Timeline of the Holocaust

A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.[1][2][3][4][5]

Timeline

Date Major Events
1879 Wilhelm Marr becomes the first proponent of racial anti-Semitism, blaming Jews for the failure of the German revolutions of 1848–49.[6]
1899 The British-German racist Houston Stewart Chamberlain publishes The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, writing that the 19th century was "the Jewish age" and that Europe's social problems are the result of their domination. The book is eventually influential to the Nazi Party.[7]
1903 The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a document forged by the Okhrana purporting to reveal the secret plans of a conspiracy of Jewish religious leaders for world conquest through the imposition of liberal democracy, is published in Znamya in the Russian Empire. It is later distributed across the world after 1917 by white Russian émigrés and becomes a popular anti-Semitic tract even after it was proved to have been forged and plagiarized.[7][8]
24 October 1917 The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin take power in Russia with the October Revolution. The subsequent Revolutions of 1917-1923 cause fears of Communist expansion into Europe that would influence the European far right.[9]
11 November 1918 World War I ends with the Compiègne Armistice after the German Empire collapses due to the Revolution.
1919 France deploys African colonial troops in the Allied occupation of the Rhineland, resulting in mixed-race children between the troops and German women. The children, disparagingly called "Rhineland Bastards" are subject to racial discrimination and prejudice.[10]
5 January 1919 The German Workers' Party is founded by Anton Drexler and Karl Harrer as an offshoot of the Thule Society, one of the many far-right, anti-Semitic, anti-communist and völkisch groups which were formed in Germany after the war.[11]
7 May 1919 The Treaty of Versailles is presented to the German delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. Most Germans disapprove of the reparations payments and the forced acceptance of German war guilt entailed in Article 231.[12]
16 September 1919 Adolf Hitler, having joined the German Workers' Party, makes his first endorsement of racial anti-Semitism.[13]
18 November 1919 Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg gives testimony to the Weimar National Assembly blaming the loss of World War I on "the secret intentional mutilation of the fleet and the army" and made misleading claims that a British general admitted that the German Army was "stabbed in the back," giving rise to the popular stab-in-the-back conspiracy theory.[14][15] He is later elected President of Germany in the 1925 presidential election.
24 February 1920 In a speech before approximately 2,000 people in the Munich Festival of the Hofbräuhaus, Hitler proclaimed the 25-Point Program of the German Workers' Party, later renamed the National Socialist (Nazi) German Workers' Party. Among other things, the program called for the establishment of a Pan-German state, with citizenship, residency, and other civil rights only reserved for ethnic Germans, explicitly excluding Jews and all non-Germans.
1921 The Nazi Party forms the Sturmabteilung (SA) under the Division for Propaganda and Sports.[7]
20 April 1923 The first issue of Der Stürmer, a highly anti-Semitic tabloid-format newspaper published by Julius Streicher, is released.[16]
8 November 1923 Inspired by the March on Rome, Hitler organizes the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempted coup d'etat. Although Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Prison and the Nazi Party is briefly proscribed, Hitler gains public notice for the first time.[11]
18 July 1925 Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.
24 October 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929 occurs, beginning the Great Depression and allowing Hitler to gain support.[7]
1931 To prevent the transfer of currency out of the country, President von Hindenburg decrees a 25 percent emigration tax, the Reich Flight Tax. The Tax later becomes a hindrance to Jews trying to emigrate out of Germany.[7]
July 1932 Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, capturing 230 of the 608 seats in the German federal election of July, 1932.
30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
February 1933 Chancellor Hitler sets his military policy as "the conquest of new Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanization" in a secret meeting with the Reichswehr.[7]
