Sir William Timothy Gowers, FRS (/ˈɡaʊ.ərz/; born 20 November 1963)^{[1]} is a British mathematician. He is a Royal Society Research Professor at the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at the University of Cambridge, where he also holds the Rouse Ball chair, and is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1998, he received the Fields Medal for research connecting the fields of functional analysis and combinatorics.^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}
Sir Timothy Gowers  

Gowers in 2012  
Born  William Timothy Gowers 20 November 1963 ^{[1]} Wiltshire, England, UK 
Citizenship  British 
Education  King's College School, Cambridge Eton College 
Alma mater  University of Cambridge (BA, PhD) 
Known for  Functional analysis, combinatorics 
Awards 

Scientific career  
Institutions  University of Cambridge University College London 
Thesis  Symmetric Structures in Banach Spaces (1990) 
Doctoral advisor  Béla Bollobás^{[3]} 
Doctoral students  David Conlon Ben Green Tom Sanders^{[3]} 
Website  gowers www 
Gowers attended King's College School, Cambridge, as a choirboy in the King's College choir, and then Eton College^{[1]} as a King's Scholar. He completed his PhD, with a dissertation on Symmetric Structures in Banach Spaces^{[6]} at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1990, supervised by Béla Bollobás.^{[6]}^{[3]} In 1981 Gowers won the gold medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad^{[7]}
After his PhD, Gowers was elected to a Junior Research Fellowship at Trinity College. From 1991 until his return to Cambridge in 1995 he was lecturer at University College London. He was elected to the Rouse Ball Professorship at Cambridge in 1998. During 2000–2 he was visiting professor at Princeton University.
Gowers initially worked on Banach spaces. He used combinatorial tools in proving several of Stefan Banach's conjectures in the subject, in particular constructing a Banach space with almost no symmetry, serving as a counterexample to several other conjectures.^{[8]} With Bernard Maurey he resolved the "unconditional basic sequence problem" in 1992, showing that not every infinitedimensional Banach space has an infinitedimensional subspace that admits an unconditional Schauder basis.^{[9]}
After this, Gowers turned to combinatorics and combinatorial number theory. In 1997 he proved^{[10]} that the Szemerédi regularity lemma necessarily comes with towertype bounds.
In 1998 he proved^{[11]} the first effective bounds for Szemerédi's theorem, showing that any subset free of kterm arithmetic progressions has cardinality for an appropriate . One of the ingredients in Gowers's argument is a tool now known as the Balog–Szemerédi–Gowers theorem, which has found many further applications. He also introduced the Gowers norms, a tool in arithmetic combinatorics, and provided the basic techniques for analysing them. This work was further developed by Ben Green and Terence Tao, leading to the Green–Tao theorem.
In 2003, Gowers established a regularity lemma for hypergraphs,^{[12]} analogous to the Szemerédi regularity lemma for graphs.
In 2005, he introduced^{[13]} the notion of a quasirandom group.
More recently Gowers has worked on Ramsey theory in random graphs and random sets with David Conlon, and has turned his attention^{[14]} to other problems such as the P versus NP problem. He has also developed an interest, in joint work with Mohan Ganesalingam,^{[15]} in automated problem solving.
