Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7] founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture[2][8] and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

House of Timur
Khaanadaan-i-Temuriya
Timurid
Aal e Taimuriya
Timur reconstruction03
Parent houseBarlas
CountryTimurid Empire
Mughal Empire
Founded1370
FounderTamerlane
Current headYakub Habibuddin Tucy Taimuri
Final rulerBahadur Shah II
Titles
ReligionSunni Islam
Sufi Islam
Din i Ilahi
DepositionTimurid Empire
1507
Mughal Empire
1857

Origins

The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongol tribe known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan,[2][9][10] founder of the Mongol Empire. After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia, the Barlas settled in what is today southern Kazakhstan, from Shymkent to Taraz and Almaty, which then came to be known for a time as Moghulistan – "Land of Mongols" in Persian [reference needed] – and intermingled to a considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the Barlas had become thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits.

Additionally, by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and Mongols adopted the Persian literary and high culture[11] which had dominated Central Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.[12]

List of Rulers

Timurid Empire

Titular name Personal name Reign
Timur ruled over the Chagatai Khanate with Soyurghatmïsh Khan as nominal Khan followed by Sultan Mahmud Khan. He himself adopted the Muslim Arabic title of Amir. In essence the Khanate was finished and the Timurid Empire was firmly established.
Amir
امیر
Timur Lang
تیمور لنگ
Timur Beg Gurkani
تیمور بیگ گورکانی
1370–1405
Amir
امیر
Pir Muhammad bin Jahangir Mirza
پیر محمد بن جہانگیر میرزا
1405–1407
Amir
امیر
Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah
خلیل سلطان بن میران شاہ
1405–1409
Amir
امیر
Shahrukh Mirza
شاھرخ میرزا
1405–1447
Amir
امیر
Ulugh Beg
الغ بیگ
Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay
میرزا محمد طارق
1447–1449
Division of Timurid Empire
Transoxiana Khurasan/Herat/Fars/Iraq-e-Ajam
Abdal-Latif Mirza
میرزا عبداللطیف
Padarkush
(Father Killer)
1449–1450
Abdallah Mirza
میرزا عبد اللہ
1450–1451
Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor
میرزا ابوالقاسم بابر بن بایسنقر
1451–1457
Mirza Shah Mahmud
میرزا شاہ محمود
1457
Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah
ابراھیم میرزا
1457–1459
Abu Sa'id Mirza
ابو سعید میرزا
(Although Abu Sa'id Mirza re-united most of the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of Uzbek Chief, Abul-Khayr Khan (grandfather of Muhammad Shayabani Khan), he agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turkomen under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turkomen under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id. After Abu Sa'id's death another era of fragmentation follows.)
1451–1469
**Transoxiana is divided Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1469 1st reign
Yadgar Muhammad Mirza
میرزا یادگار محمد
1470 (6 weeks)
Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1470–1506 2nd reign
  • Badi' al-Zaman Mirza
    بدیع الزمان میرزا
    1506–1507
  • Muzaffar Husayn Mirza
    مظفر حسین میرزا
    1506–1507
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek Conquer Herat
Samarkand Bukhara Hissar Farghana Balkh Kabul
Sultan Ahmad Mirza
سلطان احمد میرزا
1469–1494
Umar Shaikh Mirza II
عمر شیخ میرزا ثانی
1469–1494
Sultan Mahmud Mirza
سلطان محمود میرزا
1469–1495
Ulugh Beg Mirza II
میرزا الغ بیگ
1469 – 1502
Sultan Baysonqor Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
بایسنقر میرزا بن محمود میرزا
1495–1497
Sultan Ali bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان علی بن محمود میرزا
1495–1500
Sultan Masud Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان مسعود بن محمود میرزا
1495 – ?
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1494–1497
Khusroe Shah خسرو شاہ
(Usurper)
? – 1503
Mukim Beg Arghun مقیم ارغون
(Usurper)
? – 1504
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1500–1501
Jahangir Mirza II
جہانگیر میرزا
(puppet of Sultan Ahmed Tambol)
1497 – ?
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1503–1504
Uzbeks under Muhammad Shayabak Khan Uzbek
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1503–1504
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1504–1511
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
(Never till his conquest of India were the dominions of Babur as extensive as at this period. Like his grandfather Abu Sa'id Mirza, he managed to re-unite the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of Shah of Iran, Ismail I. His dominions stretched from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the farthest limits of Ghazni and comprehended Kabul and Ghazni;Kunduz and Hissar; Samarkand and Bukhara; Farghana; Tashkent and Seiram)
1511–1512
Uzbeks under Ubaydullah Sultan عبید اللہ سلطان re-conquer Transoxiana and Balkh
1512
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1512–1530
Timurid Empire in Central Asia becomes extinct under the Khanate of Bukhara of the Uzbeks. However, Timurid dynasty moves on to conquer India under the leadership of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur in 1526 C.E. and established the Timurid dynasty of India.

