Timocreon of Ialysus in Rhodes (Greek: Τιμοκρέων, gen.: Τιμοκρέοντος) was a Greek lyric poet who flourished about 480 BC, at the time of the Persian Wars. His poetry survives only in a very few fragments and he has received less attention from modern scholars than he deserves.[1] He seems to have composed convivial verses for drinking parties. However he is remembered particularly for his bitter clashes with Themistocles and Simonides over the issue of his medizing (siding with the Persian invaders), for which he had been banished from his home around the time of the Greek victory at the Battle of Salamis. He was also an athlete of some distinction and reputedly a glutton.[2] [3]

An epitaph for him, appearing in the Palatine Anthology, was credited to his rival, Simonides: "After much drinking, much eating and much slandering, I, Timocreon of Rhodes, rest here."[4]

Lip-Cup sexual intercourse Ialysos black background
A Lip Cup from Ialysos, dated around 550-540 BC, showing couples in athletic poses. Timocreon, also from Ialysos, composed songs for drinking parties and was himself an athlete

Life and poetry

Plutarch is the main source of information about Timocreon's role as a medizer and enemy of Themistocles (Themistocles 21), while Herodotus supplies much of the background information (Histories 8.111-12). According to these accounts, Themistocles, the hero of the Battle of Salamis, gave up the pursuit of the retreating Persians to extort money from Greek island states in the Aegean, without the knowledge of his fellow commanders. It is possible that Timocreon was on Andros at this time[5] and he paid Themistocles three talents of silver to restore him to his home town in Rhodes, from which he had been exiled for medizing. Themistocles took the money but reneged on the agreement and, even though bonds of hospitality between them required good faith, he accepted a bribe from someone else in a new deal that excluded Timocreon. Sailing away with the poet's money in his coffers but minus the poet himself, Themistocles soon arrived at the Corinthian Isthmus, where the Greek commanders met to decide who most deserved the prize for valour in their recent victory at Salamis. Themistocles hosted a banquet in an attempt to curry favour with his colleagues but won nothing by it since each of the commanders subsequently voted himself the most deserving of the prize (Histories 8.123-4). These events are commemorated by Timocreon in Fragment 727 (see below), composed in 480 BC or just a few years after the Battle of Salamis, though some scholars date it after Themistocles' fall from grace in Athens in 471 BC.[6]

In an account recorded by Athenaeus, Timocreon ended up at the court of the Persian king where he distinguished himself as an athlete and glutton, eating so much that the king himself asked him what he was trying to do, to which Timocreon replied that he was getting ready to beat up countless Persians. He made good his promise the next day and, after overwhelming all the Persians who were game enough to fight him, he commenced punching the air, just to show that "he had all those blows left if anyone wanted to take him on." [7] However, the boorishness and gluttony of athletes was a topos of Greek comedy and even a hero like Hercules was the butt of many jokes.

In some accounts, Themistocles also ended up visiting the Persian king, following his ostracism and spectacular fall from public favour in Athens. Rumours that he was medizing offered Timocreon a chance for revenge—see Fragment 728 and Fragment 729. Timocreon was also known as a composer of scolia (drinking-songs) and, according to the Suda, wrote plays in the style of Old Comedy. A famous drinking song of his was about the god Plutus, which seems to have inspired imitation by Aristophanes—see Fragment 731. Nothing however is known of his comedies and it is probable that he was not a dramatist but simply composed mocking lyrics. In an account by Philodemus (On Vices 10.4), he is presented as a conceited singer at a festival competition, where he performed a song about Castor.[8] Diogenian mentions two proverbs that Timocreon employed in his verses. One was a Cyprian fable about doves escaping from a sacrificial fire only to fall into another fire later on (demonstrating that wrong-doers eventually get their just deserts), and the other was a Carian fable about a fisherman who espies an octopus in the winter sea and wonders whether or not to dive after it, since this is a choice between his children starving or himself freezing to death (i.e. you're damned if you do and damned if you don't).[9] The latter proverb was also used by Simonides,[10] whose rivalry with Timocreon seems to have inspired the abusive 'epitaph' quoted earlier and the epigrammatic reply from the Rhodian poet in A.P. 13.31.

