. In turn, the Titans were overthrown by Kronus' children (Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hestia, Hera and Demeter), in an event known as the Titanomachy ("War of the Titans"). The Greeks may have borrowed this mytheme from the Ancient Near East.[3]

Greeks of the classical age knew several poems about the war between the Olympians and Titans. The dominant one, and the only one that has survived, was in the Theogony attributed to Hesiod. A lost epic, Titanomachia (attributed to the legendary blind Thracian bard Thamyris) was mentioned in passing in an essay On Music that was once attributed to Plutarch. The Titans also played a prominent role in the poems attributed to Orpheus. Although only scraps of the Orphic narratives survive, they show interesting differences with the Hesiodic tradition.

The classical Greek myths of the Titanomachy fall into a class of similar myths throughout Europe and the Near East concerning a war in heaven, where one generation or group of gods largely opposes the dominant one. Sometimes the elders are supplanted, and sometimes the rebels lose and are either cast out of power entirely or incorporated into the pantheon. Other examples might include the wars of the Æsir with the Vanir in Scandinavian mythology, the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish, the Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" narrative, the obscure generational conflict in Ugaritic fragments, Virabhadra's conquest of the early Vedic Gods, and the rebellion of Lucifer in Christianity. The Titanomachy lasted for ten years.[4] The Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus after the war had ended. Tartarus is said to be the deepest part of the Underworld and the place where the evilest beings are tortured for all eternity.

Hesiod's Genealogy

According to Hesiod, the first twelve Titans were the females Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, and Themis and the males Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius, and Iapetus. They begat more Titans: Hyperion's children Helios, Selene, and Eos; Coeus' children Leto and Asteria; Iapetus' sons Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius; Oceanus' daughter Metis; and Crius' sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses.

In Orphism

Rhea MKL1888
Rhea, a Titan daughter of the earth goddess Gaia, was both sister and wife to Kronos.

Surviving fragments of poetry ascribed to Orpheus preserve variations on the mythology of the Titans. In one such text, Zeus does not simply set upon his father violently. Instead, Rhea spreads out a banquet for Cronus so that he becomes drunk upon fermented honey. Rather than being consigned to Tartarus, Cronus is dragged – still drunk – to the cave of Nyx (Night), where he continues to dream throughout eternity.

Another myth concerning the Titans revolves around Dionysus. At some point in his reign, Zeus decides to give up the throne in favor of his infant son Dionysus, who, like the infant Zeus, is guarded by the Kouretes. The Titans decide to slay the child and claim the throne for themselves; they paint their faces white with gypsum, distract Dionysus with toys, then dismember him and boil and roast his limbs. Zeus, enraged, slays the Titans with his thunderbolt; Athena preserves the heart in a gypsum doll, out of which a new Dionysus is made. This story is told by the poets Callimachus and Nonnus, who call this Dionysus "Zagreus", and in a number of Orphic texts, which do not.

Creation of humans

Several sources from Late Antique concern the role of the Titans in the creation of the human race. The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus recounted in his commentary of Plato's Phaedo,[10] affirms that humanity sprang up out of the fatty smoke of the burning Titan corpses. Pindar, Plato, and Oppian refer offhandedly to the "Titanic nature" of humans. According to them, the body is the titanic part, while soul is the divine part of humans. Other early writers imply that humanity was born out of the malevolent blood shed by the Titans in their war against Zeus. Some scholars consider that Olympiodorus' report, the only surviving explicit expression of this mythic connection, embodied a tradition that dated to the Bronze Age, while Radcliffe Edmonds has suggested an element of innovative allegorized improvisation to suit Olympiodorus' purpose.[11]

Modern interpretations

Saturnus fig274
Cronus armed with sickle; after a carved gem (Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison, Galerie mythologique, 1811).

Some 19th- and 20th-century scholars, including Jane Ellen Harrison, have argued that an initiatory or shamanic ritual underlies the myth of the dismemberment and cannibalism of Dionysus by the Titans.[12] She also asserts that the word "Titan" comes from the Greek τίτανος, signifying white "earth, clay, or gypsum," and that the Titans were "white clay men", or men covered by white clay or gypsum dust in their rituals.[13] Martin Litchfield West also asserts this in relation to shamanistic initiatory rites of early Greek religious practices.[14]

In astronomy

The planet Saturn is named for the Roman equivalent of the Titan Cronus. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is named after the Titans generally, and the other moons of Saturn are named after individual titans, specifically Tethys, Phoebe, Rhea, Hyperion, and Iapetus. Astronomer William Henry Pickering claimed to discover another moon of Saturn which he named Themis, but this discovery was never confirmed, and the name Themis was given to an asteroid, 24 Themis. Asteroid 57 Mnemosyne was also named for a titan.

