Timeline of the Catholic Church

As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches and the Church of the East,[1] the history of the Roman Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole. It is also, according to church historian, Mark A. Noll, the "world's oldest continuously functioning international institution." [2] This article covers a period of just under two thousand years.

Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The major divisions occurred in c.144 with Marcionism,[3] 318 with Arianism, 1054 to 1449 (see East–West Schism) during which time the Orthodox Churches of the East parted ways with the Western Church over doctrinal issues (see the filioque) and papal primacy, and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. This Church has been the driving force behind some of the major events of world history including the Christianization of Western and Central Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the universities, hospitals, the Western tradition of monasticism, the development of art and music, literature, architecture, contributions to the scientific method, just war theory and trial by jury. It has played a powerful role in global affairs, including the Reconquista, the Crusades, the Inquisition, the Investiture Controversy, the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century.

Ministry of Jesus and founding

Christ pantocrator daphne1090-1100
Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
  • Tthe calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called 1 BC, history places his birth some time between 6 and 1 BC.
  • 28 AD: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 28 AD (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly suggest Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus, being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus, being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus; preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount; and performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
  • 30 AD: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sanhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. He was then crucified under Pontius Pilate. According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead". Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time." (Matthew 28:18–20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized.

Early Christianity

  • 52 AD: Traditional arrival of St. Thomas to Kerala, the Apostle in India.
  • 64 AD: The Neronian Persecution begins under Nero after the great fire of Rome. Martyrdom of Saint Peter. Persecution of Christians continues intermittently until 313 AD.
  • 67 AD: Martyrdom of Saint Paul outside of Rome. Pope Linus becomes the first official pope.
  • 68 AD: Neronian Persecution ends with the suicide of Nero.
  • 70 AD: Fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple.
  • 76 AD: Martyrdom of Pope Linus.
  • 110 AD: Ignatius of Antioch uses the term Catholic Church in a letter to the church at Smyrna, in one of the letters of undisputed authenticity attributed to him. In this and other genuine letters he insists on the importance of the bishops in the church and speaks harshly about heretics and Judaizers.
  • 150 AD: Latin translations (the Vetus Latina) from the Greek texts of the Scriptures are circulated among non-Greek-speaking Christian communities.
  • 180 AD: Irenaeus's Adversus Haereses brings the concept of "heresy" further to the fore in the first systematic attempt to counter Gnostic and other aberrant teachings. In the same work, he taught that the most reliable source of apostolic guidance was the episcopacy of Rome.
  • 250 AD: Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
  • 312 AD: Emperor Constantine leads the forces of the Roman Empire to victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Tradition has it that, the night before the battle, Constantine had a vision that he would achieve victory if he fought under the Symbol of Christ; accordingly, his soldiers bore on their shields the Chi-Rho sign composed of the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΌΣ).

313–476

Constantine Musei Capitolini
Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini

477–799

Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

800–1453

Paris Notre-Dame, July 2001
Notre-Dame Cathedral – designed in the Gothic architectural style.

1454–1599

Michelangelo's Pieta 5450 cropncleaned edit
Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

