Timeline of ancient Greece
This is a
timeline of Ancient Greece from its emergence around 800 BC to its subjection to the Roman Empire in 146 BC.
For earlier times, see
Greek Dark Ages, Aegean civilizations and Mycenaean Greece. For later times see Roman Greece, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Greece.
Greece after 1820, see Timeline of modern Greek history.
Archaic Greece Archaic Period (800 BC – 481 BC).
785 Pithecusae (Ischia) is settled by Euboean Greeks from Eretria and Chalcis
777 Cumae is founded by Chalcis
776 Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games.
757 The First Messenian War starts. (Date disputed by Jerome, Pausanias and Diodorus; this estimate is based on a reading of Diodorus' Spartan king lists and Pausanias' description of the war). 757 Athens: Office of
Archon reduced to 10 years. Members of the ruling family to possess the office starting with Charops. (Dating based on Pausanias).
756 Kyzikus is settled by Ionians
754 Polydorus becomes king of Sparta.
743 Rhegion is founded by Euboeans
740 Zancle is founded by Euboeans
738 Alternate date for the end of the First Messenian War.
737 Rhegion and Zancle join in union under Zancle
735 Perdiccas I of Macedon flees from Argos to Macedonia and conquers the land.
734 Polydorus sends colonists to Italy. 734 Syracuse is founded by
Korinthians and Teneans 734
Kerkyra is founded by Korinthians
733 Naxos (Sicily) is founded by Euboeans 733
Troliton is founded by Megarans
732 Euboea splits between Chalcis and Eretria due to disputes
731 Sigeion is founded by Mytilene 731
Catania is founded by Chalcidians
730 Leontini is founded by Naxos and controlled by the tyrant Euarchus 730 Troliton is abandoned and settlers settled in Leontini
728 Troliton settlers are ostracized from Leontini and settle Thapsos
727–717 Hippomenes, archon of Athens, kills his daughter's adulterer by yoking him to his chariot and then locks his daughter in with a horse until she dies. (Pausanias and Aristotle). c. 725
Lelantine War between Chalcis and Eretria. Many Greek cities are allied with one or the other. Dates before this time uncertain.
725 Thapsos abandoned and Megara Hyblaea is settled by the Thapsos settlers
720s/710s Droughts on Euboea
720 Korinth removes the Liburnians from Kerkyra 720:
Sybaris is founded by Achae ans from Helice
719 Polydorus, King of Sparta, is murdered by Polymarchus.
716 Mylae is founded and annexed by Zancle 716 According to legend: The reign of the
Heraklids over Lydia is ended when Candaules, known as Myrsilus to the Greeks, is murdered by Gyges because of his wife's anger.
715 Lydia annexes Colophon and Magnesia and sieges Smyrna
712 Lydia abandons the siege of Smyrna and annexes parts of Troad and Sipylus 712 Korinth annexes
Perachora peninsula from Megara
710s Eretrian abandonment of Andros
709 Kroton is founded by Achaeans
707 Taras is founded by Dorians
705 Hybla Minor is annexed by Megara Hyblaea
704: Korinth gives Samos 4 ships
700 Phaselis is founded by Rodians 700 Erythra is annexed by Rhegion
699 Metapontion is founded by Kroton and Sybaris
698 Euarchus is overthrown by Leontini
696 Lefkandi is occupied by Chalcis
695 Polieum is founded by Ionians
691 Antandrus is founded and annexed by Mytilene
690 Pheidon becomes tyrant of Argos.
689 Gela is founded by Cretans and Rodians
688 Arisba is annexed by Methymna and Mytilene declares war on Methymna
687 Annual office of Archon established in Athens. Any Athenian citizen can be elected to the office if they have the qualifications. Creon elected first annual archon. (Dating based on Pausanias).