27 February 1933 The Reichstag fire. The subsequent Reichstag Fire Decree suspends the German Constitution and most civil liberties.
9 March 1933 Dachau concentration camp, the first concentration camp in Germany, opens 10 miles northwest of Munich at an abandoned munitions factory.
13 March 1933 The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda is established under Joseph Goebbels.[7]
21 March 1933 Oranienburg concentration camp is opened at a former brewery in Oranienburg by an SA brigade near Berlin.[17]
23 March 1933 The Enabling Act of 1933 enacted, allowing Hitler to rule by decree.
31 March 1933 Hanns Kerrl and Hans Frank issue legislation in the states of Prussia and Bavaria dismissing Jewish judges and prosecutors and imposing quotas for lawyers and notaries.[7]
1 April 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses begins.
7 April 1933 The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, banning most Jews and Communists from government employment, is passed. Shortly after, a similar law affects lawyers, doctors, tax consultants, musicians, and notaries.
22 April 1933 The Decree Licensing Physicians from the National Health Service passed on the pressure of Dr. Gerhard Wagner excludes Jewish doctors from medical service.[7]
25 April 1933 The Law for Preventing Overcrowding in German Schools and Schools of Higher Education severely limits Jewish enrollment in German public schools.[18]
29 April 1933 Gestapo (German Secret Police) established by Hermann Göring.
2 May 1933 German trade unions banned and replaced by the German Labor Front under the leadership of Robert Ley.[18]
10 May 1933 Nazi book burnings begin. Books deemed "un-German," including all works by Jewish authors, are consumed in ceremonial bonfires, including a large one on the Unter den Linden adjacent to the University of Berlin.
1 June 1933 The Law for the Prevention of Unemployment provides marriage loans to genetically "fit" Germans.[18]
22 June 1933 Inmates from Düsseldorf begin arriving at Emslandlager.
14 July 1933 The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, calling for compulsory sterilization of the "inferior." On the same day German citizenship is revoked from Roma and Sinti in Germany, and the Nazi Party is made the only legal political party in Germany.
20 July 1933 The Reichskonkordat is concluded after negotiations between Franz von Papen and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, ensuring Nazi Germany legitimacy with the international community and allowing the government to gain the loyalty of German Catholics.[18]
20 August 1933 The American Jewish Congress begins the Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933.[18]
17 September 1933 The Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden is established as the legal representative body of German Jews under the leadership of Leo Baeck and Otto Hirsch.[19]
21 September 1933 – 23 December 1933 Leipzig trial acquits 3 of 4 men accused of Reichstag fire. Furious, Hitler establishes a People's Court to try political crimes.
22 September 1933 The Reich Chamber of Culture is established, effectively barring Jews from the arts.[18]
29 September 1933 German Jews and Germans with any Jewish ancestry dating to 1800 are banned from farming under the Reichserbhofgesetz, and their land is redistributed to ethnic Germans.[18][20]
4 October 1933 Jews are prohibited from journalism under the Editor Law.[18]
24 October-24 November 1933 The government passes a law allowing "dangerous and habitual criminals" - including vagrants, alcoholics, the unemployed, and the homeless - to be interned in concentration camps. The law is later amended to allow for their compulsory sterilization.[18]
1 January 1934 Hitler removes all Jewish holidays from the German calendar.[21]
24 January 1934 All Jews are expelled from the German Labor Front.[21]
April 1934 Heinrich Himmler, who had become the leader of the entire German police force outside of Prussia the previous year, is appointed Reichsführer-SS. The Volksgericht is established to prosecute political dissidents.[21]
1 May 1934 The Office of Racial Policy is established within the Nazi Party.[21]
17 May 1934 Jews lose access to statutory health insurance. The German American Bund holds a rally in Madison Square Garden.[21]
9 June 1934 The SD is established as the Nazi Party's intelligence agency.[21]