Fragment 727 PMG

This is largest extant poem attributed to Timocreon. It was quoted by Plutarch in a biography of Themistocles, as were the following two fragments, 728 and 729 (see Life above for historical context). It begins like a hymn of praise or encomium for the Athenian hero, Aristides, but soon turns into a denunciation of Themistocles.

ἀλλ᾽ εἰ τύ γε Παυσανίαν ἢ καὶ τύ γε Ξάνθιππον αἰνεῖς
ἢ τύ γε Λευτυχίδαν, ἐγὼ δ᾽ Ἀριστείδαν ἐπαινέω
ἄνδρ᾽ ἱερᾶν ἀπ᾽ Ἀθανᾶν
ἐλθεῖν ἕνα λῷστον: ἐπεὶ Θεμιστοκλῆ ἤχθαρε Λατώ,

ψεύσταν, ἄδικον, προδόταν, ὃς Τιμοκρέοντα ξεῖνον ἐόντα
ἀργυρίοισι κοβαλικοῖσι πεισθεὶς οὐ κατᾶγεν
πάτρίδ᾽ Ἰαλυσόν εἰσω,
λαβὼν δὲ τρί᾽ ἀργυρίου τάλαντ᾽ ἔβα πλέων εἰς ὄλεθρον,

τοὺς μὲν κατάγων ἀδίκως, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐκδιώκων, τοὺς δὲ καίνων·
ἀργυρίων ὑπόπλεως, Ἰσθμοῖ γελοίως πανδόκευε
ψυχρὰ τὰ κρεῖα παρίσχων·
οἱ δ᾽ ἤσθιον κηὔχοντο μὴ ὥραν Θεμιστοκλεῦς γενέσθαι.

Well now, if you praise Pausanias and you, sir, Xanthippus,
and you Leotychides, I commend Aristides
as the very best man to have come
from holy Athens, for Themistocles was hated by Leto

as a liar, a criminal, a traitor, bribed with baneful silver
not to take Timocreon home to his native Ialysus
though he was his guest and friend,
but instead took his three talents of silver and sailed to perdition,

restoring some to their homes unjustly, chasing out others, killing some.
Gorged with silver, he made an absurd Isthmian innkeeper,
serving cold meat: the guests
ate up and prayed that Themistocles would go unnoticed.[11]

The poem is generally more valued by historians than by literary critics—it has been thought to lack elegance and wit, and it strangely includes elements of choral lyric though it is not a choral song but a solo performance. The choral elements are dactylo-epitrite meter and what seems to be triadic structure (i.e. strophe, antistrophe, epode)[12][nb 1] C.M. Bowra considered it "a strange and uncomfortable poem".[13] Another scholar saw parallels between it and Anacreon's Artemon but judged Anacreon's poem to have more grace and wit.[14] However, scholarly analysis of the poem has not produced agreement or convincing results and much depends on how we interpret the poet's tone.[15] The reference to Leto is obscure but she may have had some connection with Salamis or perhaps there was a temple to her at Corinth.[16]

Fragment 728

Μοῦσα τοῦδε τοῦ μέλεος
κλέος ἀν᾽ Ἕλλανας τίθει,
ὡς ἐοικὸς καὶ δίκαιον.

Muse, spread the fame of this song
among the Hellenes,
as is fitting and just.[18]

These lines introduced one of Timocreon's most bitter denunciations of Themistocles, according to Plutarch.

Fragment 729

οὐκ ἄρα Τιμοκρέων μόνος
Μήδοισιν ὁρκιατομεῖ,
ἀλλ᾽ ἐντὶ κἆλλοι δὴ πονη-
ροί κοὐκ ἐγὼ μόνα κόλου-
ρις· ἐντὶ κἄλλαι ᾽λώπεκες.

Timocreon then is not the only one
who swears a solemn oath with the Medes:
there are other scoundrels too.
And I'm not the only one with a docked tail:
there are other foxes too.[20]

The reference to a docked tail is usually understood to indicate some mishap the poet suffered.[21] Plutarch identified Themistocles as one of the other 'scoundrels' referred to in the poem.

Fragment 731

ώφελέν σ᾽ ὦ τυφλὲ Πλοῦτε
μήτε γᾖ μήτ᾽ ἐν θαλάσσῃ
μήτ᾽ ἐν ἠπείρῳ φανῆμεν
ἀλλὰ Τάρταρόν τε ναίειν
κ᾽Αχέροντα· διὰ σὲ γὰρ πάντ᾽
   αἰὲν ἀνθρώποις κακά.

