The early 20th century saw such a boom in hadrosaur discoveries and research that paleontologists' knowledge of these dinosaurs "increased by virtually an order of magnitude" according to a 2004 review by Horner, Weishampel, and Forster. This period is known as the great North American Dinosaur rush because of the research and excavation efforts of paleontologists like Brown, Gilmore, Lambe, Parks, and the Sternbergs. Major discoveries included the variety of cranial ornamentation among hadrosaurs as scientist came to characterize uncrested, solid crested, and hollow crested species. Notable new taxa included Saurolophus, Corythosaurus, Edmontosaurus, and Lambeosaurus. In 1942Richard Swann Lull and Wright published what Horner, Weishampel, and Forster characterized as the "first important synthesis of hadrosaurid anatomy and phylogeny".
More recent discoveries include gigantic hadrosaurs like Shantungosaurus giganteus from China. At 15 meters in length and nearly 16 metric tons in weight it is the largest known hadrosaur and is known from a nearly complete skeleton.
Hadrosaur research has continued to remain active even into the new millennium. In 2000, Horner and others found that hatchling Maiasaura grew to adult body sizes at a rate more like a mammal's than a reptile. That same year, Case and others reported the discovery of hadrosaur bones in Vega Island, Antarctica. After decades of such dedicated research, hadrosaurs have become one of the best understood group of dinosaurs.
Leidy collaborated with artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins to mount Hadrosaurus foulkii for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This became both the first mounted dinosaur skeleton ever mounted for public display and also one of the most popular exhibits in the history of the Academy. Estimates have the Hadrosaurus exhibit as increasing the number of visitors by up to 50%.
Charles H. Sternberg's crew excavated a Corythosaurus from quarry 243 in Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. The specimen would later be displayed at the Calgary Zoo.
Matthew observed that fossils of hadrosaur eggs and hatchlings were absent in coastal areas and suggested that hadrosaurs may have preferred nesting grounds further inland. He believed that these inland nesting grounds were actually where hadrosaurs first evolved and therefore to breed, hadrosaurs retraced their ancestors route back to their place of origin. After hatching, the young hadrosaurs would spend some time inland maturing before migrating out to more coastal areas.
Russel and Chamney studied distribution of hadrosaur in Maastrichtian North America. The concluded that Edmontosaurus regalis lived near the coasts while Hypacrosaurus altispinus and Saurolophus osborni lived slightly more inland.
Galton argued that the anatomy of the hadrosaur pelvis was more consistent with a horizontal posture like that seen in modern flightless birds than with the "kangaroo" posture they were often reconstructed in.
Carpenter disputed the idea that hadrosaurs only nested in upland environments, instead arguing that fossil hadrosaur eggs and hatchlings were only absent from coastal deposits because the chemistry of the ancient soils were simply too acidic to preserve them.
Thulborn argued that hadrosaurs may have been able to run at speeds of up to 14–20 km/hr for sustained periods.
Brett-Surman described the new genus Anatotitan for Anatosaurus copei.
Horner argued that the hadrosaurids were not a natural group, and instead that the two major groups of hadrosaurs, the generally uncrested hadrosaurines and the crested lambeosaurs had separate origins within the Iguanodontia. Horner though that the uncrested hadrosaurs were descended from a relative of Iguanodon, while the crested lambeosaurs were descended from a relative of Ouranosaurus. However, this proposal would find no support in any subsequent research publication.
Weishampel and Horner found the Hadrosauridae to be a natural group after all. They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae.
Weishampel reported the presence of hadrosaurs on the Antarctic peninsula.
Weishampel and others proposed a node-based definition for the Hadrosauridae: the descendants of the most recent common ancestor shared by Telmatosaurus and Parasaurolophus. They found the hadrosaurs to be a natural group, contrary to Horner's 1990 arguments that the hadrosaur subfamilies were descended from different kinds of iguanodont. They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae.