1600–1699

1700-1799

19th century

20th century

21st century

Pope Benedictus XVI january,20 2006 (20)
Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century
  • April 30, 2000 : Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as Divine Mercy Sunday in the General Roman Calendar, with effect from the following year.
  • January 1, 2001: The 21st century and the new millennium begin. The Church solemnizes the start of the third Christian millennium by extending into part of the year 2001 the jubilee year that it observes at 25-year intervals and that, in the case of the year 2000, it called the Great Jubilee.
  • January 6, 2001: John Paul II issues Novo Millennio Ineunte, a program for the Church in the new millennium, wherein he placed sanctity through a training in prayer as the most important priority of the Catholic Church in consonance with its purpose.
  • January 18, 2002: Former American priest John Geoghan is convicted of child molestation and sentenced to ten years in prison, as part of the ongoing sex abuse scandal. The Geoghan case was one of the worst scandals of the Catholic Church in the USA.
  • 2004: Cambridge University Press publishes Hans Urs von Balthasar's The Cambridge Companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar.
  • April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II dies at the age of 84. His funeral is broadcast to every corner of the globe through the modern media. Millions of Catholic pilgrims journey to Rome to pay final respects.
  • April 19, 2005: German-born Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium.
  • August 18, 2005: Pope Benedict XVI attends the World Youth Day in Cologne, Germany, his first trip outside Italy.
  • September 12, 2006: Pope Benedict XVI delivers address on Faith, Reason in University of Regensburg. Benedict maintained that in the Western world, to a large degree, only positivistic reason and philosophy are valid. A concept of reason which excludes the divine, is incapable of entering into the dialogue of cultures, according to Benedict.[29] He quoted negative views of Emperor Manuel II Paleologus, regarding Islam, which several weeks after it was delivered, created violent reactions among Muslims in several parts of the world.[30][31][32][33][34]
  • June 11, 2007 Pope Benedict XVI reverted the decision of his predecessor regarding papal elections, and restored the traditional two-thirds majority required[35]
  • July 7, 2007: Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum is issued by Pope Benedict XVI explicitly liberating the Roman Missal of 1962 as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. Hopes of healing the schism between the SSPX and the Catholic Church is implied in accompanying letter to the motu proprio.
  • October 28, 2007: Pope Benedict XVI authorizes the largest beatification ceremony in Church history involving 498 Spanish Martyrs who were killed during the Civil War in Spain.
  • 2007: James MacMillan composes The Sacrifice. In 1992, he composed Veni, Veni, Emmanuel.
  • May 2008: A solemn declaration agreed on between Pope Benedict XVI and Muslims, led by Mahdi Mostafavi, stressed that genuine religion is essentially non-violent and that violence can be justified neither by reason nor by faith.[36]
  • July 2008: Pope Benedict XVI participates in Sydney Australia in the World Youth Day and announces Spain as the country to host the next one.
  • January 2009: The Holy See remitted the excommunications of the bishops of the Society of St. Pius X, which has been criticized for its schimatic nature with the Magisterium.
  • October 11, 2009: Father Damien, a Belgian priest known as the "Apostle of the Lepers," is canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.
  • October 17, 2010: Mary MacKillop, Australian nun of Scottish descent, is canonized by Pope Benedict XVI. She is the first Australian saint to be canonized. Also canonized is Holy Cross lay brother, Andre Bessette of Montreal, Canada, whose efforts and inspiration led to the building of Saint Joseph's Oratory, Montreal.
  • October 21, 2012 Kateri Tekakwitha, Algonquin- Mohawk laywoman known as the "Lily of the Mohawks," is canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.
  • 2012: Hildegard of Bingen is made a Doctor of the Church.
  • February 2013: Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI
  • March 2013: Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina elected as Pope Francis and is the first Latin American and the first Jesuit to be elected Pope.
  • 12 May 2013 : Pope Francis canonized over 800 Catholics that were killed by Turks in Otranto, 1480. With this he surpassed the record of John Paul II in canonizing the most saints in a pontificate.
  • February 2015 : Charles Maung Bo and Soane Patita Mafi are the first cardinals from Myanmar and Tonga.
  • May 23, 2015: Oscar Romero, the asissinated Archbishop of San Salvador, was beatified by Pope Francis.
  • 2015: Beatification (by Pope Francis) of the Three Martyrs of Chimbote, murdered in 1991 in Chimbote, Peru, by members of the communist guerrilla group, the Shining Path.
  • 8 December 2015 to 20 November 2016 : The Extraordinary Jubilee Year of Mercy, Rome received 21.3 million pilgrims, shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe received 22 million pilgrims, and World Youth Day in Krakow received 3 million pilgrims. According to archbishop Fisichella, president of Pontifical Council for New Evangelization, between 56% and 62% of all Catholics participated in the events while pilgrims in Rome mostly came from Germany, US, Poland, Spanish speaking countries and there were many who came from China, Chad, Rwanda, Nepal and Cook Islands.
  • July 26, 2016: Jacques Hamel French priest, is murdered in the parish of Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray by two extremists who pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The Diocese of Rouen has officially opened his canonization cause.
  • Nov. 2, 2017: Pope Francis suggests recruiting "proven" married men to become priests for dioceses in the Roman/Latin/Western Church where there are few priests. [37] Eastern Catholic Churches do allow married clergy, among other traditions.[38]
  • May 13, 2017: Pope Francis canonized Francisco and Jacinta Marto, witnesses to the Marian apparitions at Fatima, Portugal.
  • Dec. 18, 2017: Pope Francis named priest-communicator, Patrick Peyton, C.S.C., venerable. Fr. Peyton founded the international Family Rosary Crusade and Family Theater.
  • May 18, 2018: Bishops of Chile offer their resignations to Pope Francis owing to criminal negligence in dealing with child sexual abuse among some clerics. Francis also accepts the resignations of other bishops and cardinals in other countries for similar reasons. Like Pope Callixtus II, who, in 1123, convoked the First Ecumenical Lateran Council to reckon with widespread concubinage and other abuses among clergy, Francis faces a far worse crisis among clergy -- child abuse and lack of effective episcopal oversight. [39] [40]
  • August 2, 2018: Pope Francis declares the death penalty is unacceptable in all cases because it is "an attack" on human dignity. [41]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Orthodox Church and some other predominantly non-Western Churches are also apostolic in origin — i.e., they also trace their origins back to the founding of the Church at the time of the Apostles
  2. ^ The New Shape of World Christianity, Mark A. Noll (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009),191..
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marcionites" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.: "...they were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known."
  4. ^ Chadwick, Henry, pp. 23–24.
  5. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. John the Evangelist" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  6. ^ St. John the Evangelist, ewtn.com, retrieved September 30, 2006
  7. ^ EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS, ed., Cyril C. Richardson (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 230.
  8. ^ THE STUDY OF SPIRITUALITY. eds., Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, S.J. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 102-3.
  9. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 107.
  10. ^ McMullen, p. 44.
  11. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis – Constantine I, retrieved February 23, 2007
  12. ^ S.R.E. Humbert, Adversus Graecorium calumnias 6, in Patrologie Cursus Completus, series Latina, e.d. J.P.Migne, 1844, p.143
  13. ^ Duffy, p. 29.
  14. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, volume 3 (Washington: Catholic University Press, 2002), 556-557
  15. ^ Duffy, p. 30.
  16. ^ J. P. Rodriguez, with foreword by Orlando Patterson CHRONOLOGY OF WORLD SLAVERY (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999). 50.
  17. ^ "Waldenses | Description, History, & Beliefs". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  18. ^ Rodriguez, p. 53.
  19. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 317.
  20. ^ Rodriguez, 57.
  21. ^ Rodriguez, 61, 150.
  22. ^ Rodriguez, 62.
  23. ^ "Suave Molecules of Mocha" Archived March 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan – A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, March 7, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2006
  24. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 382.
  25. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 425-6.
  26. ^ Rodriguez, 297.
  27. ^ Hubert Jedin, Church history, 619
  28. ^ Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved November 20, 2006
  29. ^ Benedict XVI, Meeting with the representatives of science in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensburg (September 12, 2006)
  30. ^ Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved October 18, 2006
  31. ^ "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved October 18, 2006
  32. ^ Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved October 18, 2006
  33. ^ Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved October 18, 2006
  34. ^ Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters Archived October 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved October 18, 2006
  35. ^ Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007
  36. ^ Kleiber, Reinhard (2008). "Iran and the Pope Easing Relations". Quantara. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  37. ^ John Phillips, "Pope raises prospects of married men becoming priests," www.telegraph.co.uk, Nov. 2, 2017.
  38. ^ Richard P. Mc Brien, THE CHURCH, The Evolution of Catholicism (New York: Harper One, 2008), 450.
  39. ^ William Dailey, C.S.C., "Would a mass resignation of bishops hurt the US Church? Quite the opposite," www.catholicherald.co.uk/commentandblogs/2018/08/16.
  40. ^ Thomas Reese, S.J., "Pennsylvania grand jury report is a new low for Catholic Church," www.ncronline.org/news/accountability/signs-times/August 15,2018
  41. ^ Elisabetta Povoledo and Laurie Goodstein, "Pope Declares Death Penalty Always Wrong," NEW YORK TIMES, p.1.