Gowers has an Erdős number of three.^{[16]}
Gowers has written several works popularising mathematics, including Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction (2002),^{[17]} which describes modern mathematical research for the general reader. He was consulted about the 2005 film Proof, starring Gwyneth Paltrow and Anthony Hopkins. He edited The Princeton Companion to Mathematics (2008), which traces the development of various branches and concepts of modern mathematics. For his work on this book, he won the 2011 Euler Book Prize of the Mathematical Association of America.^{[18]}
After asking on his blog whether "massively collaborative mathematics" was possible,^{[19]} he solicited comments on his blog from people who wanted to try to solve mathematical problems collaboratively.^{[20]} The first problem in what is called the Polymath Project, Polymath1, was to find a new combinatorial proof to the density version of the Hales–Jewett theorem. After 7 weeks, Gowers wrote on his blog that the problem was "probably solved".^{[21]}
In 2009, with Olof Sisask and Alex Frolkin, he invited people to post comments to his blog to contribute to a collection of methods of mathematical problem solving.^{[22]} Contributors to this Wikipediastyle project, called Tricki.org, include Terence Tao and Ben Green.^{[23]}
In 2012, Gowers posted to his blog to call for a boycott of the publishing house Elsevier.^{[24]}^{[2]} A petition ensued, branded the Cost of Knowledge project, in which researchers commit to stop supporting Elsevier journals. Commenting on the petition in The Guardian, Alok Jha credited Gowers with starting an Academic Spring.^{[25]}^{[26]}^{[27]}
In 2016, Gowers started Discrete Analysis to demonstrate that a highquality mathematics journal could be inexpensively produced outside of the traditional academic publishing industry.^{[28]}
In 1996 he received the Prize of the European Mathematical Society, and in 1998 the Fields Medal for research on functional analysis and combinatorics. In 1999 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 2012 was knighted by the British monarch for services to mathematics.^{[30]}^{[31]} He also sits on the selection committee for the Mathematics award, given under the auspices of the Shaw Prize. He was listed in Nature's 10 people who mattered in 2012.^{[2]}
Gowers's father was Patrick Gowers, a composer; his greatgrandfather was Sir Ernest Gowers, a British civil servant who was best known for guides to English usage; and his greatgreatgrandfather was Sir William Gowers, a neurologist. He has five children^{[32]} and plays jazz piano.^{[1]}
In November 2012, Gowers opted to undergo catheter ablation to treat a sporadic atrial fibrillation, after performing a mathematical risk–benefit analysis to decide whether to have the treatment.^{[33]}
Bernard Maurey (born 1948) is a French mathematician who deals with functional analysis and especially the theory of Banach spaces.
He received in 1973 his Ph.D. from the University Paris VII (Denis Diderot) under Laurent Schwartz with thesis Théorèmes de factorisation pour les opérateurs linéaires à valeurs dans les espaces Lp. Maurey is a professor at the University of Paris VII and a member of the CNRS's Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Mathématiques Appliquées of the University of MarnelaVallée. He was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1974 in Vancouver.
He introduced stable Banach spaces in 1981 with JeanLouis Krivine. In 1992, with Timothy Gowers, Maurey resolved the "unconditional basic sequence problem" in the theory of Banach spaces, by showing that not every infinitedimensional Banach space has an infinitedimensional subspace that admits an unconditional Schauder basis.
Béla BollobásBéla Bollobás FRS (born 3 August 1943) is a Hungarianborn British mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics, including functional analysis, combinatorics, graph theory, and percolation. He was strongly influenced by Paul Erdős since the age of 14.
Combinatorics, Probability and ComputingCombinatorics, Probability and Computing is a peerreviewed scientific journal in mathematics published by Cambridge University Press. Its editorinchief is Béla Bollobás (DPMMS and University of Memphis). The journal covers combinatorics, probability theory, and theoretical computer science. Currently, it publishes six issues annually. As with other journals from the same publisher, it follows a hybrid green/gold open access policy, in which authors may either place copies of their papers in an institutional repository after a sixmonth embargo period, or pay an open access charge to make their papers free to read on the journal's website.The journal was established by Bollobás in 1992. Fields Medalist Timothy Gowers calls it "a personal favourite" among combinatorics journals and writes that it "maintains a high standard".
De Morgan MedalNot to be confused with the Morgan Prize, an annual award given to an undergraduate student in the US, Canada, or Mexico.The De Morgan Medal is a prize for outstanding contribution to mathematics, awarded by the London Mathematical Society. The Society's most prestigious award, it is given in memory of Augustus De Morgan, who was the first President of the society.
The medal is awarded every third year (in years divisible by 3) to a mathematician who is normally resident in the United Kingdom on 1 January of the relevant year. The only grounds for the award of the medal are the candidate's contributions to mathematics.
Discrete AnalysisDiscrete Analysis is a mathematics journal covering the applications of analysis to discrete structures. Discrete Analysis is an arXiv overlay journal, meaning the journal's content is hosted on the arXiv.