Mughal Empire

Emperor Birth Reign Period Death Notes
Babur 23 February 1483 1526–1530 26 December 1530 Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother and was descendant of Timur through his father. Founded the Mughal Empire after his victories at the First Battle of Panipat and the Battle of Khanwa.
Humayun 6 March 1508 1530–1540 Jan 1556 Reign interrupted by Sur Empire. Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah Suri 1472 1540–1545 May 1545 Deposed Humayun and led the Sur Empire.
Islam Shah Suri c. 1500 1545–1554 1554 Second and last ruler of the Sur Empire, claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun's restoration.
Humayun 6 March 1508 1555–1556 Jan 1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530–1540; left unified empire for his son, Akbar.
Akbar 15 October 1542 1556–1605 27 October 1605 He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore; He greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Empire as he set up the empire's various institutions; he married Mariam-uz-Zamani, a Rajput princess. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort and Agra Fort.[13]
Jahangir October 1569 1605–1627 1627 Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the British East India Company. He conquered the Himalayan range from Kashmir to Nepal.
Shah Jahan 5 January 1592 1627–1658 1666 Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb 21 October 1618 1658–1707 3 March 1707 He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri; he captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda; he spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels; at its zenith, his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by Mansabdars, and faced challenges after his death. He is known to have transcribed copies of the Qur'an using his own styles of calligraphy. He died during a campaign against the ravaging Marathas in the Deccan.
Bahadur Shah I 14 October 1643 1707–1712 Feb 1712 First of the Mughal emperors to preside over an empire ravaged by uncontrollable revolts. After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors.
Jahandar Shah 1664 1712–1713 February 1713 The son of Bahadur Shah I, he was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead; he attained the throne after his father's death by his victory in battle over his brother, who was killed.
Furrukhsiyar 1683 1713–1719 1719 His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebellious Banda. In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights in Bengal. The Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan the Mughal appointed ruler of Bengal.
Rafi Ul-Darjat Unknown 1719 1719  
Rafi Ud-Daulat Unknown 1719 1719  
Nikusiyar Unknown 1719 1743  
Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744  
Muhammad Shah 1702 1719–1720, 1720–1748 1748 Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Tried to counter the emergence of the Marathas but his empire disintegrated. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.[14]
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1725 1748–54 1775
Alamgir II 1699 1754–1759 1759 He was murdered according by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau.
Shah Jahan III Unknown In 1759 1772 Was ordained to the imperial throne as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars.[15][16]
Shah Alam II 1728 1759–1806 1806 He was proclaimed as Mughal Emperor by the Marathas.[15] Later, he was again recognised as the Mughal Emperor by Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.[17] 1764 saw the defeat of the combined forces of Mughal Emperor, Nawab of Oudh and Nawab of Bengal and Bihar at the hand of East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Following this defeat, Shah Alam II left Delhi for Allahabad, ending hostilities with the Treaty of Allahabad (1765). Shah Alam II was reinstated to the throne of Delhi in 1772 by Mahadaji Shinde under the protection of the Marathas.[18] He was a de jure emperor. During his reign in 1793 British East India company abolished Nizamat (Mughal suzerainty) and took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal marking the beginning of British reign in parts of Eastern India officially.
Akbar Shah II 1760 1806–1837 1837 He became a British pensioner after the defeat of the Marathas in the third Anglo-Maratha war who were until then the protector of the Mughal throne. Under the East India company's protection, his imperial name was removed from official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company.
Bahadur Shah II 1775 1837–1857 1862 The last Mughal emperor was deposed in 1858 by the British East India company and exiled to Burma following the War of 1857 after the fall of Delhi to the company troops. His death marks the end of the Mughal dynasty but not of the family.

