Tindari (Sicilian: Lu Tìnnaru), anciently Tyndaris or Tyndarion (Greek: Τυνδαρίς, Strab.; Τυνδάριον, Ptol.) is a small town, former bishopric, frazione (suburb or municipal component) in the comune of Patti and Latin Catholic titular see, in the Metropolitan City of Messina in northeastern Sicily, between Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto and Cefalù.
View of Tindari
Shown within Sicily
|Periods||Archaic Greek to Byzantine period|
Tyndaris was situated on a bold and lofty hill standing out as a promontory into the spacious bay of the Tyrrhenian Sea bounded by the Punta di Milazzo on the east, and the Capo Calavà on the west, and according to the Itineraries was 36 miles from Messana (modern Messina). It was a Greek city, and one of the latest of all the cities in Sicily that could claim a purely Greek origin, having been founded by the elder Dionysius in 396 or 395 BC. The original settlers were the remains of the Messenian exiles, who had been driven from Naupactus, Zacynthus, and the Peloponnese by the Spartans after the close of the Peloponnesian War. These had at first been established by Dionysius at Messana, when he repeopled that city; but the Spartans having taken umbrage at this, he transferred them to the site of Tyndaris, which had previously been included in the territory of Abacaenum. The colonists themselves gave to their new city the name of Tyndaris, from their native divinities, the "Tyndaridae" or Dioscuri, and readily admitting fresh citizens from other quarters, soon raised their whole population to the number of 5000 citizens. The new city thus rose at once to be a place of considerable importance.
It is next mentioned in 344 BC, when it was one of the first cities that declared in favor of Timoleon after his landing in Sicily. At a later period we find it mentioned as espousing the cause of Hieron, and supporting him during his war against the Mamertines, 269 BC. On that occasion he rested his position upon Tyndaris on the left, and on Tauromenium (modern Taormina) on the right. Indeed, the strong position of Tyndaris made it an important strategic post on the Tyrrhenian sea, as Tauromenium was on the Sicilian sea, and hence we find it frequently mentioned in accounts of subsequent wars. In the First Punic War it was at first dependent upon Carthage; and though the citizens, alarmed at the progress of the Roman armies, were at one time on the point of turning to Rome, they were restrained by the Carthaginians, who carried off all the chief citizens as hostages. In 257 BC, the Battle of Tyndaris took place off the coast of Tyndaris, between the city and the Liparaean islands, in which a Roman fleet under Gaius Atilius Regulus obtained some advantage over the Carthaginian fleet, but without any decisive result. The Roman fleet is described on that occasion as touching at the promontory of Tyndaris, but the city had not yet fallen into their hands, and it was not until after the fall of Panormus (modern Palermo) in 254 BC that Tyndaris expelled the Carthaginian garrison and joined the Roman alliance.
We hear little of Tyndaris under Roman government, but it appears to have been a flourishing and considerable city. Cicero calls it nobilissima civitas and we learn from him that the inhabitants had displayed their zeal and fidelity towards the Romans upon many occasions. Among others they supplied naval forces for the armament of Scipio Africanus the Younger, a service for which he repaid them by restoring to them a statue of Mercury which had been carried off by the Carthaginians and which continued as an object of great veneration in the city, until it was stolen by the rapacious Verres. Tyndaris was also one of seventeen cities selected by the Roman senate, apparently as an honorary distinction, to contribute to certain offerings to the temple of Venus at Eryx. In other respects it had no peculiar privileges, and was in the condition of an ordinary municipal town, with its own magistrates, local senate, etc., but was certainly in the time of Cicero one of the most considerable places in the island. It, however, suffered severely from the exactions of Verres and the inhabitants, to revenge themselves on their oppressor, publicly demolished his statue as soon as he had quit the island.
Tyndaris again bore a considerable part in the war between Sextus Pompeius and Octavian (36 BC). It was one of the points occupied and fortified by the former, when preparing for the defence of the Sicilian straits, but was taken by Agrippa after his naval victory at Mylae, and became one of his chief posts, from which he carried on offensive warfare against Pompey. Subsequently, to this we hear nothing more of Tyndaris in history; but there is no doubt of its having continued to subsist throughout the period of the Roman Empire. Strabo speaks of it as one of the places on the north coast of Sicily which, in his time, still deserved the name of cities; and Pliny gives it the title of a Colonia. It is probable that it received a colony under Augustus, as we find it bearing in an inscription the titles of Colonia Augusta Tyndaritanorum. Pliny indeed mentions a great calamity which the city had sustained, when (he tells us) half of it was swallowed up by the sea, probably from an earthquake having caused the fall of part of the hill on which it stands, but we have no clue to the date of this event; The Itineraries attest the existence of Tyndaris, apparently still as a considerable place, in the fourth century.