Euler Book PrizeThe Euler Book Prize is an award named after Swiss mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler (17071783) and given annually at the Joint Mathematics Meetings by the Mathematical Association of America to an outstanding book in mathematics that is likely to improve the public view of the field.The prize was founded in 2005 with funds provided by mathematician Paul Halmos (1916–2006) and his wife Virginia. It was first given in 2007; this date was chosen to honor the 300th anniversary of Euler's birth, as part of the MAA "Year of Euler" celebration.
Eureka (University of Cambridge magazine)Eureka is a journal published annually by The Archimedeans, the Mathematical Society of Cambridge University. It includes many mathematical articles on a variety different topics – written by students and mathematicians from all over the world – as well as a short summary of the activities of the society, problem sets, puzzles, artwork and book reviews.
Eureka has been published 65 times since 1939, and authors include many famous mathematicians and scientists such as Paul Erdős, Martin Gardner, Douglas Hofstadter, Godfrey Hardy, Béla Bollobás, John Conway, Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose, popular maths writer Ian Stewart, Fields Medallist Timothy Gowers and Nobel Laureate Paul Dirac.
The journal is distributed free of charge to all current members of the Archimedeans. In addition, there are many subscriptions by other students, alumni and libraries from more than 10 different countries.
Eureka is edited by students from the University.
Of the notable mathematical articles, there is an influential paper by Freeman Dyson where he defined the rank of a partition in an effort to prove combinatorially the partition congruences earlier discovered by Srinivasa Ramanujan. In the article, Dyson made a series of conjectures that were all eventually resolved.
Faculty of Mathematics, University of CambridgeThe Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge comprises the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics (DPMMS) and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP). It is housed in the Centre for Mathematical Sciences site in West Cambridge, alongside the Isaac Newton Institute. Many distinguished mathematicians have been members of the faculty.
GowersGowers is a surname of Welsh origin, and may refer to:
Andrew Gowers (born 1957), appointed editor of the Financial Times in 2001
Andrew Gowers (footballer) (born 1969), a former Australian rules footballer
Bruce Gowers, English music video director best known for children's music video Kidsongs
Ernest Gowers (1880–1966), British civil servant, now best known for his work on writing style guides
Gillian Gowers (born 1964), retired female badminton player from England
Ken Gowers (19362017), British rugby league footballer
Patrick Gowers (1936–2014), English composer known for his film and TV scores
Simon Gowers (born 1956), Professor of Psychiatry at Liverpool University
Timothy Gowers, FRS (born 1963), British mathematician
William Frederick Gowers (18751954), British colonial administrator
William Richard Gowers (1845–1915), British neurologist
Gowers normIn mathematics, in the field of additive combinatorics, a Gowers norm or uniformity norm is a class of norm on functions on a finite group or grouplike object which are used in the study of arithmetic progressions in the group. It is named after Timothy Gowers, who introduced it in his work on Szemerédi's theorem.
Jiří Matoušek (mathematician)Jiří (Jirka) Matoušek (10 March 1963 – 9 March 2015) was a Czech mathematician working in computational geometry and algebraic topology. He was a professor at Charles University in Prague and the author of several textbooks and research monographs.
Matoušek was born in Prague. In 1986, he received his Master's degree at Charles University under Miroslav Katětov. From 1986 until his death he was employed at the Department of Applied Mathematics of Charles University in Prague, holding a professor position since 2000. He was also a visiting and later full professor at ETH Zurich.In 1996, he won the European Mathematical Society prize and in 2000 he won the Scientist award of the Learned Society of the Czech Republic.
He became a fellow of the Learned Society of the Czech Republic in 2005.Matoušek's paper on computational aspects of algebraic topology won the Best Paper award at the 2012 ACM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms.Aside from his own academic writing, he has translated the popularization book Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction by Timothy Gowers into Czech.He was a supporter and signatory of the Cost of Knowledge protest. He died in 2015, aged 51.
List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1999Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1999.
