Timeline of chemical element discoveries

The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist as of 2019 is presented in chronological order. The elements are listed generally in the order in which each was first defined as the pure element, as the exact date of discovery of most elements cannot be accurately determined. There are plans to synthesise more elements, and it is not known how many elements are possible.

Each element's name, atomic number, year of first report, name of the discoverer, and notes related to the discovery are listed.

Periodic table

Periodic table by era of discovery
1 2 3   4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →  
↓ Period  
1 1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
57
La
1 asterisk 72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
89
Ac
1 asterisk 104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
 
1 asterisk 58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
 
1 asterisk 90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
 
 

Unrecorded discoveries

Z Element Earliest use Oldest
existing
sample
Discoverers Place of
oldest
sample
Notes
29 Copper 9000 BCE 6000 BCE Middle East Anatolia Copper was probably the first metal mined and crafted by humans.[1] It was originally obtained as a native metal and later from the smelting of ores. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BCE in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages. Copper beads dating from 6000 BCE have been found in Çatal Höyük, Anatolia[2] and the archaeological site of Belovode on the Rudnik mountain in Serbia contains the world's oldest securely dated evidence of copper smelting from 5000 BCE.[3][4]
82 Lead 7000 BCE 3800 BCE Africa Abydos, Egypt It is believed that lead smelting began at least 9,000 years ago, and the oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated around 3800 BCE.[5]
79 Gold Before 6000 BCE ca. 4400 BCE Bulgaria Varna Necropolis The oldest golden treasure in the world, dating from 4600 to 4200 BCE, was discovered at the burial site Varna Necropolis.
47 Silver Before 5000 BCE ca. 4000 BCE Asia Minor Estimated to have been discovered shortly after copper and gold.[6][7]
26 Iron Before 5000 BCE 4000 BCE Unknown; see Ferrous metallurgy Egypt There is evidence that iron was known from before 5000 BCE.[8] The oldest known iron objects used by humans are some beads of meteoric iron, made in Egypt in about 4000 BCE. The discovery of smelting around 3000 BCE led to the start of the Iron age around 1200 BCE[9] and the prominent use of iron for tools and weapons.[10]
6 Carbon 3750 BCE Egyptians and Sumerians The earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc, and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the Egyptians and Sumerians.[11] Diamonds were probably known as early as 2500 BCE.[12] The first true chemical analyses were made in the 18th century,[13] and in 1789 carbon was listed by Antoine Lavoisier as an element.[14]
50 Tin 3500 BCE 2000 BCE Unknown; see Tin#History First smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BCE to produce bronze (and thus giving place to the Bronze Age in those places where Iron Age did not intrude directly on Neolithic of the Stone Age).[15] The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BCE.[16]
16 Sulfur Before 2000 BCE Unknown; see Sulfur#History First used at least 4,000 years ago.[17] Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1777.
80 Mercury Before 2000 BCE 1500 BCE Chinese/Indians Egypt Known to ancient Chinese and Indians before 2000 BCE, and found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1500 BCE.[18]
30 Zinc Before 1000 BCE 1000 BCE Indian metallurgists Indian subcontinent Used as a component of brass since antiquity (before 1000 BCE) by Indian metallurgists, but its true nature was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a distinct metal in the Rasaratna Samuccaya around the 14th century CE[19] and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526.[20] Isolated by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.[21]
33 Arsenic Before 300 CE The purification and use of metallic arsenic are described by the Egyptian alchemist Zosimos,[22] and, later on, in the Jabirian corpus.[23] Albertus Magnus (c. 1200-1280) is typically credited with the discovery of the metalloid in the West.[24]
51 Antimony Before 800 CE Dioscorides and Pliny both describe the accidental production of metallic antimony from stibnite, but only seem to recognize the metal as lead.[25] The intentional isolation of antimony is described in the Jabirian corpus;[23] in Europe the metal was being produced and used by 1540, when it was described by Vannoccio Biringuccio.[26]

