Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps

This is a timeline of deportations of French Jews to Nazi extermination camps in German-occupied Europe during World War II. The overall total of Jews deported from France is a minimum of 75,721.[1][2]

Date of
departure
Convoy # Place of
departure
Destination Number of
deportees
Number gassed
upon arrival
Male Female Male Female
Selected to work
at Auschwitz
Surviving
in 1945
March 27, 1942 1 Drancy/Compiègne Auschwitz 1,112 1,112 0 22 0
June 5, 1942 2 Compiègne Auschwitz 1,000 1,000 0 41 0
June 22, 1942 3 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 933 66 29 5
June 25, 1942 4 Pithiviers Auschwitz 999 1,000 0 59 0
June 28, 1942 5 Beaune-la-Rolande Auschwitz 1,038 1,004 34 55
July 17, 1942 6 Pithiviers Auschwitz 928 809 119 45
July 19, 1942 7 Drancy Auschwitz 999 375 504 121 17
July 20, 1942 8 Angers Auschwitz 827 23 411 390 19
July 22, 1942 9 Drancy Auschwitz 996 615 385 7
July 24, 1942 10 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 370 630 5
July 27, 1942 11 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 248 742 12 1
July 29, 1942 12 Drancy Auschwitz 1,001 216 270 514 5
July 31, 1942 13 Pithiviers Auschwitz 1,049 693 359 15 1
August 3, 1942 14 Pithiviers Auschwitz 1,034 482 22 542 3 3
August 5, 1942 15 Beaune-la-Rolande Auschwitz 1,014 704 214 96 5 1
August 7, 1942 16 Pithiviers Auschwitz 1,069 794 63 211 5 2
August 10, 1942 17 Drancy Auschwitz 1,006 766 140 100 1
August 12, 1942 18 Drancy Auschwitz 1,007 705 233 62 11
August 14, 1942 19 Drancy Auschwitz 991 875 115 1
August 17, 1942 20 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 878 65 34 3
August 19, 1942 21 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 817 138 45 5
August 21, 1942 22 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 892 90 18 7
August 24, 1942 23 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 908 92 3
August 26, 1942 24 Drancy Auschwitz 1,002 937[a] 27 36 24
August 28, 1942 25 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 929[a] 71 8
August 31, 1942 26 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 961[a] 12 27 16 1
September 2, 1942 27 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 877[a] 10 113 30
September 4, 1942 28 Drancy Auschwitz 1,013 959[a] 16 38 25 2
September 7, 1942 29 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 889[a] 59 52 34
September 9, 1942 30 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 909[a] 23 68 43
September 11, 1942 31 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 920[a] 2 78 13
September 14, 1942 32 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 893[a] 58 49 45
September 16, 1942 33 Drancy Auschwitz 1,003 856[a] 147 37 1
September 18, 1942 34 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 859[a] 31 110 22
September 21, 1942 35 Pithiviers Auschwitz 1,000 791[a] 65 144 29
September 23, 1942 36 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 475 399 126 22 4
September 25, 1942 37 Drancy Auschwitz 1,004 873[a] 40 91 15
September 28, 1942 38 Drancy Auschwitz 904 733[a] 123 48 20
September 30, 1942 39 Drancy Auschwitz 210 154 34 22 0
November 4, 1942 40 (41) Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 639 269 92 4
November 6, 1942 42 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 773 145 82 4
November 9, 1942 44 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 900[a] 100 16
November 11, 1942 (43) 45 Drancy Auschwitz 745 599 112 34 2
February 9, 1943 46 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 816 77 92 15 7
February 11, 1943 47 Drancy Auschwitz 998 802 143 53 13 1
February 13, 1943 48 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 689 144 165 16 1
March 2, 1943 49 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 881 100 19 4 2
March 4, 1943 50 Drancy Majdanek/Sobibor 1,003 950 min. ? ? 3
March 6, 1943 51 Drancy Majdanek/Sobibor 998 950 min. ? ? 5
March 23, 1943 52 Drancy Sobibor 994 950 min. ? ? 0
March 25, 1943 53 Drancy Sobibor 1,008 970 15 5
June 23, 1943 55 Drancy Auschwitz 1,018 518 383 217 42 44
July 18, 1943 57 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 440 369 191 30 22
July 31, 1943 58 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 727 218 55 16 28
September 2, 1943 59 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 662 232 106 17 4
October 7, 1943 60 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 491 340 169 35 4
October 28, 1943 61 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 613 284 103 39 3
November 20, 1943 62 Drancy Auschwitz 1,200 914 241 45 27 2
December 7, 1943 64[b] Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 661 267 72 48 2
December 17, 1943 63[b] Drancy Auschwitz 850 505 233 112 25 6
January 20, 1944 66 Drancy Auschwitz 1,155 864 236 55 42 30
February 3, 1944 67 Drancy Auschwitz 1,214 985 166 49 20 23
February 10, 1944 68 Drancy Auschwitz 1,500 1,229 210 61 27 32
March 7, 1944 69 Drancy Auschwitz 1,501 1,311 110 80 20 14
March 27, 1944 70 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 480 380 100 79 73
April 13, 1944 71 Drancy Auschwitz 1,500 1,265 max. 165 min. 91 39 91
April 29, 1944 72 Drancy Auschwitz 1,004 904 48 52 12 38
May 15, 1944 73 Drancy Kaunas/Reval 878 17
May 20, 1944 74 Drancy Auschwitz 1,200 904 max. 188 min. 117 49 117
May 30, 1944 75 Drancy Auschwitz 1,000 627 239 134 35 64
June 30, 1944 76 Drancy Auschwitz 1,100 479 398 223 67 115
July 31, 1944 77 Drancy Auschwitz 1,300 726 291 283 68 146
August 11, 1944 Lyon Auschwitz 430 128 min. 117 63 17 19
August 17, 1944 Drancy Buchenwald 51 31 4
Total 73,853[c] 46,802 17,160 8,703 1,647 913