List of Greek mathematiciansIn historical times, Greek civilization has played one of the major roles in the history and development of mathematics. To this day, a number of Greek mathematicians are considered for their innovations and influence on mathematics.
List of mathematical probabilistsSee probabilism for the followers of such a theory in theology or philosophy.This list contains only probabilists in the sense of mathematicians specializing in probability theory.
This list is incomplete; please add to it.David Aldous (1952–)
Robert Azencott  Professor of Mathematics, University of Houston, Emeritus Professor, Ecole Normale Superieure, France
Thomas Bayes (1702–1761)  British mathematician and Presbyterian minister, known for Bayes' theorem
Gerard BenArous  Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
Itai Benjamini
Jakob Bernoulli (1654–1705)  Switzerland, known for Bernoulli trials
Joseph Louis François Bertrand (1822–1900)
Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch (1891–1970)
Patrick Billingsley (1925–2011)
Carlo Emilio Bonferroni (1892–1960)
Émile Borel (1871–1956)
Kai Lai Chung (1917–2009)
Erhan Cinlar
Harald Cramér (1893–1985)
Persi Diaconis (1945–)
Joseph Leo Doob (1910–2004)
Lester Dubins (1920–2010)
Eugene Dynkin (1924–2014)
Robert J. Elliott (1940–)
Paul Erdős (1913–1996)
Alison Etheridge
Steve Evans
William Feller (1906–1970)
Bruno de Finetti (1906–1985)  Italian probabilist and statistician
Geoffrey Grimmett (1950–)
Alice Guionnet
Ian Hacking (1936–)
Paul Halmos (1916–2006)
Joseph Halpern
David Heath
Wassily Hoeffding (1914–1991)
Kiyoshi Itō (1915–2008)
Edwin Thompson Jaynes (1922–1998)
Mark Kac (1914–1984)
Olav Kallenberg
Rudolf E. Kálmán (1930–2016)
Samuel Karlin (1924–2007)
David George Kendall (1918–2007)
Richard Kenyon  Brown University
Harry Kesten (1931–)
John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946)  best known for his pioneering work in economics
Aleksandr Khinchin (1894–1959)
Andrey Kolmogorov (1903–1987)
PierreSimon Laplace (1749–1827)
Gregory Lawler
Lucien Le Cam (1924–2000)
JeanFrançois Le Gall
Paul Lévy (1886–1971)
Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg (1876–1932)
Andrey Markov (1856–1922)
Stefan Mazurkiewicz (1888–1945)
Henry McKean (1930–)
PaulAndré Meyer (1934–2003)
Richard von Mises (1883–1953)
Abraham de Moivre (1667–1754)
Octav Onicescu (1892–1983)
K. R. Parthasarathy
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662)
Charles E. M. Pearce (1940–)
Judea Pearl (1936–)
Yuval Peres
Edwin A. Perkins
Siméon Denis Poisson (1781–1840)
Yuri Vasilevich Prokhorov (1929–)
Frank P. Ramsey (1903–1930)
Alfréd Rényi (1921–1970)
Oded Schramm (1961–2008)
Romano Scozzafava
Scott Sheffield
Albert Shiryaev (1934–)
Yakov Sinai (1935–)
Ray Solomonoff (1926–2009)
Frank Spitzer (1926–1992)
Ruslan L. Stratonovich (1930–1997)
Daniel W. Stroock (1940–)
AlainSol Sznitman
Michel Talagrand (1952–)
Heinrich Emil Timerding (1873–1945)
Andrei Toom (1942–)
S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan (1940–)  2007 Abel Prize laureate
Bálint Virág (1973–)
Wendelin Werner (1968–)
Norbert Wiener (1894–1964)
David Williams
Ofer Zeitouni (1960–)  Weizmann Institute
Rudolf Carnap (1891–1970)  one of the giants among twentiethcentury philosophers (best known for confirmation probability)
Harold Jeffreys (1891–1989)  one of the giants within Bayesian statistics school
Richard Jeffrey (1926–2002)  best known for the philosophy of radical probabilism and Jeffrey conditioning
Terence Tao
Richard M. Dudley
William Timothy Gowers
Bálint Tóth
Patrick GowersWilliam Patrick Gowers (5 May 1936 – 30 December 2014) was an English composer, mainly known for his film scores.