A proto-planet Theia is hypothesized to have been involved in a collision in the early solar system, forming the Earth's moon.

Notes

  1. ^ Beekes 2010 Etymological Dictionary of Greek, sv. τιτώ
  2. ^ Robert Graves. The Greek Myths, section 1 s.v. The Pelasgian Creation Myth
  3. ^ Burkert, pp. 94f, 125–27.
  4. ^ About.com's Ancient/Classical History section; Hesiod, Theogony, 617–643: "So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side..."
  5. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 132–138, 337–411, 453–520, 901–906, 915–920; Caldwell, pp. 8–11, tables 11–14.
  6. ^ Although usually the daughter of Hyperion and Theia, as in Hesiod, Theogony 371–374, in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes (4), 99–100, Selene is instead made the daughter of Pallas the son of Megamedes.
  7. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 507–511, Clymene, one of the Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, at Hesiod, Theogony 351, was the mother by Iapetus of Atlas, Menoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus, while according to Apollodorus, 1.2.3, another Oceanid, Asia was their mother by Iapetus.
  8. ^ According to Plato, Critias, 113d–114a, Atlas was the son of Poseidon and the mortal Cleito.
  9. ^ In Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 18, 211, 873 (Sommerstein, pp. 444–445 n. 2, 446–447 n. 24, 538–539 n. 113) Prometheus is made to be the son of Themis.
  10. ^ Olympiodorus, In Plat. Phaedr. I.3–6.
  11. ^ West; Albert Bernabé, "La toile de Pénélope: a-t-il existé un mythe orphique sur Dionysos et les Titans?", Revue de l'histoire des religions (2002:401–33), noted by Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, "A Curious concoction: tradition and innovation in Olympiodorus' creation of mankind".
  12. ^ Harrison, Jane Ellen (1908). Proleoromena to the Study of Greek Religion (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 490.
  13. ^ Harrison, Jane Ellen (1908). Proleoromena to the Study of Greek Religion (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 491ff.
  14. ^ West.

References

Anunnaki

The Anunnaki (also transcribed as Anunaki, Anunna, Ananaki, and other variations) are a group of deities that appear in the mythological traditions of the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians. Descriptions of how many Anunnaki there were and what role they fulfilled are inconsistent and often contradictory. In the earliest Sumerian writings about them, which come from the Post-Akkadian period, the Anunnaki are the most powerful deities in the pantheon, descendants of An, the god of the heavens, and their primary function is to decree the fates of humanity.

In Inanna's Descent into the Netherworld, the Anunnaki are portrayed as seven judges who sit before the throne of Ereshkigal in the Underworld. Later Akkadian texts, such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, follow this portrayal. During the Old Babylonian period, the Anunnaki were believed to be the chthonic deities of the Underworld, while the gods of the heavens were known as the Igigi. The ancient Hittites identified the Anunnaki as the oldest generation of gods, who had been overthrown and banished to the Underworld by the younger gods. The Anunnaki have featured prominently in works of modern pseudohistory, such as the books of Zecharia Sitchin, and in conspiracy theories, such as those of David Icke.

Bacab

Bacab (Mayan pronunciation: [ɓaˈkaɓ]) is the generic Yucatec Maya name for the four prehispanic aged deities of the interior of the earth and its water deposits. The Bacabs have more recent counterparts in the lecherous, drunken old thunder deities of the Gulf Coast regions. The Bacabs are also referred to as Pauahtuns.

Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Duraþrór

In Norse mythology, four stags or harts (male red deer) eat among the branches of the World Tree Yggdrasill. According to the Poetic Edda, the stags crane their necks upward to chomp at the branches. Their names are given as Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Duraþrór. An amount of speculation exists regarding the deer and their potential symbolic value.