Recorded discoveries

Z Element Observed or predicted Isolated (widely known) Notes
By By  
15 Phosphorus 1669 H. Brand 1669 H. Brand Prepared from urine, it was the first element to be chemically discovered.[27]
27 Cobalt 1735 G. Brandt 1735 G. Brandt Proved that the blue color of glass is due to a new kind of metal and not bismuth as thought previously.[28]
78 Platinum 1735 A. de Ulloa First description of a metal found in South American gold was in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger. Ulloa published his findings in 1748, but Sir Charles Wood also investigated the metal in 1741. First reference to it as a new metal was made by William Brownrigg in 1750.[29]
28 Nickel 1751 F. Cronstedt 1751 F. Cronstedt Found by attempting to extract copper from the mineral known as fake copper (now known as niccolite).[30]
83 Bismuth 1753 C.F. Geoffroy Definitively identified by Claude François Geoffroy in 1753.[31]
12 Magnesium 1755 J. Black 1808 H. Davy Black observed that magnesia alba (MgO) was not quicklime (CaO). Davy isolated the metal electrochemically from magnesia.[32]
1 Hydrogen 1766 H. Cavendish ca. 1500 Paracelsus Cavendish was the first to distinguish H
2
from other gases, although Paracelsus around 1500, Robert Boyle, and Joseph Priestley had observed its production by reacting strong acids with metals. Lavoisier named it in 1783.[33][34]
8 Oxygen 1771 W. Scheele 1604 Sendivogius Obtained it by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774, but only Lavoisier recognized it as a true element; he named it in 1777.[35][36] Before him, Sendivogius had produced oxygen by heating saltpetre, correctly identifying it as the "food of life".[37]
7 Nitrogen 1772 D. Rutherford 1772 D. Rutherford He discovered nitrogen while he was studying at the University of Edinburgh.[38] He showed that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley also studied the element at about the same time, and Lavoisier named it in 1775-6.[39]
56 Barium 1772 W. Scheele 1808 H. Davy Scheele distinguished a new earth (BaO) in pyrolusite and Davy isolated the metal by electrolysis.[40]
17 Chlorine 1774 W. Scheele 1774 W. Scheele Obtained it from hydrochloric acid, but thought it was an oxide. Only in 1808 did Humphry Davy recognize it as an element.[41]
25 Manganese 1774 W. Scheele 1774 G. Gahn Distinguished pyrolusite as the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaim also discovered the new metal in 1770, as did Scheele in 1774. It was isolated by reduction of manganese dioxide with carbon.[42]
42 Molybdenum 1778 W. Scheele 1781 J. Hjelm Scheele recognised the metal as a constituent of molybdena.[43]
74 Tungsten 1781 W. Scheele 1783 J. and F. Elhuyar Scheele obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element. The Elhuyars obtained tungstic acid from wolframite and reduced it with charcoal.[44]
52 Tellurium 1782 F.-J.M. von Reichenstein H. Klaproth Muller observed it as an impurity in gold ores from Transylvania.[45]
38 Strontium 1787 W. Cruikshank 1808 H. Davy Cruikshank and Adair Crawford in 1790 concluded that strontianite contained a new earth. It was eventually isolated electrochemically in 1808 by Humphry Davy.[46]
1789 A. Lavoisier The first modern list of chemical elements – containing 33 elements including light, heat, unextracted "radicals" and some oxides.[47] He also redefined the term "element". Until then, no metals except mercury were considered elements.
40 Zirconium 1789 H. Klaproth 1824 J. Berzelius Klaproth identified a new element in zirconia.[48][49]
92 Uranium 1789 H. Klaproth 1841 E.-M. Péligot Klaproth mistakenly identified a uranium oxide obtained from pitchblende as the element itself and named it after the recently discovered planet Uranus.[50][51]
22 Titanium 1791 W. Gregor 1825 J. Berzelius Gregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite; Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element in rutile in 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter.[52][53]
39 Yttrium 1794 J. Gadolin 1843 H. Rose Discovered in gadolinite, but Mosander showed later that its ore, yttria, contained more elements.[54][55] Wöhler mistakenly thought he had isolated the metal in 1828 from a volatile chloride he supposed to be yttrium chloride,[56][57] but Rose proved otherwise in 1843 and correctly isolated the element himself that year.
24 Chromium 1794 N. Vauquelin 1797 N. Vauquelin Vauquelin discovered the trioxide in crocoite ore, and later isolated the metal by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven.[58][59]
4 Beryllium 1798 N. Vauquelin 1828 F. Wöhler and A. Bussy Vauquelin discovered the oxide in beryl and emerald, and Klaproth suggested the present name around 1808.[60]
23 Vanadium 1801 M. del Río 1830 N.G.Sefström Río found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils disputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.[61]
41 Niobium 1801 C. Hatchett 1864 W. Blomstrand Hatchett found the element in columbite ore and named it columbium. Heinrich Rose proved in 1844 that the element is distinct from tantalum, and renamed it niobium which was officially accepted in 1949.[62]
73 Tantalum 1802 G. Ekeberg Ekeberg found another element in minerals similar to columbite and in 1844, Heinrich Rose proved that it was distinct from niobium.[63]
46 Palladium 1802 W. H. Wollaston 1802 W. H. Wollaston Wollaston discovered it in samples of platinum from South America, but did not publish his results immediately. He had intended to name it after the newly discovered asteroid, Ceres, but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. Wollaston named it after the more recently discovered asteroid Pallas.[64]