Born in Islington, Gowers was the son of Stella Gowers (née Pelly) and Richard Gowers, a solicitor. His greatgrandfather was the neurologist Sir William Richard Gowers, and his grandfather was the civil servant and writer Sir Ernest Gowers. He was educated at Radley College and later read music at Cambridge University. Whilst at Cambridge, he composed music for the Cambridge Footlights and taught composition parttime. He completed his doctorate, on the music of Erik Satie, in 1966.Gowers served as assistant conductor of Bill Russo's London Jazz Orchestra. In 1964, he was music director of the Royal Shakespeare Company's productions of Marat/Sade in the West End and in New York. He subsequently composed the music for the 1967 film of Marat/Sade. In the 1970s, he directed the electronic music studio at Dartington and played keyboards for the New Swingle Singers.Gowers began composing for feature and documentary films more extensively after his work on the film of Marat/Sade. Another notable early film score was for the 1969 Tony Richardson film of Hamlet. Other films for which he composed the music included:
Thomas er Fredloes (1968)
Balladen om CarlHenning (1969)
The Virgin and the Gypsy (1970)
Giv Gud en Chance Om Soendagen (1970)
The Boy Who Turned Yellow (1972)
Farlige kys (1972)
A Bigger Splash (1974)
Children of Rage (1975)
Stevie (1978)
Whoops Apocalypse (1986)
Comic Act (1998)Gowers started writing music for television in the 1970s. In 1982, he won the BAFTA original music award for his scores for Smiley's People, The Woman in White and I Remember Nelson. Gowers composed the music to The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and its sequels, starring Jeremy Brett, whose series ran from 1984 to 1994; the soundtrack was released in 1987. Gowers also scored the TV film adaptations with Brett of The Sign of Four (1987) and The Hound of the Baskervilles (1988). Amongst other TV series for which he composed the music are Therese Raquin (1980), Anna Karenina (1985), and Forever Green (1989).
Gowers' concert music included works written for the guitarist John Williams: Chamber Concerto for Guitar and Rhapsody for Guitar, Electric Guitars and Electric Organ. He was also noted for his choral music, including his setting of Veni Sancte Spiritus and his commission for the consecration of Richard Harries as bishop of Oxford, Viri Galilaei (1987). He also composed a Cantata (1991) and several other anthems such as "Holy, Holy, Holy" and "Aveto Augustine". Other works include his "Toccata" for organ, commissioned by Simon Preston and joined over a decade later by a fugue, and his "Occasional Trumpet Voluntary".Gowers married Caroline Maurice in 1961. The couple had three children, the mathematician Sir Timothy Gowers, the writer Rebecca Gowers, and the violinist Katharine Gowers. His widow and children survive him.
Polymath ProjectThe Polymath Project is a collaboration among mathematicians to solve important and difficult mathematical problems by coordinating many mathematicians to communicate with each other on finding the best route to the solution. The project began in January 2009 on Timothy Gowers' blog when he posted a problem and asked his readers to post partial ideas and partial progress toward a solution. This experiment resulted in a new answer to a difficult problem, and since then the Polymath Project has grown to describe a particular process of using an online collaboration to solve any math problem.
Scholastica (company)Scholastica is a webbased software platform for managing academic journals with integrated peer review and open access publishing tools.
The Princeton Companion to MathematicsThe Princeton Companion to Mathematics is a book, edited by Timothy Gowers with associate editors June BarrowGreen and Imre Leader, and published in 2008 by Princeton University Press (ISBN 9780691118802). It provides an extensive overview of mathematics, and is noted for the high caliber of the contributors. The book was a 2011 winner of the Euler Book Prize of the Mathematical Association of America, given annually to "an outstanding book about mathematics".
William GowersWilliam Gowers may refer to:
William Frederick Gowers, British colonial administrator
William Richard Gowers, Victorian era British neurologist
William Timothy Gowers, Fields Medalwinning British mathematician
 

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