14 June 1934 Hitler begins a purge of the SA and the non-Nazi conservative revolutionary movement through the SS under pressure from the Reichswehr. Hitler's colleague Ernst Röhm, the former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher, and Gustav Ritter von Kahr are killed. The move guarantees Hitler military support, quashes his opposition, and enhances the power of the SS.[22] It also begins an increase in the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany.[21]
4 July 1934 The Concentration Camps Inspectorate (IKL) is established under Theodor Eicke.[21]
2 August-19 August 1934 Hitler becomes President of Germany upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg, and becomes an absolute dictator by merging the office with the Chancellor to become the Führer.[23] All Reichswehr members swear the Hitler oath.[21]
7 October 1934 Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany issue letters protesting the persecution of their religion and affirming their political neutrality.[23][21]
December 1934 Himmler gains control of the Gestapo through his subordinate Reinhard Heydrich.[21][23]
1 April 1935 Anti-Semitic legislation is expanded to the Saarland after the 1935 Saar status referendum.[24]
May 1935 Jews are excluded from the Wehrmacht, military members are banned from marrying "non-Aryans".[25]
26 June 1935 The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring is amended to institute compulsory abortion.[26]
28 June 1935 Paragraph 175 is expanded to prohibit all homosexual acts.[25]
15 September 1935 Nuremberg Laws are unanimously passed by the Reichstag. Jews are no longer citizens of Germany and cannot marry Germans.
December 1935 The SS Race and Settlement Main Office establishes the Lebensborn program.[24]
10 February 1936 The Gestapo is given extrajudicial authority.[27]
3 March 1936 German Jewish doctors are banned from practicing on German patients.[27]
29 March 1936 The SS-Totenkopfverbände is established.[27]
6 June 1936 Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick authorizes the deportation of the Romani people to concentration camps such as Marzahn.[28]
June 1936 Himmler becomes Chief of German Police, and establishes the Orpo, the Sipo, and the Kripo under SS control.
12 July 1936 Concentration camp inmates are transferred to Oranienburg to begin construction on Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[29]
1 August 1936 The 1936 Summer Olympics open in Berlin, leading to a temporary abatement in open anti-Semitism.[28]
28 August 1936 Mass arrests of Jehovah's Witnesses begin.[28]
7 October 1936 A 25 percent tax is imposed on Jewish assets.[27]
1937 Beginning of the Nazis' policy of seizure of Jewish property through "Aryanization".[30]
27 February 1937 The Kripo begins the first mass roundup of political opponents.[31]
14 March 1937 Pope Pius XI publishes an encyclical, Mit brennender Sorge, condemning the Nazis and accusing them of violating the Reichkonkordat.[30]
15 July 1937 Buchenwald concentration camp opens in Ettersburg five miles from Weimar.[32]
8 November 1937 Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew) exhibition opens in Munich.[31]
14 December 1937 Himmler issues a decree that the German Criminal Police (Kripo) does not have to have evidence of a specific criminal act in order to detain persons suspected of asocial or criminal behavior indefinitely.[31]
12 March 1938 Austria annexed by Nazi Germany (the Anschluss). All German anti-Jewish laws now apply in Austria.
24 March 1938 Flossenbürg concentration camp is opened in Flossenbürg, Bavaria, ten miles from the border with Czechoslovakia.[33]
26 April 1938 Jews are required to register all property over ℛℳ5,000 under the Four Year Plan.[34]
29 May 1938 Hungary, under Miklós Horthy, passes the first of a series of anti-Jewish measures emulating Germany's Nuremberg Laws.
13-18 June 1938 The first mass arrests of Jews begin through Aktion Arbeitsscheu Reich.[35]
6-15 July 1938 U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt convenes the Évian Conference in Évian-les-Bains, France, to settle the issue of Jewish refugees, but only Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic allow more refugees.[36]
14 July 1938 Manifesto of Race published in Fascist Italy, led to stripping the Jews of Italian citizenship and governmental and professional positions
8 August 1938 The SS opens the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex near Linz, and establishes DEST to operate a stone quarry.[37]
31 September 1938 The United Kingdom and France agree to allow Hitler to seize control of the Sudetenland under the Munich Agreement.[38]
5 October 1938 Jews are required to have a red J in their passports.[7]