The diocese was nominally restored in 1968 as Latin Titular bishopric of Tindari (Curiate Italian) / Tyndaris (Latin) / Tyndaritan(us) (Latin adjective)
By the 19th century, the site of Tyndaris was wholly deserted, but the name was retained by a church, which crowned the most elevated point of the hill on which the city formerly stood, and was still called the Madonna di Tindaro. It is c. 180 m above the sea-level, and forms a conspicuous landmark to sailors. Considerable ruins of the ancient city, are also visible. It occupied the whole plateau or summit of the hill, and the remains of the ancient walls may be traced, at intervals, all round the brow of the cliffs, except in one part, facing the sea, where the cliff is now quite precipitous. It is not improbable that it is here that a part of the cliff fell in, in the manner recorded by Pliny Two gates of the city are also still distinctly to be traced.
The chief monuments, of which the ruins are still extant within the circuit of the walls, are:
Numerous inscriptions, fragments of sculpture, and architectural decorations, as well as coins, vases etc. have also been discovered on the site.
Local legend tells that the lagoon was created after a pilgrim who came to see the Madonna refused to pray to the Madonna because she was black. The woman accidentally dropped her baby into the ocean and the Madonna made the land rise to save the baby. The sands of Marinello have taken shape of the profile of the Madonna.
Year 257 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Regulus and Blasio (or, less frequently, year 497 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 257 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.Abacaenum
Abacaenum (Ancient Greek: Ἀβάκαινον; Ἀβάκαινα) was an ancient city of Sicily, situated about 6.5 km from the north coast, between Tyndaris (modern Tindari) and Mylae (modern Milazzo), and 13 km from the former city.Andrea Camilleri
Andrea Calogero Camilleri (Italian pronunciation: [anˈdrɛːa kamilˈlɛːri]; born 6 September 1925) is an Italian writer.Argimusco
The Argimusco is a high plateau situated just North of Mount Etna in Sicily, southern Italy, between the Nebrodi and Peloritani Mountains. It lies within the boundaries of the communes of Montalbano Elicona, Tripi (which is built on the site of the ancient Abacaenum) and Roccella Valdemone. The site offers a wide panorama of the volcano Etna, the Aeolian Islands, the mountains Rocca Salvatesta and Montagna di Vernà, cape Tindari, cape Calavà and cape Milazzo.Autostrada A20 (Italy)
The Autostrada A20 is a toll motorway on the island of Sicily that links the city of Palermo to Messina. The motorway from Messina follows the Tyrrhenian coast for 181 km (112 mi) until it meets the A19 Palermo-Catania at Buonfornello. The motorway A20, at its eastern-end, is also connected to the A18 Messina-Catania.
It's a four lane motorway (two lanes for each direction) in its whole length. Consorzio per le Autostrade Siciliane is in charge of toll collection, management, and maintenance of the motorway.Battle of Tyndaris
The Battle of Tyndaris was a naval battle of the First Punic War that took place off Tyndaris (modern Tindari) in 257 BC. Tyndaris was a Sicilian town founded as a Greek colony in 396 BC located on the high ground overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea in the Gulf of Patti. Hiero II, the tyrant of Syracuse, allowed Tyndaris to become a base for the Carthaginians. The battle took place in the waters between Tyndaris and the Aeolian Islands, with Gaius Atilius Regulus in command of the Roman fleet. Subsequently, the town fell to Rome.Black Madonna
The term Black Madonna or Black Virgin refers to statues or paintings of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she, and often the infant Jesus, are depicted with black or dark skin.
The Black Madonna can be generally found in Catholic and Orthodox countries.
The statues or paintings are mostly wooden but occasionally stone, often painted and up to 75 cm (30 in) tall. They fall into two main groups: free-standing upright figures or seated figures on a throne. The pictures are usually icons which are Byzantine in style, often made in 13th- or 14th-century Italy. There are about 400–500 Black Madonnas in Europe, depending on how they are classified. There are at least 180 Vierges Noires in France, and there are hundreds of non-medieval copies as well. Some are in museums, but most are in churches or shrines and are venerated by devotees. A few are associated with miracles and attract substantial numbers of pilgrims.