58 Cerium 1803 H. Klaproth, J. Berzelius, and W. Hisinger 1838 G. Mosander Berzelius and Hisinger discovered the element in ceria and named it after the newly discovered asteroid (then considered a planet), Ceres. Klaproth discovered it simultaneously and independently in some tantalum samples. Mosander proved later that the samples of all three researchers had at least another element in them, lanthanum.[65]
76 Osmium 1803 S. Tennant 1803 S. Tennant Tennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium.[66]
77 Iridium 1803 S. Tennant 1803 S. Tennant Tennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium, and published the iridium results in 1804.[67]
45 Rhodium 1804 H. Wollaston 1804 H. Wollaston Wollaston discovered and isolated it from crude platinum samples from South America.[68]
19 Potassium 1807 H. Davy 1807 H. Davy Davy discovered it by using electrolysis on potash.[69]
11 Sodium 1807 H. Davy 1807 H. Davy Andreas Sigismund Marggraf recognised the difference between soda ash and potash in 1758. Davy discovered sodium a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis on sodium hydroxide.[70]
20 Calcium 1808 H. Davy 1808 H. Davy Davy discovered the metal by electrolysis of quicklime.[70]
5 Boron 1808 L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. Thénard 1808 H. Davy Radical boracique appears on the list of elements in Lavoisier's Traité Élémentaire de Chimie from 1789.[47] On June 21, 1808, Lussac and Thénard announced a new element in sedative salt, Davy announced the isolation of a new substance from boracic acid on June 30.[71]
9 Fluorine 1810 A.-M. Ampère 1886 H. Moissan Radical fluorique appears on the list of elements in Lavoisier's Traité Élémentaire de Chimie from 1789, but radical muriatique also appears instead of chlorine.[47] André-Marie Ampère predicted an element analogous to chlorine obtainable from hydrofluoric acid, and between 1812 and 1886 many researchers tried to obtain this element. It was eventually isolated by Moissan.[72]
53 Iodine 1811 B. Courtois 1811 B. Courtois Courtois discovered it in the ashes of seaweed.[73]
3 Lithium 1817 A. Arfwedson 1821 W. T. Brande Arfwedson discovered the alkali in petalite.[74]
48 Cadmium 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff All three found an unknown metal in a sample of zinc oxide from Silesia, but the name that Stromeyer gave became the accepted one.[75]
34 Selenium 1817 J. Berzelius and G. Gahn 1817 J. Berzelius and G. Gahn While working with lead they discovered a substance that they thought was tellurium, but realized after more investigation that it is different.[76]
14 Silicon 1823 J. Berzelius 1823 J. Berzelius Humphry Davy thought in 1800 that silica was a compound, not an element, and in 1808 suggested the present name. In 1811 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure silicon,[77] but Berzelius is credited with the discovery for obtaining the pure element in 1823.[78]
13 Aluminium 1825 H.C.Ørsted 1825 H.C.Ørsted Antoine Lavoisier predicted in 1787 that alumina is the oxide of an undiscovered element, and in 1808 Humphry Davy tried to decompose it. Although he failed, he suggested the present name. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminium in 1825.[79]
35 Bromine 1825 J. Balard and C. Löwig 1825 J. Balard and C. Löwig They both discovered the element in the autumn of 1825. Balard published his results the next year,[80] but Löwig did not publish until 1827.[81]
90 Thorium 1829 J. Berzelius 1914 D. Lely, Jr. and L. Hamburger Berzelius obtained the oxide of a new earth in thorite.[82]
57 Lanthanum 1838 G. Mosander 1841 G. Mosander Mosander found a new element in samples of ceria and published his results in 1842, but later he showed that this lanthana contained four more elements.[83]
68 Erbium 1843 G. Mosander 1879 T. Cleve Mosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper and erbia, and later terbia too.[84]
65 Terbium 1843 G. Mosander 1886 J.C.G. de Marignac Mosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper and erbia, and later terbia too.[85]
44 Ruthenium 1844 K. Claus 1844 K. Claus Gottfried Wilhelm Osann thought that he found three new metals in Russian platinum samples, and in 1844 Karl Karlovich Klaus confirmed that there was a new element.[86]
55 Caesium 1860 R. Bunsen and R. Kirchhoff 1882 C. Setterberg Bunsen and Kirchhoff were the first to suggest finding new elements by spectrum analysis. They discovered caesium by its two blue emission lines in a sample of Dürkheim mineral water.[87] The pure metal was eventually isolated in 1882 by Setterberg.[88]
37 Rubidium 1861 R. Bunsen and G. R. Kirchhoff Hevesy Bunsen and Kirchhoff discovered it just a few months after caesium, by observing new spectral lines in the mineral lepidolite. Bunsen never obtained a pure sample of the metal, which was later obtained by Hevesy.[89]
81 Thallium 1861 W. Crookes 1862 C.-A. Lamy Shortly after the discovery of rubidium, Crookes found a new green line in a selenium sample; later that year, Lamy found the element to be metallic.[90]
49 Indium 1863 F. Reich and T. Richter 1867 T. Richter Reich and Richter First identified it in sphalerite by its bright indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line. Richter isolated the metal several years later.[91]
2 Helium 1868 P. Janssen and N. Lockyer 1895 W. Ramsay, T. Cleve, and N. Langlet Janssen and Lockyer observed independently a yellow line in the solar spectrum that did not match any other element.

