A True Story was written by Lucian of Samosata, contains a number of SF elements, like travel in space, alien life forms, interplanetary colonization and war, artificial atmosphere, telescopes, and artificial life forms.
James William Barlow publishes the book The Immortals' Great Quest. Translated from an Unpublished Manuscript in the Library of a Continental University (i.e. written by) by James William Barlow. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
Visions of Tomorrow, a short-lived science fiction journal, is founded. While it remains in publication for only one year, it is the first English-language periodical to publish one of Stanisław Lem's short stories.
^ abRichardson, Matthew (2001). The Halstead Treasury of Ancient Science Fiction. Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales: Halstead Press. ISBN 1-875684-64-6. (cf."Once Upon a Time". Emerald City (85). September 2002. Retrieved 2008-09-17.)
^Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf.Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadJames, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. xx. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abStableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abStableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abcStableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abcdeClute, John (1995). Science Fiction: the Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 0-7894-0185-1.
^ abWillis, Martin (2006). Mesmerists, Monsters, and Machines: Science Fiction and the Cultures of Science in the Nineteenth Century. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. pp. 29–30.
^ abStableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abcdefgClute, John (1995). Science Fiction: the Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 37. ISBN 0-7894-0185-1.
^ abcdStableford, Brian (2003). "Science fiction before the genre". In Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
^ abcClute, John (1995). Science Fiction: the Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 42. ISBN 0-7894-0185-1.
^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadaeafagahJames, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. xxvii. ISBN 978-0-521-01657-5.
The literary genre of science fiction is diverse, and its exact definition remains a contested question among both scholars and devotees. This lack of consensus is reflected in debates about the genre's history, particularly over determining its exact origins. There are two broad camps of thought, one that identifies the genre's roots in early fantastical works such as the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (earliest Sumerian text versions c. 2150–2000 BCE). A second approach argues that science fiction only became possible sometime between the 17th and early 19th centuries, following the scientific revolution and major discoveries in astronomy, physics, and mathematics.
Question of deeper origins aside, science fiction developed and boomed in the 20th century, as the deep integration of science and inventions into daily life encouraged a greater interest in literature that explores the relationship between technology, society, and the individual. Scholar Robert Scholes calls the history of science fiction "the history of humanity's changing attitudes toward space and time ... the history of our growing understanding of the universe and the position of our species in that universe." In recent decades, the genre has diversified and become firmly established as a major influence on global culture and thought.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science fiction:
Science fiction – a genre of fiction dealing with the impact of imagined innovations in science or technology, often in a futuristic setting. or depicting space exploration. Exploring the consequences of such innovations is the traditional purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas".
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, and extraterrestrial life. Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a "literature of ideas".
Star Trek is an American space opera media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series, simply called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on the television network NBC. It followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel, built by the United Federation of Planets in the twenty-third century. The Star Trek canon of the franchise includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, and further adaptations in several media.
In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, and westerns such as the television series Wagon Train. These adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Four spin-off television series were eventually produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation followed the crew of a new starship Enterprise set a century after the original series; Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Voyager set contemporaneously with The Next Generation; and Star Trek: Enterprise set before the original series in the early days of human interstellar travel. The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, premiered on CBS and was later made available exclusively on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled simply Star Trek. This film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show; their adventures were continued in the sequel film, Star Trek Into Darkness (2013). The thirteenth film feature and sequel, Star Trek Beyond (2016), was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary.
Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkies or Trekkers. The franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, figurines, novels, toys, and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged constructed language, Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions. As of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is also noted for its progressive civil rights stances. The Original Series included one of television's first multiracial casts. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park.
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