Further reading

  • The History of the Catholic Church, From the Apostolic Age to the Third Millennium James Hitchcock, Ph.D. Ignatius Press, 2012 ISBN 978-1-58617-664-8
  • Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church. Crocker, H.W.
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4

External links

16 Martyrs of Japan

The Martyrs of Japan (日本の殉教者, Nihon no junkyōsha) were Christians who were persecuted for their faith in Japan, mostly during the 17th century.

205 Martyrs of Japan

The Martyrs of Japan (日本の殉教者, Nihon no junkyōsha) were Christian missionaries and followers who were persecuted and executed for their faith in Japan, mostly during the Tokugawa shogunate period in the 17th century.

26 Martyrs of Japan

The Twenty-Six Martyrs of Japan (日本二十六聖人, Nihon Nijūroku Seijin) were a group of Catholics who were executed by crucifixion on February 5, 1597, at Nagasaki. Their martyrdom is especially significant in the history of Catholic Church in Japan.

A promising beginning to Catholic missions in Japan – perhaps as many as 300,000 Catholics by the end of the sixteenth century – met complications from competition between the missionary groups, political difficulty between Spain and Portugal, and factions within the government of Japan. Christianity was suppressed, and it was during this time that the 26 martyrs were executed. By 1630, Catholicism had been driven underground. When Christian missionaries returned to Japan 250 years later, they found a community of "hidden Catholics" that had survived underground.