Years later, Ramsay, Cleve, and Langlet observed independently the element trapped in cleveite about the same time.[92]

1869 D. I. Mendeleev Mendeleev arranges the 64 elements known at that time into the first modern periodic table and correctly predicts several others.
31 Gallium 1875 P. E. L. de Boisbaudran P. E. L. de Boisbaudran Boisbaudran observed on a pyrenea blende sample some emission lines corresponding to the eka-aluminium that was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 and subsequently isolated the element by electrolysis.[93][94]
70 Ytterbium 1878 J.C.G. de Marignac 1906 C. A. von Welsbach On October 22, 1878, Marignac reported splitting terbia into two new earths, terbia proper and ytterbia.[95]
67 Holmium 1878 J.-L. Soret 1879 T. Cleve Soret found it in samarskite and later, Per Teodor Cleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[96]
69 Thulium 1879 T. Cleve 1879 T. Cleve Cleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[97]
21 Scandium 1879 F. Nilson 1879 F. Nilson Nilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure ytterbia and a new element that matched Mendeleev's 1871 predicted eka-boron.[98]
62 Samarium 1879 P.E.L. de Boisbaudran 1879 P.E.L. de Boisbaudran Boisbaudran noted a new earth in samarskite and named it samaria after the mineral.[99]
64 Gadolinium 1880 J. C. G. de Marignac 1886 P.E.L. de Boisbaudran Marignac initially observed the new earth in terbia, and later Boisbaudran obtained a pure sample from samarskite.[100]
59 Praseodymium 1885 C. A. von Welsbach Carl Auer von Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in Mosander's didymia: praseodymium and neodymium.[101]
60 Neodymium 1885 C. A. von Welsbach Carl Auer von Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in Mosander's didymia: praseodymium and neodymium.[102]
32 Germanium 1886 C. A. Winkler In February 1886 Winkler found in argyrodite the eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.[103]
66 Dysprosium 1886 P.E.L. de Boisbaudran De Boisbaudran found a new earth in erbia.[104]
18 Argon 1894 Lord Rayleigh and W. Ramsay 1894 Lord Rayleigh and W. Ramsay They discovered the gas by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared by chemical means. It is the first noble gas to be isolated.[105]
63 Europium 1896 E.-A. Demarçay 1901 E.-A. Demarçay Demarçay found spectral lines of a new element in Lecoq's samarium, and separated this element several years later.[106]
36 Krypton 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers On May 30, 1898, Ramsay separated a noble gas from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[107]
10 Neon 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers In June 1898 Ramsay separated a new noble gas from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[107]
54 Xenon 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers 1898 W. Ramsay and W. Travers On July 12, 1898 Ramsay separated a third noble gas within three weeks, from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[108]
84 Polonium 1898 P. and M. Curie 1902 W. Marckwald In an experiment done on July 13, 1898, the Curies noted an increased radioactivity in the uranium obtained from pitchblende, which they ascribed to an unknown element.[109]
88 Radium 1898 P. and M. Curie 1902 M. Curie The Curies reported on December 26, 1898, a new element different from polonium, which Marie later isolated from uraninite.[110]
86 Radon 1899 E. Rutherford and R. B. Owens 1910 W. Ramsay and R. Whytlaw-Gray Rutherford and Owens discovered a radioactive gas resulting from the radioactive decay of thorium, isolated later by Ramsay and Gray. In 1900, Friedrich Ernst Dorn discovered a longer-lived isotope of the same gas from the radioactive decay of radium. Since "radon" was first used to specifically designate Dorn's isotope before it became the name for the element, he is often mistakenly given credit for the latter instead of the former.[111][112]
89 Actinium 1902 F. O. Giesel 1902 F. O. Giesel Giesel obtained from pitchblende a substance that had properties similar to those of lanthanum and named it emanium.[113] André-Louis Debierne had previously reported the discovery of a new element actinium that was supposedly similar to titanium and thorium; the elements were mistakenly identified as being identical and Debierne's name was chosen, even though in retrospect Debierne's substance could not have included much actual element 89.[114]
71 Lutetium 1906 C. A. von Welsbach and G. Urbain 1906 C. A. von Welsbach von Welsbach proved that the old ytterbium also contained a new element, which he named cassiopeium. Urbain also proved this simultaneously, but his samples were very impure and only contained trace quantities of the new element. Despite this, his chosen name lutetium was adopted.[115]
75 Rhenium 1908 M. Ogawa 1919 M. Ogawa Ogawa found it in thorianite but assigned it as element 43 instead of 75 and named it nipponium.[116] In 1925 Walter Noddack, Ida Eva Tacke and Otto Berg announced its separation from gadolinite and gave it the present name.[117]
91 Protactinium 1913 O. H. Göhring and K. Fajans 1927 A. von Grosse The two obtained the first isotope of this element that had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as a member of the natural decay of 238U.[118] Originally isolated in 1900 by William Crookes, who nevertheless did not recognize that it was a new element.[119]