686 Methymna is annexed by Mytilene 686 Megara gains independence from Korinth
685 The second Messenian war begins. 685
Chalcedon is founded by Megarans
680 Epizephyrian Lokros is founded by Opos
676 Pergamon is founded by Ionians
674 Karystus is occupied by Korinth
672 Abydos is settled by Miletus
671 Melia is destroyed by Samos and Priene, Samos builds Fort Carium to replace it and Samos and Priene split Melia
670 Miletus is sieged by Lydia, Priene is annexed by Lydia, Samos annexes former Melian territory
669 or 668 Battle of Hysiae
668 Lydia abandons siege of Mietus
667 Byzantium is founded by Korinthians
665 The second Messenian war ends.
664 Corcyran Revolt and First Sea Battle in Ancient Greece between Corcyra and Korinthos 664
Akrai is founded and annexed by Syracuse
657 Cypselus subjects Corinth to tyranny. 657 Founding of Lekas by Corinth
655 Akanthus and Stageira are founded by Androsi
654 Abdera is founded by Klazomenaites
652 Ephesus and Priene are sacked by Cimmerians
651 Levantine War ends, Chalcis wins and annexes Levantine Plain
650 The Pontic Pentapolis: Apollonia, Callatis, Mesembria (Nessebar), Odessos (Varna), and Tomis (Constanța), all on the Euxeinos Pontos. 650 Andros,
Kea and Tenos gain independence from Eretria, Cypselus leaves Karystus 650 Syracuse annexes
648 Himera is founded by Zancleans
645–560 Spartan wars with Tegea all unsuccessful
643 Kasmenai is founded and annexed by Syracuse
637–630 Drought on Thera
633 Ambrakia founded by Tyrant Gorgus and Korinthians
632 Cylon, Athenian noble, seizes Acropolis and tries unsuccessfully to make himself king
631 Battus establishes a Greek colony in Cyrene in Libya.
630 Helorus is founded and annexed by Syracuse 630
Histria is established by Milesian settlers in order to facilitate trade with the native Getae. 630 Founding of
Tripolis by Samos 630 Formal
pederasty is introduced, first in Crete, as a means of population control and an educational modality.
628 Selinus is founded by Hyblaea Megarans
627 Epidamos is founded by Kerkyreans 627 Cypselus is succeeded by
625 Establishment of Naucratis
621 Draco, Athenian lawgiver, issues code of laws, with many crimes punishable by death. 621
Epidaurus is annexed by Korinth
619 Herbessus is annexed by Syracuse
616 Miletus is sieged by Lydia
615 Leontini is overthrown by Panaetius
612 Miletus is overthrown by Thrasybulos
610 Panticapaeum (modern city Kerch) is founded by Milesians
609 Panaetius is oust by Leontini
606 Gorgus is succeeded by Periander
604 Lydia abandons the Siege of Miletus
603 Athenai annexes Sigeion
601 Miletus and Korinth become allies
600 Massalia founded by Phocaean Greeks (approximate date).  600
Segesta is hellenized by Ionians
598 Akrillai is founded and annexed by Syracuse 598
Kamarina is founded and annexed by Syracuse
597 Delphi gains independence from Kirrha
596 Paleopoli is founded by Samosi
595 Salamis is annexed by Athens 595 Start of the
First Sacred War
594 Kirrha is sieged by Amphictyonic League 594
Solon, Athenian statesman, becomes Archon pre-582BCE (cf. ML6 and Plutarch Sol. 14)—later, when member of the Areopagus is appointed to effect social reforms in order to preserve order in Athens, which include the abolition of the security of debts on a debtor's person (Aristotle Ath. Pol. 6), returning exiled Athenian slaves (Solon fr. 4 in Ath. Pol. 12), changing the value of weights and measures to the Korinthian standard, prohibiting the export of grain from Attica and encouraging the planting of olives (Plut. Sol. 22-4), established the property classes (Ar. Ath. Pol. 7) and the council of 400 (Ar. Ath. Pol. 8).
592 Ephesus is sieged by Persia
590 Siege of Ephesus is abandoned, Lydia annexes Smyrna and Median-Lydian war starts 590 Muorica (Renamed
Modica) is annexed by Syracuse 590
Sappho, Greek poet, flourishes on island of Lesbos.
589 Klazomenai is sieged by Lydia
588 Poseidonia is founded by Sybaris
587 Siege of Klazomenai is abandoned by Lydia
586 Death of Lycophron tyrant of Corcyra 586
Plataea gains independence from Thebai
585 Kirrha is destroyed 585 Lydian-Median border set at
Halys River 585 The philosopher
Thales of Miletus predicts a solar eclipse that occurs during the Battle of Halys. 585 Periander is overthrown by
Psammetichus 585 End of the First Sacred War
585: Destruction of
583 Psammetichus is overthrown by Korinth
582 Akragas is founded by Gelans 582: First recorded
581 Selinus attacks Motya 581 Korinth join the
580 Foundation of Parthenope 580 Selinus is defeated by
Carthage and withdraws from Motya 580 Periander is overthrown by democrats in Ambrakia
Elis joins the Peloponnesian League 580
Lipari is founded by Knidosi
578 Thrasybulos dies
575 Empúries, also known as Ampurias (Greek: Ἐμπόριον, Catalan: Empúries [əmˈpuɾiəs], Spanish: Ampurias [amˈpuɾjas]), a town on the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain is founded by Greek colonists from Phocaea with the name of Ἐμπόριον (Emporion, meaning "trading place", cf. emporion).