Clouse and Horner reported the presence of hadrosaur egg, embryo and hatchling fossils from the Judith River Formation of Montana. Since these sediments were deposited in a low-lying coastal plain, the researchers' discovery contradicted previous hypotheses that hadrosaurs either didn't nest in lowland areas or that local ancient soil was too acidic to preserve them.
Chin and Gill described Maiasaura peeblesorumcoprolites from an ancient nesting ground of that species. The coprolites were "blocky", irregularly-shaped masses that preserved plant fragments. The researchers identified it as feces because the masses contained fossilized dung beetle burrows. The plant material suggested a diet consisting mainly of conifer stems.
Forster found the hadrosaurs to be a natural group, contrary to Horner's 1990 arguments that the hadrosaur subfamilies were descended from different kinds of iguanodont. They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae. She preferred to define the Hadrosauridae as the most recent common ancestor of the hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines and all of its descendants. Unlike the definition used by Weishampel and others in 1993, this definition excluded Telmatosaurus.
Case and others reported the presence of hadrosaurs on the Antarctica peninsula. The remains studied were found on Vega Island and represent the southernmost known hadrosaur fossils. When the animals were still alive, this site was probably at a latitude of about 65 degrees South.
Horner and others studied the histology of Maiasaura peeblesorum bones. They found that Maiasaura only took 8–10 years to reach adult body size. A 7 metres (23 ft) adult Maiasaura could have an adult body mass of over 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb) despite hatching at a length of about half a meter and with a body mass of less than a kilogram. This disparity implies a rate or growth similar to those found in modern mammals.
A study on the nature of the fluvial systems of Laramidia during the Late Cretaceous, as indicated by data from vertebrate and invertebrate fossils from the Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, and on the behavior of hadrosaurid dinosaurs over these landscapes, will be published by Crystal et al. (2019).
A study on the osteology and phylogenetic relationships of "Tanius laiyangensis" is published by Zhang et al. (2019).
A study on the bone histology of tibiae of Maiasaura peeblesorum, focusing on the composition, frequency and cortical extent of localized vascular changes, is published by Woodward (2019).
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^Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Fondevilla, Víctor; Sellés, Albert G.; Wagner, Jonathan R.; Galobart; Àngel (2019). "Adynomosaurus arcanus, a new lambeosaurine dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Ibero-Armorican Island of the European Archipelago". Cretaceous Research. 96: 19–37. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.12.002.
^Jialiang Zhang; Xiaolin Wang; Qiang Wang; Shunxing Jiang; Xin Cheng; Ning Li; Rui Qiu (2019). "A new saurolophine hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong, China". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 91 (Suppl. 2): e20160920. doi:10.1590/0001-3765201720160920. PMID28876393.
^Victoria F. Crystal; Erica S.J. Evans; Henry Fricke; Ian M. Miller; Joseph J.W. Sertich (2019). "Late Cretaceous fluvial hydrology and dinosaur behavior in southern Utah, USA: Insights from stable isotopes of biogenic carbonate". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 516: 152–165. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.11.022.
^Yu‐Guang Zhang; Ke‐Bai Wang; Shu‐Qing Chen; Di Liu; Hai Xing (2019). "Osteological re‐assessment and taxonomic revision of "Tanius laiyangensis" (Ornithischia: Hadrosauroidea) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong, China". The Anatomical Record. in press. doi:10.1002/ar.24097. PMID30773831.
^Holly N. Woodward (2019). "Maiasaura (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) tibia osteohistology reveals non-annual cortical vascular rings in young of the year". Frontiers in Earth Science. 7: Article 50. doi:10.3389/feart.2019.00050.
^Eamon T. Drysdale; François Therrien; Darla K. Zelenitsky; David B. Weishampel; David C. Evans (2019). "Description of juvenile specimens of Prosaurolophus maximus (Hadrosauridae: Saurolophinae) from the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation of southern Alberta, Canada, reveals ontogenetic changes in crest morphology". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. in press (6): e1547310. doi:10.1080/02724634.2018.1547310.
