The Tisza Plate is a tectonic block, or microplate, in present-day Europe. The two major crustal blocks of the Pannonian Basin, Pelso and Tisza, underwent a complex process of rotation and extension of variable magnitude during the Cenozoic era. The northward push of the Adriatic Block initiated the eastward displacement and rotation of both the Alcapa (or Pelso) and Tisza blocks. The Zágráb-Hernád line is the former plate margin between the Pelso of African origin and the Tisza Plate of Eurasian origin.
The Adriatic or Apulian Plate is a small tectonic plate carrying primarily continental crust that broke away from the African plate along a large transform fault in the Cretaceous period. The name Adriatic Plate is usually used when referring to the northern part of the plate. This part of the plate was deformed during the Alpine orogeny, when the Adriatic/Apulian Plate collided with the Eurasian plate.
The Adriatic/Apulian Plate is thought to still move independently of the Eurasian Plate in NNE direction with a small component of counter-clockwise rotation. The fault zone that separates the two is the Periadriatic Seam that runs through the Alps. Studies indicate that in addition to deforming, the Eurasian continental crust has actually subducted to some extent below the Adriatic/Apulian Plate, an unusual circumstance in plate tectonics. Oceanic crust of the African Plate is also subducting under the Adriatic/Apulian Plate off the western and southern coasts of the Italian Peninsula, creating a berm of assorted debris which rises from the seafloor and continues onshore. This subduction is also responsible for the volcanics of southern Italy.
The eastern Italian Peninsula, the coastal part of Slovenia, Istria, Malta and the Adriatic Sea are on the Adriatic/Apulian Plate. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks deposited on the plate include the limestones that form the Southern Calcareous Alps.Aegean Sea Plate
The Aegean Sea Plate (also called the Hellenic Plate or Aegean Plate) is a small tectonic plate located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea under southern Greece and far western Turkey. Its southern edge is a subduction zone south of Crete, where the African Plate is being swept under the Aegean Sea Plate. To the north is the Eurasian Plate, which is a divergent boundary responsible for the formation of the Gulf of Corinth.Anatolian Plate
The Anatolian Plate or the Turkish Plate is a continental tectonic plate comprising most of the Anatolia (Asia Minor) peninsula (and the country of Turkey).
To the east, the East Anatolian Fault, a left lateral transform fault, forms a boundary with the Arabian Plate. To the south and southwest is a convergent boundary with the African Plate. This convergence manifests in compressive features within the oceanic crust beneath the Mediterranean as well as within the continental crust of Anatolia itself, and also by what are generally considered to be subduction zones along the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs.
The northern edge is a transform boundary with the Eurasian Plate, forming the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ).
Research indicates that the Anatolian Plate is rotating counterclockwise as it is being pushed west by the Arabian Plate, impeded from any northerly movement by the Eurasian Plate. In some references, the Anatolian Plate is referred to as a "block" of continental crust still coupled to the Eurasian Plate. But studies of the North Anatolian Fault indicate that Anatolia is de-coupled from the Eurasian Plate. It is now being squeezed by the Arabian Plate from the east and forced toward the west as the Eurasian Plate to its north is blocking motion in that direction. The African Plate is subducting beneath the Anatolian Plate along the Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs offshore in the Mediterranean Sea.Armorican terrane
The Armorican terrane, Armorican terrane assemblage, or simply Armorica, was a microcontinent or group of continental fragments that rifted away from Gondwana towards the end of the Silurian and collided with Laurussia towards the end of the Carboniferous during the Variscan orogeny. The name is taken from Armorica, the Gaulish name for a large part of northwestern France that includes Brittany, as this matches closely to the present location of the rock units that form the main part of this terrane.Baltic Plate
The Baltic Plate was an ancient tectonic plate that existed from the Cambrian Period to the Carboniferous Period. The Baltic Plate collided against Siberia, to form the Ural Mountains about 280 million years ago. The Baltic Plate, however, fused onto the Eurasian Plate when the Baltic Plate collided against Siberia when the Ural Mountains were completely formed. The Baltic Plate contained Baltica and the Baltic Shield which is now located in Norway, Sweden and Finland.Dnieper-Donets Rift
The Dnieper-Donets Rift or Pripyat-Dnieper-Donets Rift (also referred as a "paleorift" and "aulacogen") is an east-west running rift in the Sarmatian Craton that developed and was most active in the Paleozoic. The rift extends from the Caspian Depression in Russia to northern Ukraine passing by the Donbass region. The rift separates the Voronezh Massif in the north from the Ukrainian Shield in south.The Dnepr-Donets Paleorift was the site of Devonian magmatic activity that begun in Late Frasnian and peaked in the Famennian caused by a mantle plume. Extensional tectonics were also most active during the Famennian.There have been suggestions that the Dnepr-Donets Paleorift is related to the coeval Kola Alkaline Province.Ebro Basin
The Ebro Basin was a foreland basin that formed to the south of the Pyrenees during the Paleogene. It was also limited to the southeast by the Catalan Coastal Ranges. It began as a fully marine basin with connections to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, before becoming an endorheic basin during the Late Eocene. In the Miocene the basin was captured by a precursor to the Ebro river and the new drainage system that developed eroded away much of the basin fill, except for resistant lithologies, such as the conglomerates at Montserrat.Eurasian Plate
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia. It also includes oceanic crust extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and northward to the Gakkel Ridge.