Blind Wealth, if only you had appeared
neither on land nor on sea
nor on the continent,
but had lived in Tartarus
and Acheron; for thanks to you
   men always have all evils.[23]

These verses were recorded by a scholiast in a commentary on a play of Aristophanes. Apparently the verses were imitated by Aristophanes in Acharnians (lines 532-6).[nb 2]

A.P. 13.31

Κηία με προσῆλθε φλυαρία οὐκ ἐθέλοντα·
οὐ θέλοντα με προσῆλθε Κηία φλυαρία.

Nonsense from Ceos came to me against my will.
Against my will there came to me nonsense from Ceos.[25]

The couplet is listed among the "metrical curiosities" of the Palatine Anthology (its form is a hexameter followed by a trochaic tetrameter) and it might be Timocreon's reply to Simonides' 'epitaph',[26] as translated in the introduction of this article. Simonides was from Ceos.

Filerimos Hill View
Modern view over Ialysos, the scandalous poet's home town.


  1. ^ David Campbell (Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 101-2) organises the verses to scan as follows:
    Line 12 in the 'epode' scans differently:
    For a slightly different version see for example Bernadotte Perrin's 1914 edition of Plutarch's Themistocles, chapter 21 at Perseus digital library
  2. ^ Aristophanes' verses:
    ἐντεῦθεν ὀργῇ Περικλέης οὑλύμπιος
    ἤστραπτ᾽ ἐβρόντα ξυνεκύκα τὴν Ἑλλάδα,
    ἐτίθει νόμους ὥσπερ σκόλια γεγραμμένους,
    ὡς χρὴ Μεγαρέας μήτε γῇ μήτ᾽ ἐν ἀγορᾷ
    μήτ᾽ ἐν θαλάττῃ μήτ᾽ ἐν οὐρανῷ μένειν.

    "Because Pericles, Olympian Pericles, sent out thunder and lightning and threw all Greece into confusion. He began making laws written like drinking songs,
    No Megarian shall stand
    On sea or on land
    And from all of our markets they're utterly banned.
    Translation by A. H. Sommerstein, Aristophanes: Lysistrata, The Acharnians, The Clouds, Penguin Classics (1973), page 72


  1. ^ Rachel M. McMullin, 'Aspects of Medizing: Themistocles, Simonides and Timocreon of Rhodes', The Classical Journal Vol. 97, No. 1 (October -November 2001), page online here
  2. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 4
  3. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  4. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 555
  5. ^ Ruth Scodel, 'Timocreon's Encomium of Aristides', Classical Antiquity Vol. 2, No. 1 (April 1983), page 102, notes section]
  6. ^ Ruth Scodel, 'Timocreon's Encomium of Aristides', Classical Antiquity Vol. 2, No. 1 (April 1983), page 102, notes section]
  7. ^ Athenaeus 10.415f-416a, cited and translated by David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 87
  8. ^ David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 85, notes
  9. ^ 'Diogenian', preface to Proverbs, cited by David Campbell's translation, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), pages 93, 97
  10. ^ Simonides frag. 514, cited by David Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 380
  11. ^ adaptation of David Campbell's translation, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), pages 89, 91
  12. ^ Ruth Scodel, 'Timocreon's Encomium of Aristides', Classical Antiquity Vol. 2, No. 1 (April 1983), page 102 online here
  13. ^ C.M. Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry 2nd edition, Oxford University Press (1961), page 354
  14. ^ G.M. Kirkwood, Early Greek Monody: the History of the Poetic Type, Ithaca N.Y. (1974), page 183
  15. ^ Noel Robertson, 'Timocreon and Themistocles', The American Journal of Philology Vol. 101 No. 1 (Spring 1980), page 61 online here
  16. ^ David Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 407
  17. ^ Plutarch Themistocles 21, cited by David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 90
  18. ^ David Campbell's translation, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), pages 91
  19. ^ Plutarch Themistocles 21, cited by David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 90
  20. ^ David Campbell's translation, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 91
  21. ^ David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 91, notes
  22. ^ Scholiast on Aristophanes' Acharnians, cited by David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), pages 93, 95
  23. ^ translation adapted from David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), pages 93, 95
  24. ^ Palatine Anthology 13.31, cited by David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 96
  25. ^ David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 97
  26. ^ David Campbell, Greek Lyric IV, Loeb Classical Library (1992), page 97
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Timocreon" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Acropolis of Athens

The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis is from the Greek words ἄκρον (akron, "highest point, extremity") and πόλις (polis, "city"). Although the term acropolis is generic and there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. During ancient times it was known also more properly as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the supposed first Athenian king.