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Brachylophosaurini is a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurs with known material being from N. America and potentially Asia. It contains at least four taxa; Acristavus (from Montana and Utah), Brachylophosaurus (from Montana and Alberta), Maiasaura (also from Montana), and Probrachylophosaurus (also from Montana). A hadrosaur from the Amur river, Wulagasaurus, might be a member of this tribe, but this is disputed. The group was defined by Terry A. Gates and colleagues in 2011.The clade Brachylophosaurini was defined as "Hadrosaurine ornithopods more closely related to Brachylophosaurus, Maiasaura, or Acristavus than to Gryposaurus or Saurolophus".
Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.
Choyrodon is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Albian-age Khuren Dukh Formation of Mongolia. The type and only species is Choyrodon barsboldi. The generic name is derived from the city of Choyr, and -odon, from Greek for tooth; the specific name barsboldi honours paleontologist Rinchen Barsbold. The material consists of a holotype partial skull and cervical ribs, with two other partial skulls both with associated postcranial material. It was found to be the sister taxon of Eolambia.
Edmontosaurini are a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurs that lived in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous period. It currently contains Edmontosaurus (from the United States and Canada), Ugrunaaluk (from Alaska, U.S.), and Shantungosaurus (from Shandong, China), though Anatosaurus might be a distinct genus. Kerberosaurus and Kundurosaurus from Russia could also be members though are more likely saurolophins.
Hadrosauroidea is a clade or superfamily of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the "duck-billed" dinosaurs, or hadrosaurids, and all dinosaurs more closely related to them than to Iguanodon.They are from Asia, Europe and Africa. Many primitive hadrosauroids, such as the Asian Probactrosaurus and Altirhinus, have traditionally been included in a paraphyletic (unnatural grouping) "Iguanodontidae". With cladistic analysis, the traditional Iguanodontidae has been largely disbanded, and probably includes only Iguanodon and perhaps its closest relatives.
Koshisaurus is a monospecific genus of basal hadrosauroid from the Kitadani Formation in Japan. The discovery of the genus suggests that hadrosauroids had higher diversity along the eastern margin of Asia in the Early Cretaceous. "Koshi" means an old Japanese regional name including Fukui prefecture where fossils of the genus were discovered.
Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.
Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.
Levnesovia is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan. It was related to Bactrosaurus. The type species is L. transoxiana. The genus name honours the late Russian paleontologist Lev Nesov, and the specific name refers to the ancient region Transoxiana. It is known from the minority of the skull and would have reached around two meters in length.
Parasaurolophini is a tribe of derived lambeosaurine hadrosaurids that are native to Asia, N. America, and probably Europe. It is defined as everything closer to Parasaurolophus walkeri than to Lambeosaurus lambei. It currently contains Charonosaurus (from China), Parasaurolophus (from Utah, New Mexico, China and Alberta), and possibly Blasisaurus and Arenysaurus (both from Spain)
Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.
Saurolophini is a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurid native to the Americas and Asia. It includes Saurolophus (from Canada and Mongolia), Augustynolophus (from the United States), and Prosaurolophus (from Alberta, Canada, and Montana, U.S.). Kerberosaurus and Kundurosaurus may also be members. Bonapartesaurus, a hadrosaurid from Argentina, also has been identified as a member of this tribe.Fossils of saurolophins have been found in Canada, the United States and Asia, with the North American fossils being older than the Asian, suggesting saurolophins migrated intra-continentally.
Secernosaurus (meaning "severed lizard") is a genus of herbivorous dinosaur. Secernosaurus was a hadrosaur, a "duck-billed" dinosaur which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils have been found in the Lago Colhué Huapi and Los Alamitos Formations of Argentina.
Tsintaosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs native to Eurasia. It currently contains only Tsintaosaurus (from China) and Pararhabdodon (from Spain ).Koutalisaurus, also known from late Cretaceous Spain and formerly referred to Pararhabdodon
, may also be a tsintaosaurin because of its association with the latter genus; some recent work also suggests it may indeed be referrable to Pararhabdodon.
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