Elder God

A race of Elder Gods overthrown by a present race of younger gods is a mythic theme in the Ancient Near East and in Indo-European mythologies of the Ancient Greeks, Ancient Germans and other early civilisations (see Titan (mythology), Titanomachy).

Other uses of this term include the following:

Elder God (Cthulhu Mythos), a type of fictional deity added to H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu mythos.

The Elder God, a video-game character in the Legacy of Kain series

Elder Gods (Marvel Comics), fictional gods in the Marvel Universe

Elder Gods (Mortal Kombat), fictional entities in the Mortal Kombat mythos

Elder Gods (Transformers), malevolent entities featured in some Transformers storylines.

Four Heavenly Kings

The Four Heavenly Kings are four Buddhist gods, which originates from the Indian version of Lokapalas, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world. In Chinese mythology, they are known collectively as the "Fēng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn" (simplified Chinese: 风调雨顺; traditional Chinese: 風調雨順; literally: 'Good climate') or "Sì Dà Tiānwáng" (Chinese: 四大天王; literally: 'Four Great Heavenly Kings'). In the ancient language Sanskrit they are called the "Chaturmahārāja" (चतुर्महाराज), or "Chaturmahārājikādeva": "Four Great Heavenly Kings". The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is a standard component of Chinese Buddhist temples.

Four sons of Horus

The four sons of Horus were a group of four gods in Egyptian religion, who were essentially the personifications of the four canopic jars, which accompanied mummified bodies. Since the heart was thought to embody the soul, it was left inside the body. The brain was thought only to be the origin of mucus, so it was reduced to liquid, removed with metal hooks, and discarded. This left the stomach (and small intestines), liver, large intestines, and lungs, which were removed, embalmed and stored, each organ in its own jar. There were times when embalmers deviated from this scheme: during the 21st Dynasty they embalmed and wrapped the viscera and returned them to the body, while the canopic jars remained empty symbols.The earliest reference to the sons of Horus the Elder is found in the Pyramid Texts where they are described as friends of the king, as they assist the king in his ascension to heaven in the eastern sky by means of ladders. Their association with Horus the Elder specifically goes back to the Old Kingdom when they were said not only to be his children but also his souls. As the king, or Pharaoh was seen as a manifestation of, or especially protected by, Horus, these parts of the deceased pharaoh, referred to as the Osiris, were seen as parts of Horus, or rather, his children.Isis was often seen as the mother of the four sons of Horus though in the details of the funerary ritual each son, and therefore each canopic jar, was protected by a particular goddess. Others say their mother was Serket, goddess of medicine and magic. Just as the sons of Horus protected the contents of a canopic jar, the king's organs, so they in turn were protected. As they were male in accordance with the principles of male/female duality their protectors were female.

Imsety: human form – direction South – protected the liver – protected by Isis.

Duamutef: jackal form – direction East – protected the stomach – protected by Neith.

Hapi: baboon form – direction North – protected the lungs – protected by Nephthys.

Qebehsenuef: hawk form – direction West – protected the intestines – protected by his mother Serket.The classic depiction of the four sons of Horus on Middle Kingdom coffins show Imsety and Duamutef on the eastern side of the coffin and Hapi and Qebehsenuef on the western side. The eastern side is decorated with a pair of eyes and the mummy was turned on its side to face the east and the rising sun; therefore, this side is sometimes referred to as the front. The sons of Horus also became associated with the cardinal compass points, so that Hapi was the north, Imsety the south, Duamutef the east and Qebehsenuef the west.Until the end of the 18th Dynasty the canopic jars had the head of the king, but later they were shown with animal heads.

List of Saint Seiya Episode.G characters

The Saint Seiya Episode.G manga features a large number of fictional characters, both created by its author, Megumu Okada, and by Masami Kurumada, author of the original Saint Seiya universe in which the story takes place. Episode.G acts as a prequel to Kurumada's work and it is set seven years before the events of the first manga, in a fictional universe where the Greek gods cyclically reincarnate into the world to wage war on each other for dominance. Okada takes characters who had played only a supporting role in the original series and puts them in the position of protagonists. The old main characters appear only briefly, in flashforwards of the future.