9–10 November 1938 Kristallnacht
12 November 1938 Jews are banned from buying and selling goods under Decree on the Elimination of the Jews from Economic Life, and are fined $400 million to repair damage from Kristallnacht.[35][34]
15 November 1938 All Jewish children are expelled from German public schools.[34]
December 1938-August 1939 German Jewish child refugees are allowed to emigrate to the United Kingdom and France through the Kindertransport program.[34]
24 January 1939 Hitler directs Heydrich to establish the Central Office for Jewish Emigration.[39]
14-16 March 1939 Czechoslovakia is dissolved as Slovakia declares independence as a satellite state, and the Nazis occupy the remainder as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.[40][41]
21 March 1939 The Klaipėda Region is annexed by Germany.[41]
13 May 1939 MS St. Louis sails from Hamburg to Cuba with 937 refugees, mostly Jews. Only 29 are allowed in. The rest, refused by Cuba, the United States and Canada are returned to Europe.
June 1939 The Wagner–Rogers Bill, which would have increased immigration quotas for German Jewish children, dies in committee despite endorsement from the Roosevelt administration.[42]
18 October 1939 first shipment of Jews to Lublin Reservation
1 September 1939 The German invasion of Poland starts World War II in Europe. Thousands of Polish Jews are killed by the SS-Einsatzgruppen during Operation Tannenberg.
2 September 1939 Stutthof concentration camp is established near Danzig.[39]
21 September 1939 Heydrich orders all German Jews to be shipped to Poland and for all Polish Jews to be concentrated in major cities.[39]
October 1939 Thousands of Jews are shipped from Vienna, Ostrava, and Katowice to the Lublin Reservation in Zarzecze, Nisko County.[39]
October 1939 The Netherlands establishes a refugee camp for Central European Jewish refugees at Westerbork, Drenthe. After the German invasion the camp is converted into a transit camp to transport Jews to death camps.
26 October 1939 All territory not directly annexed by Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union is placed under the Generalgouvernment.[39]
1940 Bergen-Belsen is opened near Celle as a prisoner-of-war camp.[43]
April 1940 Rudolf Höss visits Oświęcim to inspect its suitability as a concentration camp for Polish political prisoners and as a colony for German settlers in Lower Silesia. Himmler approves construction of Auschwitz concentration camp.[44]
9 April 1940 The German invasion of Denmark and the Norwegian Campaign begin.
30 April 1940 The Łódź Ghetto, the first Nazi ghetto, is sealed.
10 May 1940 The Battle of France begins, and Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg quickly fall under German control.
15 May 1940 The Netherlands capitulates to the Germans, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart is appointed to lead the Reichskommissariat Niederlande.[45]
28 May 1940 Belgium capitulates to the Germans
May 1940 Auschwitz I opens
June 1940 The National Assembly votes to surrender with the Armistice of 22 June 1940. Vichy France is established as a collaborationist state under Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval.[46]
4 June 1940 The IKL designates Neuengamme concentration camp in the outskirts of Hamburg as an independent concentration camp.[47]
June 1940 The Soviet Union annexes the Baltic States, Northern Bukovina, and Bessarabia with German support.[47]
July 1940 Germany directly annexes Alsace and Lorraine, and 3,000 Alsatian Jews are deported to the zone libre of southern France.[47]
17 July 1940 Non-French aliens are banned from taking public posts in Vichy France, a measure targeting Jews.[7]
September 1940 The Vichy government converts refugee camps established for Spanish Republican and German Jewish refugees, such as Gurs and Rivesaltes, into transit camps.[45]
September 1940 Anti-Semitic legislation is formulated in Slovakia under pressure from the German government.[7]
September 1940 All public officials in the Reichskommissariat Niederlande are forced to attest to their Aryan background, and all Jews are eventually ordered to resign by December 31.[7]
6 September 1940 King Carol II abdicates after the Second Vienna Award forces Romania to surrender Transylvania to Hungary. The National Legionary State, a coalition between the Romanian Army under Ion Antonescu and the fascist Iron Guard under Horia Simia, comes to power.[47]
20 September 1940 Breendonk internment camp, a former National Redoubt fortress in Antwerp, is opened for prisoners in Nazi-occupied Belgium.[47]