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ Maria E. Subtelny, Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Persia, Vol. 7, (Brill, 2007), 201.
  2. ^ a b c B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation: "Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia. ... Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture.")
  4. ^ "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). New York City: Columbia University. Archived from the original on 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article: "Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids", Online Edition, 2007.
  6. ^ A History of the Muslim World Since 1260: The Making of a Global Community, by Vernon Egger, p. 193
  7. ^ "The Man Behind the Mosque"
  8. ^ Maria Subtelny, Timurids in Transition, p. 40: "Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Persian Mongol supporters became acculturate by the surrounding Persianate millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian culture, painting, architecture and music." p. 41: "The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who develoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate court culture."
  9. ^ "Timur", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05 Columbia University Press, (LINK)
  10. ^ "Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids", in Encyclopædia Britannica, (LINK)
  11. ^ B. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006/7, (LINK): "... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..."
  12. ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama
  13. ^ Klingelhofer, William G. (1988). "The Jahangiri Mahal of the Agra Fort: Expression and Experience in Early Mughal Architecture". Muqarnas. 5: 153–169. doi:10.2307/1523115. ISSN 0732-2992. JSTOR 1523115.
  14. ^ S. N. Sen (2006). History Modern India. New Age International. pp. 11–13, 41–43. ISBN 978-81-224-1774-6.
  15. ^ a b Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, p. 140
  16. ^ S.R. Sharma (1999). Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material. 3. p. 765. ISBN 9788171568192.
  17. ^ S.R. Sharma (1999). Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material. 3. p. 767. ISBN 9788171568192.
  18. ^ N. G. Rathod, The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia, (Sarup & Sons, 1994), 8:[1]

Further reading

External links

Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī

Kamal-ud-Din Abd-ur-Razzaq ibn Ishaq Samarqandi (Persian: کمال‌الدین عبدالرزاق بن اسحاق سمرقندی‎, 1413–1482), was a Persian Timurid chronicler and Islamic scholar. He was for a while the ambassador of Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia. In his role as ambassador he visited Calicut in western India in the early 1440s. He wrote a narrative of what he saw in Calicut which is valuable as information on Calicut's society and culture. He is also the producer of a lengthy narrative or chronicle of the history of the Timurid dynasty and its predecessors in Central Asia, but this is not so valuable because it is mostly a compilation of material from earlier written sources that are mostly available from elsewhere in the earlier form.

Abu Sa'id Mirza

Mirza Abū Saʿīd Baig Mohammed Khan or Abū Saʿīd Mirza (Chagatay/Persian: ابو سعید میرزا‎) was an important member of the Timurid dynasty. He was the ruler of a large area in Transoxiana, Khurasan and the southern Caspian region. However, his greater claim to fame lies in his bloodline and subsequent lineage: Abu Sa'id Mirza was a male-line great-grandson of Timur the Lame, and he was the paternal grandfather of Babur, who would found the Mughal empire of India.

Banna'i

In Iranian architecture, banna'i (Persian: بنائی‎, "builder's technique" in Persian) is an architectural decorative art in which glazed tiles are alternated with plain bricks to create geometric patterns over the surface of a wall or to spell out sacred names or pious phrases. This technique originated in Syria and Iraq in the 8th century, and matured in the Seljuq and Timurid era, as it spread to Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia.

If the brickwork design is in relief then it is referred to as hazarbaf (Persian: هزارباف‎, compound of hazar "thousand" and baf "weavings", referring to the woven appearance of the bricks).

Chagatai language

Chagatai (جغتای Jağatāy) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century. Chagatai is the common predecessor of Uzbek and Uyghur. It was also spoken by the early Mughal rulers in the Indian subcontinent, where it influenced the development of Hindustani. Ali-Shir Nava'i was the greatest representative of Chagatai literature.

As part of the preparation for the 1924 establishment of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, Chagatai was officially renamed "Old Uzbek", which Edward A. Allworth argued "badly distorted the literary history of the region" and was used to give authors such as the 15th-century author Ali-Shir Nava'i an Uzbek identity. It was also referred to as "Sart". In China it is sometimes called "ancient Uyghur".