While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles (c. 495–429 BC) in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important present remains including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike. The Parthenon and the other buildings were damaged seriously during the 1687 siege by the Venetians during the Morean War when gunpowder being stored in the Parthenon was hit by a cannonball and exploded.

Ancient Greek coinage

The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman. The Archaic period extends from the introduction of coinage to the Greek world during the 7th century BC until the Persian Wars in about 480 BC. The Classical period then began, and lasted until the conquests of Alexander the Great in about 330 BC, which began the Hellenistic period, extending until the Roman absorption of the Greek world in the 1st century BC. The Greek cities continued to produce their own coins for several more centuries under Roman rule. The coins produced during this period are called Roman provincial coins or Greek Imperial Coins.

Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.

Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek.

Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most derived from Koine Greek.

Ancient Greek sculpture

Ancient Greek sculpture is the sculpture of ancient Greece. Modern scholarship identifies three major stages in monumental sculpture. At all periods there were great numbers of Greek terracotta figurines and small sculptures in metal and other materials.

The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. Seeing their gods as having human form, there was little distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year's Olympic boxing champion. The statue, originally single but by the Hellenistic period often in groups was the dominant form, though reliefs, often so "high" that they were almost free-standing, were also important.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.


Demonax (Greek: Δημώναξ, Dēmōnax, gen.: Δημώνακτος; c. AD 70 – c. 170) was a Greek Cynic philosopher. Born in Cyprus, he moved to Athens, where his wisdom, and his skill in solving disputes, earned him the admiration of the citizens. He taught Lucian, who wrote a Life of Demonax in praise of his teacher. When he died he received a magnificent public funeral.

Greece in the Roman era

Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when Ancient Greece was dominated by the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC), the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 395), and the Byzantine Empire (AD 395 – 1453). The Roman era of Greek history began with the Corinthian defeat in the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. However, before the Achaean War, the Roman Republic had been steadily gaining control of mainland Greece by defeating the Kingdom of Macedon in a series of conflicts known as the Macedonian Wars. The Fourth Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna in 148 BC and defeat of the Macedonian royal pretender Andriscus.

The definitive Roman occupation of the Greek world was established after the Battle of Actium (31 BC), in which Augustus defeated Cleopatra VII, the Greek Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, and the Roman general Mark Antony, and afterwards conquered Alexandria (32 BC), the last great city of Hellenistic Greece. The Roman era of Greek history continued with Emperor Constantine the Great's adoption of Byzantium as Nova Roma, the capital city of the Roman Empire; in AD 330, the city was renamed Constantinople; afterwards, the Byzantine Empire was a generally Greek-speaking polity.

Greek Dark Ages

The Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time),

is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis (city states) in the 9th century BC.

The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed and in Egypt the New Kingdom fell into disarray that led to the Third Intermediate Period.

Following the collapse, fewer and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler, generally geometric styles (1000–700 BC).

It was previously thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east, particularly the Levant coast, developed from c. 900 BC onwards. Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina.

Grotta-Pelos culture

The Grotta-Pelos culture (Greek: Γρόττα-Πηλός) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for part of the early Bronze Age in Greece. Specifically, it is the period that marks the beginning of the so-called Cycladic culture and spans the Neolithic period in the late 4th millennium BC (ca. 3300 BC), continuing in the Bronze Age to about 2700 BC.

The term was coined by Colin Renfrew, who named it after the sites of Grotta and Pelos on the Cycladic islands of Naxos and Milos, respectively. Other archaeologists prefer a "chronological" dating system and refer to this period as the Early Cycladic I (ECI).