24 September 1940 Veit Harlan's anti-Semitic propaganda film Jud Süß premieres in Germany.[45]
27 September-24 November 1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan conclude the Tripartite Pact establishing the Axis Powers. Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania accede to the Pact as well.
3 October 1940 Vichy France issues the Statut des Juifs discriminating against Jews. The law leads to similar anti-Semitic actions in French North Africa.[7]
12 October 1940 All Jews are deported from Luxembourg on the orders of Gustav Simon.[7]
28 October 1940 General Alexander von Falkenhausen issues an order prohibiting Jews from working as civil servants, teachers, lawyers, broadcasters, or newspaper editors in the Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France.[7]
15 November 1940 The Warsaw Ghetto, the largest ghetto in the General Government, is sealed.[47]
28 November 1940 Fritz Hippler's anti-Semitic pseudo-documentary The Eternal Jew premieres.[45]
18 December 1940 Hitler approves Operation Barbarossa, the plan for the German invasion of the Soviet Union[47]
21-23 January 1941 The Iron Guard attempts a coup d'etat against Antonescu in the Legionnaires' rebellion. The Army suppresses the coup with aid from the Wehrmacht and the German Foreign Office, and executes a pogrom in Bucharest.[48]
24-25 February 1941 The February strike is organized by the Dutch Communist Party to protest deportations of Jews. Although suppressed, the strike leads to a temporary abatement of anti-Semitic policy.[7]
March 1941 The Kraków Ghetto is established.[48]
21 May 1941 The Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp is established near Strasbourg.[49]
22 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa commences and the Wehrmacht enters Soviet territory
August 1941 The Drancy internment camp is established by the Sipo near Paris, and is staffed by French gendarmes.[50]
3 September 1941 First gassings at Auschwitz using Zyklon B
29–30 September 1941 Babi Yar massacre of 33,771 Jews
10 October 1941 Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau of the German Sixth Army issues a secret memorandum ordering the Wehrmacht to approve violations of international law in the invasion of the Soviet Union.[51]
11-12 December 1941 Jews are rounded up in Lublin and interned in Majdanek concentration camp[52]
20 January 1942 Wannsee Conference plans "final solution"
27 March 1942 first of at least 75,721 French Jews deported from France, to Auschwitz
6 July 1942 Anne Frank and her family go into hiding
22 July 1942 first deportation from Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka during Grossaktion Warsaw
23 July 1942 – 19 October 1943 Treblinka death camp operates, 700-900 thousand Jews murdered
4 August 1942 Jewish internees at Breendonk are sent to the Mechelen transit camp in preparation for deportation to Auschwitz.[53]
19 November 1942 first shipment of Jews from Norway
19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
1943 Bergen-Belsen is converted into a concentration camp.[43]
2 August 1943 Treblinka revolt
14 October 1943 Sobibor revolt and escape
9 November 1943 The 43-nation United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration is founded by the Allied Powers at the White House, and is placed under the authority of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force[54]
1944 Raphael Lemkin, a former law lecturer at Duke University and U.S. War Department analyst, coins the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe[55]
19 March 1944 German troops occupy Hungary
early May 1944 first transport of Hungarian Jews, to Auschwitz, began
23 June 1944 Red Cross representatives see elaborately staged Nazi propaganda ruse at Theresienstadt designed to portray camps as benign
20 July 1944 Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails
23 July 1944 Majdanek, first major death camp liberated, by the advancing Soviet Red Army
1 August 1944 Warsaw Uprising begins
4 August 1944 Anne Frank and her family arrested and eventually deported to Auschwitz
16 August 1944 Nazi authorities flee the Drancy camp, and it is taken by the French Red Cross.[50]
October 1944 Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, created the previous summer when Buchenwald inmates were sent to Nordhausen to construct underground aircraft factories to produce V-2 rockets, is made an independent concentration camp.
7 October 1944 Crematorium IV at Auschwitz destroyed in Sonderkommando uprising