72 Hafnium 1922 D. Coster and G. von Hevesy 1922 D. Coster and G. von Hevesy Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues, while Vladimir Vernadsky independently found it in orthite. Neither claim was confirmed due to World War I, and neither could be confirmed later, as the chemistry they reported does not match that now known for hafnium. After the war, Coster and Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon.[120] Hafnium was the last stable element to be discovered.[121]
43 Technetium 1937 C. Perrier and E. Segrè 1937 C. Perrier & E.Segrè The two discovered a new element in a molybdenum sample that was used in a cyclotron, the first synthetic element to be discovered, though it was later found out that it does occur naturally in minuscule trace quantities. It had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as eka-manganese.[122][123][124]
87 Francium 1939 M. Perey Perey discovered it as a decay product of 227Ac.[125] Francium was the last element to be discovered in nature, rather than synthesized in the lab, although four of the "synthetic" elements that were discovered later (plutonium, neptunium, astatine, and promethium) were eventually found in trace amounts in nature as well.[126]
93 Neptunium 1940 E.M. McMillan and H. Abelson Obtained by irradiating uranium with neutrons, it is the first transuranium element discovered.[127]
85 Astatine 1940 R. Corson, R. MacKenzie and E. Segrè Obtained by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles.[128] Later determined to occur naturally in minuscule quantities (<25 grams in earth's crust).[129]
94 Plutonium 1940–1941 Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl, W. Kennedy and E.M. McMillan Prepared by bombardment of uranium with deuterons.[130]
61 Promethium 1942 S. Wu, E.G. Segrè and H. Bethe 1945 Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin,[131][132] and Harold G. Richter It was probably first prepared in 1942 by bombarding neodymium and praseodymium with neutrons, but separation of the element could not be carried out. Isolation was performed under the Manhattan Project in 1945.[133]
96 Curium 1944 G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James and A. Ghiorso Prepared by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles during the Manhattan Project[134]
95 Americium 1944 G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James, O. Morgan and A. Ghiorso Prepared by irradiating plutonium with neutrons during the Manhattan Project.[135]
97 Berkelium 1949 G. Thompson, A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg (University of California, Berkeley) Created by bombardment of americium with alpha particles.[136]
98 Californium 1950 S. G. Thompson, K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg (University of California, Berkeley) Bombardment of curium with alpha particles.[137]
99 Einsteinium 1952 A. Ghiorso et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley) 1952 Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons; kept secret for several years.[138]
100 Fermium 1952 A. Ghiorso et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley) Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons; kept secret for several years.[139]
101 Mendelevium 1955 A. Ghiorso, G. Harvey, R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson and G. T. Seaborg (Berkeley Radiation Laboratory) Prepared by bombardment of einsteinium with helium.[140]
103 Lawrencium 1961 A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, E. Larsh and M. Latimer (Berkeley Radiation Laboratory) First prepared by bombardment of californium with boron atoms.[141]
102 Nobelium 1966 E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev and V. A. Ermakov (JINR in Dubna) First prepared by bombardment of uranium with neon atoms[142]
104 Rutherfordium 1969 A. Ghiorso et al. (Berkeley Radiation Laboratory) and I. Zvara et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of californium with carbon atoms by Ghiorso's team and by bombardment of plutonium with neon atoms by Zvara's team.[143]
105 Dubnium 1970 A. Ghiorso et al. (Berkeley Radiation Laboratory) and V. A. Druin et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of californium with nitrogen atoms by Ghiorso's team and by bombardment of americium with neon atoms by Druin's team.[144]
106 Seaborgium 1974 A. Ghiorso et al. (Berkeley Radiation Laboratory) Prepared by bombardment of californium with oxygen atoms.[145]
107 Bohrium 1981 G.Münzenberg et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[146]
109 Meitnerium 1982 G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with iron atoms.[147]
108 Hassium 1984 G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by bombardment of lead with iron atoms[148]
110 Darmstadtium 1994 S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by bombardment of lead with nickel[149]
111 Roentgenium 1994 S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with nickel[150]
112 Copernicium 1996 S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by bombardment of lead with zinc.[151][152]
114 Flerovium 1999 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of plutonium with calcium[153]
116 Livermorium 2000 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of curium with calcium[154]
118 Oganesson 2002 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of californium with calcium[155]
115 Moscovium 2003 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of americium with calcium[156]
113 Nihonium 2003–2004 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) and K. Morita et al. (RIKEN in Wako, Japan) Prepared by decay of moscovium by Oganessian's team and bombardment of bismuth with zinc by Morita's team[157]
117 Tennessine 2009 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by bombardment of berkelium with calcium[158]