The eastern side is a boundary with the North American Plate to the north and a boundary with the Philippine Sea Plate to the south and possibly with the Okhotsk Plate and the Amurian Plate. The southerly side is a boundary with the African Plate to the west, the Arabian Plate in the middle and the Indo-Australian Plate to the east. The westerly side is a divergent boundary with the North American Plate forming the northernmost part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is straddled by Iceland. All of the volcanic eruptions in Iceland, such as the 1973 eruption of Eldfell, the 1783 eruption of Laki, and the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, are caused by the North American and the Eurasian Plates moving apart, which is a result of divergent plate boundary forces.
The geodynamics of central Asia is dominated by the interaction between the Eurasian and Indian Plates. In this area, many subplates or crust blocks have been recognized, which form the Central Asian and the East Asian transit zones.Geology of Andorra
Andorra is located in the Axial Zone of the central Pyrenees mountain range in south western Europe, which means that it has intensely folded and thrusted rocks formed when the Iberian peninsula was rotated onto the European continent.Geology of Cyprus
The geology of Cyprus is part of the regional geology of Europe. Cyprus lies on the southern border of the Eurasian Plate and on the southern margin of the Anatolian Plate. The southern margin of the Anatolian Plate is in collision with the African Plate, which has created the uplift of the Cyprus arc and Cyprus itself.Geology of France
The regional geology of France is commonly divided into the Paris Basin, the Armorican Massif, the Massif Central, the Aquitaine Basin, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Côte languedocienne, the Sillon rhodanien, the Massif des Vosges, the Massif Ardennais, the Alsace graben (Rhine graben) and Flanders Basin.Geology of Guernsey
Guernsey has a geological history stretching further back into the past than most of Europe. The majority of rock exposures on the Island may be found along the coastlines, with inland exposures scarce and usually highly weathered. There is a broad geological division between the north and south of the Island. The Southern Metamorphic Complex is elevated above the geologically younger, lower lying Northern Igneous Complex. Guernsey has experienced a complex geological evolution (especially the rocks of the southern complex) with multiple phases of intrusion and deformation recognisable.Geology of Svalbard
The geology of Svalbard encompasses the geological description of rock types found in Svalbard, and the associated tectonics and sedimentological history of soils and rocks. The geological exploration of Svalbard is an ongoing activity, and recent understandings may differ from earlier interpretations.Gothian orogeny
The Gothian orogeny (Swedish: Gotiska orogenesen) or Kongsberg orogeny was an orogeny in western Fennoscandia that occurred between 1750 and 1500 million years ago. It precedes the younger Sveconorwegian orogeny that has overprinted much of it. The Gothian orogeny formed along a subduction zone and resulted in the formation of calc-alkaline igneous rocks 1700 to 1550 million years ago, including some of the younger members of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt.The deformation associated with the orogeny can be seen in metatonalite, paragneiss and biotite orthogneisses in southeast Norway. These rocks were all subject to amphibolite facies metamorphism.Hallandian-Danopolonian event
The Hallandian-Danopolonian event was an orogeny and thermal event that affected Baltica in the Mesoproterozoic. The event metamorphosed pre-existing rocks and generated magmas that crystallized into granite. The Hallandian-Danopolonian event has been suggested to be responsible for forming an east-west alignment of sedimentary basins hosting Jotnian sediments spanning from eastern Norway, to Lake Ladoga in Russia. The alignment of subsidence is thought to correspond to an ancient back-arc basin parallel to a subduction zone further south.Mezen Basin
The Mezen Basin is a sedimentary basin located in northwestern Russia. It list southeast of the White Sea and bounds the Timanide Orogen to the north and west. The basin is classified as a pericratonic and epicratonic foreland basin within the East European Craton. The Mezen Basin contains the following pre-Vendian sediments: the Ust-Nafta Group with a maximum thickness of 1200 meters, on top of this is rests the Safonovo Group made up of carbonates and siliciclastic sediments reminiscent of flysch. The Safonovo Group upward end is a unconformity that separates it from the poorly sorted sandstones of the Uftuga Formation.Pelso Plate
Pelso Plate or Pelsonia Terrane is a small tectonic unit. It is situated in the Pannonian Basin in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains and the basin surrounded by them were formed from the Cretaceous until the Miocene in the collision of continental Europe with smaller continental fragments of ALCAPA, Tisza, Pelso and Dacia microplates. The Zagreb-Hernád line is the former plate margin between the Pelso of African origin and the Tisza Plate of Eurasian origin.
The Pelso block is sometimes considered as southern portion of the ALCAPA and compared with internal zone of Western Carpathian Mts. which is called Internal Western Capathians. The typical feature of this zone is Dinaric - Apulian facies of Triassic rocks, while the whole Alcapa is in some papers considered as part of the Apulian plate. The Pelso sensu stricto is therefore composed of Tornaic, Bukkic and Silicic superunits, that evolved south of the Meliata-Halstatt Ocean and the superimposed Cenozoic sedimentary cover.Piemont-Liguria Ocean
The Piemont-Liguria basin or the Piemont-Liguria Ocean (sometimes only one of the two names is used, for example: Piemonte Ocean) was a former piece of oceanic crust that is seen as part of the Tethys Ocean. Together with some other oceanic basins that existed between the continents Europe and Africa, the Piemont-Liguria Ocean is called the Western or Alpine Tethys Ocean.Volgo–Uralia
Volgo–Uralia is a crustal segment that together with the Sarmatian Craton and the Fennoscandian Craton makes up the East European Craton. Volgo–Uralia is the easternmost of the three segments and borders the Sarmatian Craton to the southwest along the Pachelma aulacogen and the Fennoscandian Craton to the northwest along the Volhyn–Central Russian aulacogen.
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