Apostolic Age

In Christianity, the Apostolic Age is the period from the death of Jesus until the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles (c. 33 – c. 100 AD). It holds special significance in Christian tradition as the age of the direct apostles of Jesus.

The earliest followers of Jesus were principally from apocalyptic Jewish sects during the late Second Temple period of the 1st century. They were Jewish Christians, who strictly adhered to the Jewish commands. Jerusalem had an early Christian community, which was led by James the Just, Peter, and John.

Paul the Apostle, a pious Jew who had persecuted the early Christians, converted c. AD 33–36 and started to proselytize among the gentiles. According to Paul, gentile converts could be allowed exemption from most Jewish commandments, arguing that all are justified by faith in Jesus. This led to a gradual split of early Christianity from Judaism, as Christianity became a predominantly gentile religion.

Archbishopric of Moravia

The Archbishopric of Moravia (Latin: Sancta Ecclesia Marabensis) was an ecclesiastical province, established by the Holy See to promote Christian missions among the Slavic peoples. Its first archbishop, the Byzantine Methodius, persuaded Pope John VIII to sanction the use of Old Church Slavonic in liturgy. Methodius was consecrated archbishop of Pannonia by Pope Adrian II at the request of Koceľ, the Slavic ruler of Pannonia in East Francia in 870.

Methodius's appointment was sharply opposed by the Bavarian prelates, especially the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Bishop of Passau, because missionaries from their dioceses had already been active for decades in the territory designated to Methodius, including Pannonia and Moravia. Methodius was soon captured and imprisoned. He was only released in 873 on Pope John VIII's order. He settled in Moravia which emerged as a leading power in Central Europe during the next decade in the reign of Svatopluk. However, most clerics, who had come from East Francia, were hostile to the archbishop, who introduced Byzantine customs and promoted the use of vernacular in liturgy. They accused Methodius of heresy, but he convinced the pope of the orthodoxy of his views. The pope also strengthened Methodious's position, declaring that all clerics in Moravia, including the newly consecrated bishop of Nitra, were to be obedient to Methodius in 880.

Methodius died on 6 April 885. Wiching, Bishop of Nitra, who had always been hostile to the archbishop, expelled his disciples from Moravia. No new archbishop was appointed, and Wiching, who remained the only prelate with a see in Moravia, settled in East Francia in the early 890s. Church hierarchy was only restored in Moravia when the legates of Pope John IX consecrated an archbishop and three bishops around 899. However, the Magyars occupied Moravia in the first decade of the 10th century.

Catechism of the Catholic Church

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Latin: Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992. It sums up, in book form, the beliefs of the Catholic faithful.

A catechism ( /ˈkætəˌkizəm/; from Greek: κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.

Catholic Church and ecumenism

The Catholic Church has engaged in the modern ecumenical movement especially since the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) and the issuing of the decree Unitatis redintegratio and the declaration Dignitatis humanae. It was at the Council that the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity was created. Before that time, those outside of the Catholic Church were categorised as heretics (in reference to Protestantism and other groups) or schismatics (as in the case of the Orthodox Church).

Christianity in the 10th century

By the 10th century, Christianity had spread throughout much of Europe and Asia. The Church of England was becoming well established, with its scholarly monasteries, and the Roman Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church were continuing their separation, ultimately culminating in the Great Schism.

Christianity in the 1st century

Christianity in the 1st century deals with the formative years of the Early Christian community. The earliest followers of Jesus were composed principally from apocalyptic Jewish sects during the late Second Temple period of the 1st century. They were Jewish Christians, who strictly adhered to the Jewish law. Jerusalem had an early Christian community, which was led by James the Just, Peter, and John.Paul the Apostle, a pious Jew who had persecuted the early Christians, converted c. AD 33–36 and started to proselytize among the Gentiles. According to Paul, Gentile converts could be allowed exemption from most Jewish commandments, arguing that all are justified by faith in Jesus. This led to a gradual split of early Christianity from Judaism, as Christianity became a predominantly Gentile religion.