Graphics

Known-elements-1650-present
Graph of number of known chemical elements from 1650 until present

See also

References

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External links

Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z). For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have exactly 8 protons.

118 elements have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radionuclides, which decay over time into other elements. Iron is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust.Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. However astronomical observations suggest that ordinary observable matter makes up only about 15% of the matter in the universe: the remainder is dark matter; the composition of this is unknown, but it is not composed of chemical elements.

The two lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were mostly formed in the Big Bang and are the most common elements in the universe. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium and boron) were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are thus rarer than heavier elements. Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. Elements with greater than 26 protons are formed by supernova nucleosynthesis in supernovae, which, when they explode, blast these elements as supernova remnants far into space, where they may become incorporated into planets when they are formed.The term "element" is used for atoms with a given number of protons (regardless of whether or not they are ionized or chemically bonded, e.g. hydrogen in water) as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element (e.g. hydrogen gas). For the second meaning, the terms "elementary substance" and "simple substance" have been suggested, but they have not gained much acceptance in English chemical literature, whereas in some other languages their equivalent is widely used (e.g. French corps simple, Russian простое вещество). A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure; they are called allotropes of the element.

When different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bonds, they form chemical compounds. Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as relatively pure minerals. Among the more common of such native elements are copper, silver, gold, carbon (as coal, graphite, or diamonds), and sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as noble gases and noble metals, are usually found on Earth in chemically combined form, as chemical compounds. While about 32 of the chemical elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms, most of these occur as mixtures. For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel.

