Tipuloidea is a superfamily of flies containing the living families Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae and Tipulidae, and the extinct families Architipulidae and Eolimnobiidae.[1][2]

At least 15,300 species of crane flies have been described, most of them (75%) by the specialist Charles Paul Alexander.

Tipula paludosa
Tipula paludosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Infraorder: Tipulomorpha
Superfamily: Tipuloidea

See text


  1. ^ Petersen, M.J.; Bertone, M.A.; Wiegmann, B.M.; Courtney, G.W. 2010: Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher-level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera). Systematic entomology, 35: 526-545. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00524.x
  2. ^ Zhang, Xiao; Kang, Zehui; Mao, Meng; Li, Xuankun; Cameron, Stephen L.; de Jong, Herman; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding (2016). "Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha". PLOS ONE. 11 (6): e0158167. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158167. PMC 4920351.

Afrolimnophila is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae.


Antocha is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae. It was first described by Baron Carl Robert Osten-Sacken in 1860.


Brachypremna is a genus of true crane fly.

Crane fly

Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. Cylindrotominae, Limoniinae, and Pediciinae have been ranked as subfamilies of Tipulidae by most authors, though occasionally elevated to family rank. In the most recent classifications, only Pediciidae is now ranked as a separate family, due to considerations of paraphyly. In colloquial speech, crane flies are sometimes known as mosquito hawks or daddy longlegs, a term also used to describe opiliones or the family Pholcidae, both of which are arachnids. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.Crane flies are found worldwide, though individual species usually have limited ranges. They are most diverse in the tropics, and are also common in northern latitudes and high elevations.The Tipulidae is one of the largest groups of flies, including over 15,000 species and subspecies in 525 genera and subgenera. Most crane flies were described by the entomologist Charles Paul Alexander, a fly specialist, in over 1000 research publications.


Eriopterini is a tribe of limoniid crane flies in the family Limoniidae. There are more than 20 genera and 3,800 described species in Eriopterini.


Hexatomini is a tribe of limoniid crane flies in the family Limoniidae. There are about 16 genera and at least 250 described species in Hexatomini.


The Limnophilinae are a subfamily of tipulid crane flies. Some authors still use the name Hexatominae for this subfamily.

Limonia nubeculosa

Limonia nubeculosa, also known as the short-palped cranefly, is a species of crane flies in the family of Limoniidae.


The Limoniinae are a paraphyletic assemblage of genera within the crane flies, Tipulidae, although they can usually be distinguished by the way the wings are held at rest. Limoniines usually hold/fold the wings along the back of the body, whereas other tipulids usually hold them out at right angles. Members of the genus Chionea (snow flies) have no wings at all. Limoniines are also usually smaller than other tipulids, with some exceptions. Limoniinae are a very large assemblage with nearly 10500 described species in 133 genera, and were historically treated as a subfamily, but their classification is in flux; numerous authors recently treated the group at the rank of family, but subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that the remaining groups of tipulids render the group paraphyletic. These flies are found in damp places throughout the world, and many species form dense swarms in suitable habitats.


Neolimnophila is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae.


Neolimonia is a genus of crane fly in the family Limoniidae.


Paradelphomyia is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae.


Pedicia is a genus of hairy-eyed craneflies (family Pediciidae).


The Pediciidae or hairy-eyed craneflies are a family of flies closely related to true crane flies, with about 500 species worldwide.


The Pediciinae are a subfamily of flies in the family Pediciidae, closely related to Tipulidae (true craneflies). There are about 450 species worldwide.


Pilaria is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae.


Symplecta is a genus of crane fly in the family Limoniidae.


Tipula is a very large insect genus in the fly family Tipulidae. They are commonly known as crane flies or daddy longlegs. Worldwide there are well over a thousand species.

All species have very long, fragile legs. The male has a swollen tip to his abdomen, and the female has a pointed ovipositor which is used to push eggs into soil. The larvae of some species are root-feeding and may be called "leatherjackets".

Technical description: Discal cell present ; M3 arises from M4 ; all tibiae spurred Antennae with whorls of long hairs. Rs usually long ; Sc ends far from base of Rs ; cell 4 always petiolate ; body colour usually grey, brown or dull yellow, rarely black ; praescutal stripes

(when present) usually dull, rarely slightly shining


The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Extant Diptera families


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