See also

Notes

  • a From August 26 to November 9, 1942, 15 convoys from France and a few from Belgium underwent a selection for a work detail at Kosel before arrival at Auschwitz; about 3,000 healthy men were taken, of whom about 2,000 were still alive on April 1, 1944, the day they were registered at Auschwitz. Only 377 were still alive in 1945, constituting the largest group of survivors from those deported in 1942, not including 256 survivors from the first six convoys, which arrived in Auschwitz before gas chambers operations were begun in July 1942.
  • b The numbers of the convoys of December 7 and 17, 1943 were inverted by the Gestapo; we have maintained that order.
  • c In addition to the 73,853 total, the following are added:
  • Jews deported to Auschwitz from Nord and Pas-de-Calais (in France) through Belgium (about 1,000)
  • Jews married to prisoners of war and deported to Bergen-Belsen with their children (257)
  • Jews deported from Noé, Saint-Sulpice-la-Pointe, and Toulouse to Buchenwald on July 30, 1944 (at least 350) [3]
  • Jews deported to Auschwitz from Clermont-Ferrand on August 22, 1944 (at least 68)
  • Jews deported to Auschwitz in convoys of "aryans" on July 8, 1942 and April 30, 1944 (at least 100)
  • Jews deported individually (at least 100)
  • Jews deported in resistance convoys (unknown)

The overall total of Jews deported from France is a minimum of 75,721.

References

  1. ^ Renée Poznanski, 'Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France', Jewish Social Studies, 2:1 (Autumn 1995), pp. 124-158 (127)
  2. ^ Serge Klarsfeld (1996). French Children of the Holocaust: A Memorial, pp. 418-419. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-2662-4.
  3. ^ "Four name lists collected from various sources pertaining to the July 30, 1944 deportation from Toulouse, France to the Buchenwald (ID: 30550)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
Beaune-la-Rolande internment camp

Beaune-la-Rolande internment camp was a French-run Nazi transit camp for Jews in Beaune-la-Rolande, France. 18,000 Jews were held in the camp, most of them to be transported to Auschwitz. The camp was closed on 4 August 1943 by SS officer Alois Brunner, then commander of Drancy concentration camp, under direct orders from Heinrich Himmler.

Compiègne

Compiègne (French pronunciation: ​[kɔ̃pjɛɲ]; Picard: Compiène) is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It is located on the Oise River. Its inhabitants are called Compiégnois.

Drancy internment camp

The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II. It was located in Drancy, a northeastern suburb of Paris, France. Between 22 June 1942, and 31 July 1944, during its use as an internment camp, 67,400 French, Polish, and German Jews were deported from the camp in 64 rail transports, which included 6,000 children. Only 1,542 remained alive at the camp when Allied forces liberated it on 17 August 1944.Drancy was under the control of the French police until 1943 when administration was taken over by the SS, who placed officer Alois Brunner in charge of the camp. In 2001, Brunner's case was brought before a French court by Nazi hunter Serge Klarsfeld, which sentenced Brunner in absentia to a life sentence for crimes against humanity.