Goharshad Mosque

Goharshad Mosque (Persian: مسجد گوهرشاد‎) is a former free standing mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, which now serves as one of the prayer halls within the Imam Reza shrine complex.

Gur-e-Amir

The Gūr-i Amīr or Guri Amir (Uzbek: Amir Temur maqbarasi, Go'ri Amir, Persian: گورِ امیر‎), is a mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur (also known as Tamerlane) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. It occupies an important place in the history of Persian-Mongolian Architecture as the precursor and model for later great Mughal architecture tombs, including Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Humayun's Tomb in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Timur's Persianised descendants, the ruling Mughal dynasty of Indian Subcontinent. It has been heavily restored.

Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah

Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah (died c. 1459) was a Timurid ruler of Herat in the fifteenth century. He was the son of Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, a great-grandson of Timur.

Ibrahim came to power in Herat in the aftermath of the death of Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor. Babur's son Mirza Shah Mahmud had succeeded him but, as he was still a boy, his hold on power was weak. Ibrahim overthrew Shah Mahmud weeks after Babur's death and therefore became the ruler of Khurasan.

In July 1457, however, the Timurid ruler of Transoxiana, Abu Sa'id Mirza, invaded. Abu Sa'id occupied Balkh but was unable to conquer Herat. Ibrahim's troubles were increased when Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep Turkmen invaded as well. After occupying Gurgan, he defeated Ibrahim outside Astarabad. Ibrahim's father Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor met up with him in Herat to offer assistance, but in the end they both fled from the region. Jahan Shah entered Herat on June 28, 1458 but soon withdrew. But Ibrahim was not able to recover his realm; Khurasan instead fell to Abu Sa'id Mirza.

Shortly after, Ibrahim and Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor formed an alliance with Sultan Sanjar Mirza (a grandson of Timur's son 'Umar Shaikh) against Abu Sa'id Mirza. The opposing forces met during the Battle of Sarakhs in March 1459, where Abu Sa'id defeated them. Ibrahim and his father fled, while Sultan Sanjar Mirza was executed. Ibrahim died only a few months later; his father died the following year.

Khalil Sultan

Khalil Sultan (Chagatai/Persian: خلیل سلطان‎) was the Timurid ruler of Transoxiana from 18 February 1405 to 1409. He was a son of Miran Shah and a grandson of Timur.

Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine

The Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine, also known as Gazar Gah, is a funerary compound (hazira) in Herat, Afghanistan, that houses the tomb of the Sufi mystic and saint Khwajah Abdullah Ansari, also known as the guardian pir (wise man) of Herat.

After his death in 1098, his tomb became a major Sunni pilgrimage center. Rebuilding of the shrine was commissioned by the Timurid ruler Shah Rukh in 1425-27.The shrine was built in a typical Timurid style. There have been several renovations, but during the Soviet invasion it fell into a bad state and has since deteriorated. The Aga Khan Trust for Culture has supported repairs to the shrine in recent years, under its Historic Cities Programme.

Miran Shah

Mirza Jalal-ud-din Miran Shah Beg (1366 – 16? April 1408) (Persian: میران شاہ‎) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his father's lifetime.

Mirza Shah Mahmud

Mirza Shah Mahmud (born c. 1446) was briefly a Timurid ruler of Herat. He was the son of Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor, who was a great-grandson of Timur. Shah Mahmud succeeded his father upon his death in 1457 at the age of eleven. Only a few weeks later, his cousin Ibrahim, a son of Ala-ud-Daulah Mirza bin Baysonqor, expelled him from Herat. Shah Mahmud failed to distinguish himself in the following years, and died sometime in the 1460s.

Mughal-Mongol genealogy

The rulers of the Mughal Empire shared certain genealogical relations with the Mongol royals. As they emerged in a time when this distinction had become less common, the Mughals identification as such has stuck and they have become known as one of the last Mongol successor states. As descendants of Timur, they are also members of the Timurid Dynasty, and therefore were connected to other royal families in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Far East.

Timur was directly descended from Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan.

{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | MJG | | MJS | | BAH | |MSM| | | | | | | | | |BAH=Mirza Dara Bakht|MJG=Mirza Fakhru|MJS=Mirza Mughal|MSM=[troy is the best

Muhammad Azam Shah

Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam (28 June 1653 – 8 June 1707), commonly known as Azam Shah ("King Azam"), was a titular Mughal emperor, who reigned from 14 March 1707 to 8 June 1707. He was the eldest son of the sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (also known as Alamgir) and his chief consort Dilras Banu Begum.