Hellenistic Greece

In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. This culminated at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC, a crushing Roman victory in the Peloponnese that led to the destruction of Corinth and ushered in the period of Roman Greece. Hellenistic Greece's definitive end was with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when the future emperor Augustus defeated Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony, the next year taking over Alexandria, the last great center of Hellenistic Greece.The Hellenistic period began with the wars of the Diadochi, armed contests among the former generals of Alexander the Great to carve up his empire in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The wars lasted until 275 BC, witnessing the fall of both the Argead and Antipatrid dynasties of Macedonia in favor of the Antigonid dynasty. The era was also marked by successive wars between the Kingdom of Macedonia and its allies against the Aetolian League, Achaean League, and the city-state of Sparta.

During the reign of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BC), the Macedonians not only lost the Cretan War (205-200 BC) to an alliance led by Rhodes, but their erstwhile alliance with Hannibal of Carthage also entangled them in the First and Second Macedonian War with ancient Rome. The perceived weakness of Macedonia in the aftermath of these conflicts encouraged Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire to invade mainland Greece, yet his defeat by the Romans at Thermopylae in 191 BC and Magnesia in 190 BC secured Rome's position as the leading military power in the region. Within roughly two decades after conquering Macedonia in 168 BC and Epirus in 167 BC, the Romans would eventually control the whole of Greece.

During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus, Rhodes and Seleucia were also important, and increasing urbanization of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time.


Ialysos (Greek: Ιαλυσός, before 1976: Τριάντα Trianta) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 16,7 km2. It is the second-largest town on the island of Rhodes. It has a population of approximately 11,300, and is located eight kilometres (5.0 miles) west of the town of Rhodes, the island's capital, on the island's northwestern coast.

Kastelli Hill

Kastelli Hill (also Kasteli; Greek: Λόφος Καστέλλι or Καστέλι) is a landform at the city of Chania on the island of Crete in the present day country of Greece. The Minoan city of ancient Cydonia was centered on Kastelli Hill, which later was selected by the Romans as the site of an acropolis.

Kastri culture

The Kastri culture (Greek: Καστρί) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for the Cycladic culture that flourished during the early Bronze Age in Greece. It spans the period ca. 2500–2200 BC and was named by Colin Renfrew, after the fortified settlement of Kastri near Chalandriani on the Cycladic island of Syros. In Renfrew's system, Kastri culture follows the Keros-Syros culture. However, some archaeologists believe that the Keros-Syros and Kastri cultures belong to the same phase. Others describe this period as the Early Cycladic III (ECIII).

List of Ancient Greek poets

This list of Ancient Greek poets covers poets writing in the Ancient Greek language, regardless of location or nationality of the poet. For a list of modern-day Greek poets, see List of Greek poets.


In ancient Greece, medism (Greek: μηδισμός, medismos) was the imitation of, sympathizing with, collaboration with, or siding with Persians.

The ethnonym "Mede" was often used by the Greeks of the Persians although, strictly speaking, the Medes were a different Iranian people, subject to the Persians. It was not until the 470s that the Greeks began to refer to "Persians", with Aeschylus' play The Persians in 472 being an early example of this.Medism was considered a faux pas, even a crime, in many ancient Greek city-states. However, it does not seem to have been specifically criminalised. For instance, in Athens suspected Medisers were charged with treason. The evidence suggests that this was true of other Greek city-states too: in Teos, for instance, a law from the classical period provided that anyone who betrayed the city should be punished by death, but failed to distinguish betrayal to the Persians from betrayal to any other group.Themistocles the Athenian was ostracized for medism. Pausanias, the Lacedaemonian hegemon of the Hellenic League in the Battle of Plataea, was accused of medism by other member states, an accusation which allowed Athens to seize control of the league. Herodotus mentions the so-called "state medism" of Aegina, Thessaly, Argos, Thebes, and other Boeotians. Astute politicians in Athens often exploited popular feelings against medism as a means to their own advancement, which once led to a feud between the poets Timocreon of Rhodes and Simonides of Ceos in support of and against Themistocles, respectively.


In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.

Phylakopi I culture

The Phylakopi I culture (Greek: Φυλακωπή) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for the Cycladic culture that flourished during the early Bronze Age in Greece. It spans the period ca. 2300-2000 BC and was named by Colin Renfrew, after the settlement of Phylakopi on the Cycladic island of Milos. Other archaeologists describe this period as the Early Cycladic III (ECIII).


Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος, romanized: Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece and is also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes. The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land.Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. The name of the U.S. state of Rhode Island is thought to be based on this island.

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