History of the Jews in France

The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France. There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages. France was a center of Jewish learning in the Middle Ages, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on, including multiple expulsions and returns. During the French Revolution in the late 18th century, France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population. Antisemitism has occurred in cycles, reaching a high level in the 1890s, as shown in the Dreyfus affair, and in the 1940s, under the Nazi German occupation and the Vichy regime.

Before 1919, the Jewish population was largely based in Paris; many were very proud to be fully assimilated into French culture, and comprised an upscale subgroup. But a more traditional Judaism was based in Alsace-Lorraine, which was taken by Germany in 1871 and recovered by France in 1918 following World War I. In addition, numerous Jewish refugees and immigrants came from Russia and eastern and central Europe in the early 20th century, changing the character of French Judaism in the 1920s and 1930s. They were much less interested in full assimilation into French culture. Some supported such new causes as Zionism, the Popular Front and Communism (the latter two were popular among the French political left).

During World War II, the Vichy government collaborated with Nazi occupiers to deport numerous French and foreign Jewish refugees to concentration camps. By the war's end, 25% of the French Jewish population had been lost to the Holocaust, but this was a lower proportion killed than in most other countries under Nazi occupation.In the 21st century, France has the largest Jewish population in Europe and the third-largest Jewish population in the world (after Israel and the United States). The Jewish community in France is estimated to be 480,000–550,000, but depends on the adopted definition. French Jewish communities are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Paris, which has the largest population; Marseille, with the second-largest population of 70,000; Lyon, Nice, Strasbourg, and Toulouse.The majority of French Jews in the 21st century are Sephardi and Mizrahi North African Jews, many of whom (or their parents) emigrated since the late 20th century from former French colonies of North Africa after those countries became independent. They migrated to France beginning in the late 20th century. They span a range of religious affiliations, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large segment of Jews who are entirely secular and who commonly marry outside the Jewish community.Approximately 200,000 French Jews live in Israel. Since 2010 or so, more have been making aliyah in response to rising antisemitism in France.

Pithiviers internment camp

Pithiviers internment camp was a Nazi transit camp in Pithiviers, France (roughly 80 km (50 mi) south of Paris), during the Second World War. Children were separated there from their parents; the adults were processed and deported to concentration camps farther away, usually Auschwitz. This was the fate of the novelist Irène Némirovsky.

Timeline of World War II

This is a list of timelines of events over the period of World War II, as well as the prelude to the war.

Timeline of the Holocaust

A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Vel' d'Hiv Roundup

The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (French: Rafle du Vélodrome d'Hiver, commonly called the Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv: "Vel' d'Hiv Police Roundup / Raid") was a Nazi-directed raid and mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police, code named Opération Vent printanier ("Operation Spring Breeze"), on 16 and 17 July 1942. The name "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup" is derived from the name of the Vélodrome d'Hiver ("Winter Velodrome"), a bicycle velodrome and stadium where a majority of the victims were temporarily confined. The roundup, assisted by French Police, was one of several aimed at eradicating the Jewish population in France, both in the occupied zone and in the free zone. According to records of the Préfecture de Police, 13,152 Jews were arrested, including more than 4,000 children. They were held at the Vélodrome d'Hiver in extremely crowded conditions, almost without food and water, and with no sanitary facilities, as well as at the Drancy, Pithiviers, and Beaune-la-Rolande internment camps, then shipped in rail cattle cars to Auschwitz for their mass murder.

French President Jacques Chirac apologized in 1995 for the complicit role that French policemen and civil servants served in the raid. In 2017, President Emmanuel Macron more specifically admitted the responsibility of the French State in the roundup and hence, in the Holocaust.

Vichy Holocaust collaboration timeline

Led first by Philippe Pétain, the Vichy regime that replaced the French Third Republic in 1940 chose the path of collaboration with the Nazi occupiers. This policy included the Bousquet-Oberg accords of July 1942 that formalized the collaboration of the French police with the German police. This collaboration was manifested in particular by anti-Semitic measures taken by the Vichy government, and by its active participation in the genocide.

The terms Zone libre (Free Zone), Vichy France, Vichy regime, southern zone, French State, and État français are all synonyms and refer to the state in the south of France governed from Vichy during World War II and headed by French World War I hero Marshal Philippe Pétain. The terms Zone occupée (Occupied Zone), Occupied France, and northern zone refer to the northern portion of France governed by the German military administration in Paris, taking orders from Berlin.

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