25 November 1944 Heinrich Himmler orders the gas chambers of Auschwitz destroyed as incriminating evidence of genocide
27 January 1945 Auschwitz death camp liberated by the 60th Army of the First Ukrainian Front.[56] Anniversary is observed as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
c. February or March 1945 Anne Frank and her sister Margot die in Bergen-Belsen
4 April 1945 Ohrdruf subcamp of Buchenwald is liberated by the 4th Armored Division, and is the first German concentration camp to be reached by American military forces
11 April 1945 Buchenwald death camp liberated by the 6th Armored Division of the U.S. Third Army.[57] Dora-Mittelbau is liberated by the U.S. 104th Infantry Division[58]
12 April 1945 Westerbork transit camp is liberated by the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division[59]
15 April 1945 Bergen-Belsen death camp is liberated by the 11th Armoured Division of the British Army[60]
19 April 1945 9,000 prisoners of Neuengamme are evacuated to Lübeck due to the advancing British Army, while 3,000 prisoners are murdered and 700 German prisoners remain behind to destroy files and are conscripted into the SS.
29 April 1945 Dachau liberated by the Americans and Ravensbrück by the Soviets
30 April 1945 Adolf Hitler suicide
3-4 May 1945 The British liberate Neuengamme. The SS attempts to evacuate the remaining prisoners on ocean liners, resulting in the deaths of thousands of prisoners after a Royal Air Force raid sinks the Cap Ancona and the Thielbek.[61]
5 May 1945 Mauthausen liberated by the Americans
8 May 1945 Theresienstadt liberated by the Soviets
8 May 1945 VE day — Germany surrenders unconditionally
23 May 1945 Heinrich Himmler suicide
June 1945 The U.S. State Department commissions a report on UNRRA displaced persons camps by Earl G. Harrison, who protests poor conditions in the camps. The Harrison Report is read by U.S. President Harry S Truman and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee and published in The New York Times[62]
20 November 1945 – 1 October 1946 first Nuremberg trials, of 24 top Nazi officials
22 December 1945 President Truman issues an executive order mandating that displaced persons from the Holocaust be given preference in the U.S. immigration system.[63]
2 July 1946 Orson Welles' The Stranger, first feature film with concentration camp footage, released. Hundreds more feature films and documentaries about the Holocaust would be made.
1947 UNRRA is superseded by the International Refugee Organization[54]
25 June 1947 The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank's diary, is published in the Netherlands[64]
11 July 1947 SS Exodus departs France for the British Mandate of Palestine. Her 4,515 passengers, mostly Holocaust survivors, are intercepted by the British Navy and shipped back to camps in Germany.
1948 The 80th United States Congress passes the Displaced Persons Act allowing 200,000 displaced persons to enter the United States[65]
14 May 1948 State of Israel declares independence
9 December 1948 The United Nations ratifies the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide[55]
1949 Separate postwar civilian governments in East and West Germany are formed due to the beginning of the Cold War[66]
1950 The Displaced Persons Act is amended to remove restrictions to Jewish displaced persons.[67]
1951 West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion begin negotiations for an agreement on reparations.[68]
1952 The last displaced persons camps in Europe are closed, with most of its inhabitants having been successfully resettled[65]
10 September 1952 Israel and West Germany ratify the Reparations Agreement in Luxembourg allowing for reparations payments between the two countries between 1953 and 1965.[69]
11 May 1960 Adolf Eichmann, one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, is captured in Argentina, and brought to Israel where he is tried, convicted.
31 May 1962 Adolf Eichmann executed
20 December 1963-19 August 1965 The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials occur, the first trial of German Holocaust perpetrators by the West German civilian judicial system[69]
1986 Elie Wiesel, a Romanian-born Holocaust survivor and the author of the 1958 semi-autobiographical book Night, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his human rights activism.[70]
1998 Maurice Papon, a former civil servant who facilitated the deportation of Jews from Bordeaux, is convicted for crimes against humanity by a French court, renewing public awareness of the role of French collaborationists in the Holocaust.[71]