The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold. Later civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin, lead and iron from their ores by smelting, using charcoal. Alchemists and chemists subsequently identified many more; all of the naturally occurring elements were known by 1950.

The properties of the chemical elements are summarized in the periodic table, which organizes the elements by increasing atomic number into rows ("periods") in which the columns ("groups") share recurring ("periodic") physical and chemical properties. Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-lives, all of the elements are available industrially, most of them in low degrees of impurities.

Emanations

"Emanations" is the ninth episode of Star Trek: Voyager.

"Emanations" is an episode of a science fiction television show that aired in March 1995. USS Voyager encounters an alien species and investigates.

History of the periodic table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements, which are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number. The standard form of the table consists of a grid with rows called periods and columns called groups.

The history of the periodic table reflects over two centuries of growth in the understanding of chemical properties, with major contributions made by Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer, Dmitri Mendeleev, and Glenn T. Seaborg.

Industrial gas

Industrial gases are the gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in industry. The principal gases provided are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrogen, helium and acetylene; although a huge variety of gases and mixtures are available in gas cylinders. The industry producing these gases is known as the industrial gases , which is seen as also encompassing the supply of equipment and technology to produce and use the gases. Their production is a part of the wider chemical Industry (where industrial gases are often seen as "specialty chemicals").called producer gas

Industrial gases are used in a wide range of industries, which include oil and gas, petrochemicals, chemicals, power, mining, steelmaking, metals, environmental protection, medicine, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food, water, fertilizers, nuclear power, electronics and aerospace. Industrial gas is sold to other industrial enterprises; typically comprising large orders to corporate industrial clients, covering a size range from building a process facility or pipeline down to cylinder gas supply.

Some trade scale business is done, typically through tied local agents who are supplied wholesale. This business covers the sale or hire of gas cylinders and associated equipment to tradesmen and occasionally the general public. This includes products such as balloon helium, dispensing gases for beer kegs, welding gases and welding equipment, LPG and medical oxygen.

Retail sales of small scale gas supply are not confined to just the industrial gas companies or their agents. A wide variety of hand-carried small gas containers, which may be called cylinders, bottles, cartridges, capsules or canisters are available to supply LPG, butane, propane, carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide. Examples are Whipped-cream chargers, powerlets, campingaz and sodastream.

Lists of molecules

This is an index of lists of molecules (i.e. by year, number of atoms, etc.). Millions of molecules have existed in the universe before the formation of Earth, elements have being mixed and formed molecules for millions of years, three of them, carbon dioxide, water and oxygen were necessary for the growth of life, even thought, we were able to see these substances we did not know what was their components.

Amedeo Avogadro created the word "molecule". His 1811 paper "Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies", he essentially states, i.e. according to Partington's A Short History of Chemistry, that:

The smallest particles of gases are not necessarily simple atoms, but are made up of a certain number of these atoms united by attraction to form a single molecule.

Metals of antiquity

The metals of antiquity are the seven metals which humans had identified and found use for in prehistoric times: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury. These seven are the metals from which the modern world was forged; until the discovery of arsenic in the 13th century, these were the only known elemental metals, compared to the 86 known today.

Periodic table

The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends. The seven rows of the table, called periods, generally have metals on the left and non-metals on the right. The columns, called groups, contain elements with similar chemical behaviours. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18 are the noble gases. Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals.

The organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, and also to predict chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. He also predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev's idea has been slowly expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences.

The elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) through 118 (oganesson) have been discovered or synthesized, completing seven full rows of the periodic table. The first 94 elements all occur naturally, though some are found only in trace amounts and a few were discovered in nature only after having first been synthesized. Elements 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors. The synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is currently being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, and theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories.

Timelines of modern history

The following are timelines of modern history, from c. 1500, the end of the Middle Ages to the present.

Ytterby

Ytterby (Swedish pronunciation: [²ʏtːɛrˌbyː]) is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago. Today the residential area is dominated by suburban homes.

The name of the village translates to "outer village". Ytterby is perhaps most famous for having the single richest source of elemental discoveries in the world; the chemical elements Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yt), Erbium (Er) and Terbium (Tb) are all named after Ytterby.

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