Black Madonnas come in different forms, and the speculations behind the reason for the dark skin of each individual piece vary greatly and are not without controversy. Though some Madonnas were originally black or brown when they were made, others have simply turned darker due to factors like aging or candle smoke. Another cause for the dark-skinned depiction is due to pre-Christian deities being re-envisioned as the Madonna and child.Caronia
Caronia (Sicilian: Carunìa, Greek: Καλάκτα (Ptol.) or Καλὴ Ἀκτὴ (Diod. et al.), Latin: Calacte or Cale Acte) is a town and comune on the north coast of Sicily, in the province of Messina, about half way between Tyndaris (modern Tindari) and Cephaloedium (modern Cefalù). The town has 3,555 inhabitants.Excursion to Tindari
Excursion to Tindari (orig. Ital. La gita a Tindari) is a 2000 novel by Andrea Camilleri, translated into English in 2005 by Stephen Sartarelli. It is the fifth novel in the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series, and, upon publication in English, was shortlisted for the CWA Duncan Lawrie International Dagger for best translated crime novel of the year.
The story takes place between Vigata and picturesque Tindari, a promontory of historical and archaeological beauty, in search of the mysterious bond that has united in the same violent death three persons unrelated to each other. Thanks to his unique professional insight and perhaps even more to his feelings as a sensitive man, Montalbano successfully concludes the investigation, moving in between the boundaries set by the world of tradition and that of modernity. In his fifties, examining his life and a future that seems to be saturated with senseless technology and hopeless inhumanity, with corruption and globalisation rendering everything shapeless, Montalbano feels out of place and lonely. Beyond these considerations and uncertainties that increase the reality of the character, author Camilleri continues the "saga" of Inspector Montalbano, confirming the wisdom of his skillful narrative, which combines a charming language constantly reaching out to the Sicilian language (ably translated by Sartarelli), with the suspenseful plot and the vivid characters.Inspector Montalbano (TV series)
Inspector Montalbano (Italian: Il commissario Montalbano [il kommisˈsaːrjo montalˈbaːno]) is an Italian television series produced and broadcast by RAI since 1999, based on the detective novels of Andrea Camilleri. The protagonist is commissario (Commissioner) Salvo Montalbano, and the stories are set in the imaginary town of Vigàta, Sicily. In 2012 the series generated a prequel, The Young Montalbano.List of railway stations in Sicily
This is the list of the railway stations in Sicily owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.Metropolitan City of Messina
The Metropolitan City of Messina (Italian: Città metropolitana di Messina) is a metropolitan city in Sicily, Italy. Its capital is the city of Messina. It replaced the Province of Messina and comprises the city of Messina and other 107 municipalities (comuni). According to Eurostat the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina had in 2014 277,584 inhabitants.Oliveri
Oliveri (Sicilian: Uliveri) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 150 kilometres (93 mi) east of Palermo and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of Messina. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,076 and an area of 10.3 square kilometres (4.0 sq mi).Oliveri borders the following municipalities: Falcone, Montalbano Elicona, Patti.Patti, Sicily
Patti is a town and comune in northeastern Sicily, southern Italy, administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina, on the western shore of the gulf of the same name. It is located 76 kilometres (47 mi) from Messina.
It is connected to the rest of Sicily by train, via the Patti-San Piero Patti train station, located on the railway line Messina-Palermo, and the A20 Palermo-Messina highway. It is still known for the ruins of Tindari, famous for its ancient Greek theatre, and the Villa Romana.Pertemps Final
The Pertemps Final is a Grade Three National Hunt hurdle race in Great Britain which is open to horses aged five years or older. It is run on the New Course at Cheltenham over a distance of about 3 miles (2 miles 7 furlongs and 213 yards, or 4,785 metres), and during its running there are twelve hurdles to be jumped. It is a handicap race, and it is scheduled to take place each year during the Cheltenham Festival in March.Premio Bancarella
The Premio Bancarella is an Italian literary prize established in 1953; it is given in Pontremoli every year, the last Saturday or the last Sunday in July.
At first, six books are selected and award the Premio Selezione Bancarella, then the booksellers establish the winner with their vote. The awarding of the prize take place in the last evening.
At present, Premio Bancarella is at the 54th edition.Province of Messina
Messina (Italian: Provincia di Messina; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Missina) was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy. Its capital was the city of Messina. It was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Messina.Salvo Montalbano
Inspector Salvo Montalbano (Italian: commissario Salvo Montalbano) is a fictional detective created by Italian writer Andrea Camilleri in a series of novels and short stories.The Scent of the Night
The Scent of the Night (Italian: L'odore della notte) is a 2001 novel by Andrea Camilleri, translated into English in 2005 by Stephen Sartarelli. It is the sixth novel in the internationally popular Inspector Montalbano series.
Archaeological sites in Sicily
|Province of Agrigento|
|Province of Caltanissetta|
|Province of Catania|
|Province of Enna|
|Province of Messina|
|Province of Palermo|
|Province of Ragusa|
|Province of Syracuse|
|Province of Trapani|