See also

References

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Chaim Rumkowski

Chaim Mordechaj Rumkowski (February 27, 1877 – August 28, 1944) was the head of the Jewish Council of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto appointed by Nazi Germany during the German occupation of Poland.

Rumkowski accrued much power by transforming the ghetto into an industrial base manufacturing war supplies for the Wehrmacht in the mistaken belief that productivity was the key to Jewish survival beyond the Holocaust. The Germans liquidated the ghetto in 1944. All remaining prisoners were sent to death camps in the wake of military defeats on the Eastern Front.

As the head of the Judenrat, Rumkowski is remembered for his speech Give Me Your Children, delivered at a time when the Germans demanded his compliance with the deportation of 20,000 children to Chełmno extermination camp. In August 1944, Rumkowski and his family joined the last transport to Auschwitz, and he was murdered there on August 28, 1944 by Jewish Sonderkommando inmates who beat him to death as revenge for his role in the Holocaust. This account of his final moments is confirmed by witness testimonies of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials.

Chełmno extermination camp

Chełmno extermination camp (German: Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German). Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 Germany annexed the area into the new territory of Reichsgau Wartheland, aiming at its complete "Germanization"; the camp was set up specifically to carry out ethnic cleansing through mass killings. It operated from December 8, 1941 parallel to Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, and again from June 23, 1944 to January 18, 1945 during the Soviet counter-offensive. Polish Jews of the Łódź Ghetto and the local inhabitants of Reichsgau Wartheland (Warthegau) were exterminated there. In 1943 modifications were made to the camp's killing methods because the reception building was already dismantled.At a very minimum 152,000 people (Bohn) were killed in the camp, which would make it the fifth most deadly extermination camp, after Sobibór, Bełżec, Treblinka, and Auschwitz. However, the West German prosecution, citing Nazi figures during the Chełmno trials of 1962–65, laid charges for at least 180,000 victims. The Polish official estimates, in the early postwar period, have suggested much higher numbers, up to a total of 340,000 men, women, and children. The Kulmhof Museum of Martyrdom gives the figure of around 200,000, the vast majority of whom were Jews of west-central Poland, along with Romani from the region, as well as foreign Jews from Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Germany, Luxemburg, and Austria transported to Chełmno via the Łódź Ghetto, on top of the Soviet prisoners of war. The victims were killed with the use of gas vans. Chełmno was a place of early experimentation in the development of Nazi extermination programme, continued in subsequent phases of the Holocaust throughout occupied Poland.The Red army troops captured the town of Chełmno on January 17, 1945. By then, the Nazis had already destroyed evidence of the camp's existence leaving no prisoners behind. One of the camp survivors who was fifteen years old at the time testified that only three Jewish males had escaped successfully from Chełmno. The Holocaust Encyclopedia counted seven Jews who escaped during the early 1940s; among them, the author of the Grojanowski Report written under an assumed name by Szlama Ber Winer, prisoner from the Jewish Sonderkommando who escaped only to perish at Bełżec during the liquidation of yet another Jewish ghetto in German-occupied Poland. In June 1945 two survivors testified at the trial of camp personnel in Łódź. The three best-known survivors testified about Chełmno at the 1961 trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Two survivors testified also at the camp personnel trials conducted in 1962–65 by West Germany.

Henry Morgentaler

Henekh "Henry" Morgentaler, (March 19, 1923 – May 29, 2013), was a Jewish Polish-born Canadian physician and pro-choice advocate who fought numerous legal battles aimed at expanding abortion rights in Canada. As a youth during World War II, Morgentaler was imprisoned at the Łódź Ghetto and later at the Dachau concentration camp.

After the war, Morgentaler migrated to Canada and entered medical practice, becoming one of the first Canadian doctors to perform vasectomies, to insert intrauterine devices, and to provide birth control pills to unmarried women. He opened his first abortion clinic in 1969 in Montreal, challenging what he saw as an unjust law placing burdensome restrictions on women seeking abortions. He was the first doctor in North America to use vacuum aspiration and went on to open twenty clinics and train more than one hundred doctors. Morgentaler twice challenged the constitutionality of the federal abortion law, losing the first time, in Morgentaler v R in 1975, but winning the second time, in R v Morgentaler in 1988.In 2008, Morgentaler was awarded the Order of Canada "for his commitment to increased health care options for women, his determined efforts to influence Canadian public policy and his leadership in humanist and civil liberties organizations." Morgentaler died at the age of 90 of a heart attack.

History of the Jews during World War II

The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya). The massive scale of the Holocaust which happened during World War II heavily affected the Jewish nation and world public opinion, which only understood the dimensions of the Final Solution after the war. The genocide, known as HaShoah in Hebrew, aimed at the elimination of the Jewish people on the European continent. It was a broadly organized operation led by Nazi Germany, in which approximately six million Jews were murdered methodically and with horrifying cruelty. During the Holocaust in occupied Poland, more than one million Jews were murdered in gas chambers of the Auschwitz concentration camp alone. The murder of the Jews of Europe affected Jewish communities in Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine.Leading to World War II, nearly all Jewish firms in Nazi Germany had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been forced to sell out to the Nazi German government as part of the "Aryanization" policy inaugurated in 1937. As the war started, massacres of Jews took place originally as part of Operation Tannenberg against the Polish nation. The much larger and methodical mass killings of Jews began with the onset of Operation Barbarossa. Led by Einsatzkommandos and the Orpo battalions, the destruction of European Jews took place with the active participation of local Auxiliary Police including Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian Schutzmannschaften.

Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe

After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933, Jews began to escape German-occupied Europe.

Nadvirna

Nadvírna, also referred to as Nadwirna or Nadvorna (Ukrainian: Надві́рна, Polish: Nadwórna, Yiddish: נאַדוואָרנאַ‎, Nadvorna) is a city located in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast in western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of Nadvirna Raion. Population: 22,281 (2016 est.).

From the mid-14th century until 1772 (see Partitions of Poland) Nadvirna, known in Polish as Nadwórna, was part of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, it was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, and remained in the province of Galicia until late 1918. In the inter-war years, the borders changed and the town became part of the Second Polish Republic. Following the 1939 Invasion of Poland, it was annexed into the Ukrainian SSR (see also Molotov-Ribbentrop pact). Nadvirna was occupied by the Germans in 1941 during World War II. After the war it was once again absorbed into the Ukrainian SSR. Since its independence in 1991, the city has been part of Ukraine.

The town is located in a slightly hilly, verdant area twenty miles (32 km) northeast of the Carpathian mountains. Major exports and raw materials from the town include salt, oil and petroleum products, and timber. The town was popular at the start of the 20th century as a summertime resort, with restaurants and hotels.

The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945 across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population. The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labour in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933, and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935. On 9–10 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known as Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews from the rest of the population. Eventually thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe.

The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany's allies. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945. By mid-1942, victims were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were worked to death or gassed. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945.

The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, usually defined as beginning in January 1933, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs (chiefly ethnic Poles, Soviet citizens, and Soviet prisoners of war), the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters, and gay men. The death toll of these groups is thought to rise to 11 million.

The Holocaust in Poland

This article is about the Holocaust within the September 1, 1939 boundaries of Poland, which ceased to exist as a territorial entity after the Nazi-Soviet attack and occupation from the start of WWII, and starting with annexations in October 1939 was mostly inside Nazi Germany by 1944. For the Holocaust in Germany, see History of the Jews in Germany#The Holocaust in Germany.

The Holocaust in German-occupied Poland was part of the European-wide Holocaust. It was marked by the construction of death camps by Nazi Germany, the use of gas vans and mass shootings by German troops and in particular their Ukrainian and Lithuanian auxiliaries.

The genocide took the lives of three million Polish Jews, half of all Jews killed during the Holocaust. The extermination camps played a central role in Germany's systematic murder of over 90% of the Second Polish Republic's Jewish population, as well as the killing of Jews that Germany transported to their deaths from western and southern Europe.

Every branch of the sophisticated German bureaucracy was involved in the killing process,from the Interior and Finance Ministries to German firms and state-run railroads. German companies bid for contracts to build crematoria in concentration camps run by Germany in the General Government and in other areas of occupied Poland and beyond. A small percentage of Polish Jews survived World War II within German-occupied Poland or in the Soviet Union.

Timeline of World War II

This is a list of timelines of events over the period of World War II, as well as the prelude to the war.

Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway

A timeline of the Holocaust in Norway is detailed in the events listed below.

Łachwa Ghetto

Łachwa (or Lakhva) Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto in Western Belarus during World War II. Located in Lakhva, Belarus), the ghetto was created with the aim of persecution and exploitation of the local Jews. The ghetto existed until September 1942. It was the location of one of the first Jewish ghetto uprising.

Łódź Ghetto

The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto (after the Nazi German name of Łódź) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland. It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto. Situated in the city of Łódź, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army. The number of people incarcerated in it was augmented further by the Jews deported from the Third Reich territories.On 30 April 1940, when the gates closed on the ghetto, it housed 163,777 residents. Because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944. In the first two years, it absorbed almost 20,000 Jews from liquidated ghettos in nearby Polish towns and villages, as well as 20,000 more from the rest of German-occupied Europe. After the wave of deportations to Chełmno death camp beginning in early 1942, and in spite of a stark reversal of fortune, the Germans persisted in eradicating the ghetto: they transported the remaining population to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camps, where most were murdered upon arrival. It was the last ghetto in occupied Poland to be liquidated. A total of 210,000 Jews passed through it; but only 877 remained hidden when the Soviets arrived. About 10,000 Jewish residents of Łódź, who used to live there before the invasion of Poland, survived the Holocaust elsewhere.

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