The protagonists of the story are the Gold Saints, an elite group of twelve warriors devoted to the goddess Athena, whose duty is to protect the Earth from evil and maintain peace and justice. Among them, Leo Aiolia plays the role of main character. The antagonists are the twelve Titans and the primordial god Pontos, a group of ancient gods who escaped from the prison of Tartarus, where they had been confined in since the mythological era. They seek to overthrow the Olympian gods and regain control of the Earth. The Titans are led by Kronos, father of the leader of the Olympian gods, Zeus, and are assisted by an army of Giants and other evil creatures.

Several merchandise items depicting the main characters of Episode.G have been released with the limited edition volumes. The sharp differences and similarities between Okada's characters and Kurumada's, however, have been a target of both criticism and praise among critics.

Nephilim

The Nephilim (Hebrew: נְפִילִים, nefilim) were the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Deluge, according to Genesis 6:1-4.

A similar or identical biblical Hebrew term, read as "Nephilim" by some scholars, or as the word "fallen" by others, appears in Ezekiel 32:27.

When people began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that they were fair; and they took wives for themselves of all that they chose. Then the Lord said, "My spirit shall not abide in mortals forever, for they are flesh; their days shall be one hundred twenty years." The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went in to the daughters of humans, who bore children to them. These were the heroes that were of old, warriors of renown.

The word is loosely translated as giants in some Bibles and left untranslated in others. The "sons of God" have been interpreted as fallen angels in some traditional Jewish explanations.

According to Numbers 13:33, they later inhabited Canaan at the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan.

The Lord said to Moses, "Send men to spy out the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites" ... So they went up and spied out the land ... And they told him: "... Yet the people who live in the land are strong, and the towns are fortified and very large; and besides, we saw the descendants of Anak there." ... So they brought to the Israelites an unfavorable report of the land that they had spied out, saying, "The land that we have gone through as spies is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people that we saw in it are of great size. There we saw the Nephilim (the Anakites come from the Nephilim); and to ourselves we seemed like grasshoppers, and so we seemed to them."

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism is the application of the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society. The term itself emerged in the 1880s, and it gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these ways of thinking. The majority of those who have been categorized as social Darwinists did not identify themselves by such a label.Scholars debate the extent to which the various social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues. His writings have passages that can be interpreted as opposing aggressive individualism, while other passages appear to promote it. Darwin's early evolutionary views and his opposition to slavery ran counter to many of the claims that social Darwinists would eventually make about the mental capabilities of the poor and colonial indigenes. After the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, one strand of Darwins' followers, led by Sir John Lubbock, argued that natural selection ceased to have any noticeable effect on humans once organised societies had been formed. But some scholars argue that Darwin's view gradually changed and came to incorporate views from other theorists such as Herbert Spencer. Spencer published his Lamarckian evolutionary ideas about society before Darwin first published his hypothesis in 1859, and both Spencer and Darwin promoted their own conceptions of moral values. Spencer supported laissez-faire capitalism on the basis of his Lamarckian belief that struggle for survival spurred self-improvement which could be inherited. An important proponent in Germany was Ernst Haeckel, who popularized Darwin's thought (and his personal interpretation of it) and used it as well to contribute to a new creed, the monist movement.

Titane

Titane may refer to

Titan (mythology)

Titani, an ancient city and a modern village in the Korinthia prefecture (in ancient Sicyon)

Titanium(IV) hydride, a chemical compound

Titanides

Titanides may refer to:

The sisters of the six Titan (mythology) (a race of powerful deities in Greek mythology) and many of their sons and daughters.

Titanide (Gaea trilogy) a fictional race of alien centaurs in John Varley's Gaea Trilogy

Titans of Myth

Titans of Myth may refer to:

Titan (mythology), one of a group of deities in ancient Greek mythology later overthrown by the Olympian gods

Titans of Myth (comics), DC Comics characters based on the mythological Titans

Titan Family Tree [5]
UranusGaiaPontus
OceanusTethysHyperionTheiaCriusEurybia
The RiversThe OceanidsHeliosSelene [6]EosAstraeusPallasPerses
CronusRheaCoeusPhoebe
HestiaHeraPoseidonZeusLetoAsteria
DemeterHadesApolloArtemisHecate
IapetusClymene (or Asia[7]Themis(Zeus)Mnemosyne
Atlas [8]MenoetiusPrometheus [9]EpimetheusThe HoraeThe Muses
Ancient Greek deities by affiliation
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