Azam was appointed as the heir-apparent (Shahi Ali Jah) to his father on 12 August 1681. He served as the Viceroy of Berar Subah, Malwa, Bengal, Gujarat, Deccan, etc. He ascended the Mughal throne in Ahmednagar upon the death of his father on 14 March 1707. However, Azam Shah and his three sons, Sultan Bidar Bakht, Shahzada Jawan Bakht Bahadur and Shahzada Sikandar Shan Bahadur, were later defeated and killed by Azam Shah's older half-brother, Prince Shah Alam (later crowned as Bahadur Shah I), during the Battle of Jajau on 8 June 1707.

Murad Bakhsh

Muhammad Murad Bakhsh (Urdu: مُحمّد مُراد بخش ‬‎),

(9 October 1624 – 14 December 1661) was a Mughal prince as the youngest son of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal. He was the Subedar of Balkh until he was replaced by his elder brother Aurangzeb in the year 1647.

Registan

The Registan was the heart of the ancient city of Samarkand of the Timurid dynasty, now in Uzbekistan. The name Rēgistan (ریگستان) means "Sandy place" or "desert" in Persian.

The Registan was a public square, where people gathered to hear royal proclamations, heralded by blasts on enormous copper pipes called dzharchis - and a place of public executions. It is framed by three madrasahs (Islamic schools) of distinctive Islamic architecture.

Shah Rukh

Shāh Rukh (Persian: شاهرخ‎ Šāhrokh) (August 20, 1377 – March 13, 1447) was the Timurid ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by his father, Central Asian conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) who founded the Timurid dynasty, governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447. Shāh Rukh was the fourth and youngest son of Timur.

In Persia and Transoxiana Shāhrukh was able to secure effective control from about 1409. His empire controlled the main trade routes between East and West, including the legendary Silk Road, and became immensely wealthy as a result.

The devastation of main cities led to the cultural centre of the empire shifting to Samarqand in modern Uzbekistan and Herat in modern Afghanistan. Shāhrukh chose to have his capital not in Samarqand, but in Herat. This was to become the political centre of the Timurid empire, and residence of his principal successors, though both cities benefited from the wealth and privilege of Shāhrukh's court, which was a great patron of the arts and sciences.

Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor

Sultan Muhammad (died c. 1451) was the Timurid ruler of Persia and Fars from around 1447 until his death. He was the son of Baysonqor son of Shahrukh Mirza.

During the last years of Shahrukh's reign, Sultan Muhammad raised a revolt in the western provinces of the Timurid Empire. Shahrukh was able to stop the revolt and capture many of its supporters in 1446, but Sultan Muhammad took refuge in Luristan. After Shahrukh's death, Sultan Muhammad returned from Luristan and from there assumed control of central Persia. Together with his half-brother Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor of Khurasan and uncle Ulugh Beg of Transoxiana, he became one of the three most powerful rulers of the splintering empire.

Sultan Muhammad, eager to expand his domain, soon started a war with Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur and invaded Khurasan. At first the campaign went well; in 1450 he defeated Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur at Mashhad, following which the latter yielded some of his lands to him. Things soon turned south, however, and he was captured by Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur, who had him executed. Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor then took over Sultan Muhammad's territories, but soon lost them to the Qara Qoyunlu Turkmen under Jahan Shah.His son was Yadgar Muhammad Mirza, who would become ruler of Khorasan for 6 weeks.

Timurid family tree

The family tree of the Timurid dynasty, the ruling family of the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, is listed below.

After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1507, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 in South Asia by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty (see Mughal emperors). By the 17th century the Mughal Empire ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, but declined during the 18th century. The Timurid dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire, and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma.

Topkapı Scroll

The Topkapı Scroll (Turkish: Topkapı Parşömeni) is a Timurid dynasty pattern scroll in the collection of the Topkapı Palace museum.

The scroll is a valuable source of information, consisting of 114 patterns that may have been used both indirectly and directly by architects to create the tiling patterns in many mosques around the world, including the quasicrystal Girih tilings from Darb-e Imam.

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