History of the Catholic Church

According to tradition, the history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and his teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30) and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by The Disciples Of Jesus. The Church considers its bishops to be the successors to Jesus's apostles and the Church's leader, the Bishop of Rome (also known as the Pope) to be the sole successor to Saint Peter, who ministered in Rome in the first century AD, after his appointment by Jesus as head of the church. By the end of the 2nd century, bishops began congregating in regional synods to resolve doctrinal and policy issues. By the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve.Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. In 313, the struggles of the Early Church were lessened by the legalisation of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine I. In 380, under Emperor Theodosius I, Catholicism became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the Emperor, which would persist until the fall of the Western Empire, and later, with the Eastern Roman Empire, until the Fall of Constantinople. During this time, the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, there were considered five primary sees (jurisdictions within the Catholic Church) according to Eusebius: Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, known as the Pentarchy.

The battles of Toulouse preserved the Catholic west, even though Rome itself was ravaged in 850, and Constantinople besieged. In the 11th century, already strained relations between the primarily Greek church in the East, and the Latin church in the West, developed into the East-West Schism, partially due to conflicts over papal authority. The Fourth Crusade, and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. Prior to and during the 16th century, the Church engaged in a process of reform and renewal. Reform during the 16th century is known as the Counter-Reformation. In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world despite experiencing a reduction in its hold on European populations due to the growth of Protestantism and also because of religious skepticism during and after the Enlightenment. The Second Vatican Council in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent four centuries before.

History of the Catholic Church since 1962

Post Vatican II history of the Catholic Church includes the recent history of the Catholic Church since the Second Vatican Council.

Index of Catholic Church articles

See also: Catholic Church, Glossary of the Catholic Church, Outline of Catholicism, Timeline of the Catholic Church, Index of Vatican City-related articles

This page is a list of Catholic Church topics. Portals and navigation boxes are at the bottom of the page. For a listing of Catholic Church articles by category, see Category:Catholic Church (and its various subcategories and pages) at the bottom of the page.

For various lists, see "L" (below)

Martyrs of Japan

The Martyrs of Japan (日本の殉教者, Nihon no junkyōsha) were Christian missionaries and followers who were persecuted and executed for being more loyal to Jesus than the Shogunate, mostly during the Tokugawa shogunate period in the 17th century.

Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults

The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA), or Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum (OICA) is a process developed by the Catholic Church for prospective converts to Catholicism who are above the age of infant baptism. Candidates are gradually introduced to aspects of Catholic beliefs and practices. The basic process applies to adults and older children, with younger children initiated through an adapted version sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC).

Some Catholic movements, like the Polish Light-Life and the Neocatechumenal Way originated in Spain, promote post-baptismal formation based on the RCIA. Similarly, the Knights of Columbus provides a free correspondence course under the Catholic Information Services (CIS) program.According to William Harmless, when the Vatican promulgated the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) in 1972, it showed unexpected radicalism. The true goal of the document was a reversion of a thousand years of initiatory practice and attitude of the Western Church. Ralph Keifer described it as a liturgical revolution, "under the aegis of an ecumenical council, with the approval of the Roman see, and over the signature of the Roman pontiff, the primary rites of initiation ... have been turned upside down and inside out, heralding a cry to begin a reform and renewal of the most radical sort.” Harmless pointed out that the whole project can be easily tamed, watered down, or ignored as it introduces things radically different from many of the Church's inherited liturgical, pastoral, and catechetical habits. He notices also that the document gives only the barest outline and needs to be completed by a thorough research of the practice of the Fathers of the Church who were experts in the field of Christian initiation.The ideal is for there to be an RCIA process available in every Roman Catholic parish. Those who want to join an RCIA group should aim to attend one in the parish where they live.

For those who join an RCIA process it is a period of reflection, prayer, instruction, discernment, and formation. There is no set timetable and those who join the process are encouraged to go at their own pace, taking as much time as they need.

The US bishops have said that the process "should extend for at least one year for formation, instruction, and probation" for those who have had no previous experience with living a Christian life. However, "nothing ... can be settled a priori. The time spent in the catechumenate should be long enough—several years if necessary—for the conversion and faith of the catechumens to become strong." For those who have some experience leading a Christian life, the process should be much shorter, "according to the individual case."Those who enter the process are expected to begin attending Mass on a Sunday, participate in regular faith formation activities, and to become increasingly involved in the activities of their local parish.

Priests "have the responsibility of attending to the pastoral and personal care of the catechumens." Throughout the process, they are assisted in this by deacons and catechists.

Timeline of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church

This is a timeline of the history of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India.

Treaty of Ceprano (1230)

The Treaty of Ceprano was signed in Ceprano on August 1230 between Pope Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Based on the terms of the accord, Frederick agreed not to violate any territories held by the Papacy. In return for Frederick's concessions in Sicily, the Pope removed his sentence of excommunication. Overall, the treaty helped to establish lines of reconciliation between the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church.

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