572 Pisa and Olympia are annexed by Elis
570 Akragas is overthrown by Phalaris 570
Phocaeans from Massalia (modern day Marseille) founded the colony of Monoikos (Monaco). 
569 Pythagoras is born. 565 Peisistratos, Athenian general, organizes Diakrioi, party of poor people. Late Archaic Period
561 Peisistratos takes power in Athens for first time.
560 Ephesus is sieged by Lydia 560 Phalaris annexes Himera
559 Ephesus is annexed by Lydia 559-550 Lydia annexes
Aeolis and Ionia 559
Achilleion is founded and annexed by Mytilene
557 Argos is overthrown by Perilaus
556 Phlius is overthrown by Leo
555 Helike ( Elche) is established by Greeks from the Achaian city of Helice 555
Peisistratos driven out by Lycurgus who is commander of nobles. 555
Miltiades I unites Thracian Chernessos under his rule
554 Phalaris is overthrown by Akragas and Himera gains independence
553 Kamarina declares independence from Syracuse
552 Kamarina is annexed by Syracuse
551 Telemachus overthrows Akragas
550 Minoa is founded by Selinus 550
Odessa is established by the  Greek city of Histria. 550
Miltiades II is born
549 Peisistratos restored by help of Megacles. 549
Boeotian League is founded
548 Lesbos sieges Sigeion
547 Athens repulses the Lesbans and Sigeion (Now ruled by Hegesistratos) becomes an Athenian vassal
546 Sparta annexes Kynouria, Thyrea and Kythera from Argos 546
Croesus, rich king of Lydia, captured at Sardis by Persians.
545 Miletus is overthrown by Molpagoras 545
Lygdamis becomes Tyrant of Naxos 545 The
ancient Greek colony of Hermonassa ( Krasnodar Krai, Russia) is founded by Ionians and Cretans. 
544 Abdera starts its Golden Age
543 Phanagoria, ( Krasnodar Krai, Russia), is founded by Teian colonists who had to flee Asia Minor in consequence of their conflict with Cyrus the Great.
542 Peisistratos expelled, makes fortune from Thracian mines. 542 The colony of
Gorgippia ( Krasnodar Krai, Russia) was built by Pontic Greeks.
541 Telemachus is overthrown by Alcamenes
540 Naxan vassalization of Paros 540 Selinus is overthrown by
538 Sybaris conquers Siris 538 Samos is overthrown by
536 Samos annexes South Mycale from Miletus
535 Perilaus dies
534 Athens starts extracting tribute from Ios
532 Croton is overthrown by Cylonius 532
Peisistratos restored by Thessaly and Lygdamis of Naxos.
531 Ikaria is annexed by Samos
530 Emporion becomes a Carthaginian vassal 530
Maktorion is founded by exiled Gelans 530 Tegea joins the Peloponnesian League
529 Leo dies
528 Maktorion is abandoned and the settlers move to Gela
527 Peisistratos dies, succeeded by sons Hippias and Hipparchus. 527
Rineia and Delos are annexed by Samos
526 Cylonius is overthrwon by Kroton
525 Netum is annexed by Syracuse 525 The
ancient Greek city of Euesperides, (modern day Benghazi) is founded by people from Cyrene 525 Persian
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great takes Egypt.
524 Samos annexes Donousa 524 Lgydamis of Naxos is overthrown
523 Chalcedon is annexed by Persian Empire
522 Death of Polycrates of Samos and succession of Maiandrios
521 Overthrow of Maiandros by Persian backed Syloson
520 Peithagoras overthrows Theron
519 Plataea leaves the Boeotian League and is sieged by the latter 519 Miltiades is overthrown by Stesagoras
519 Abydos declares independence from Stesagoras and is led by the Persian Tyrant
518 Athens repulses the Boeotians from Plataea
517 Sybaris is overthrown by Telys
516 Miltiades II an Athenian Tyrant succeeds Stesagoras and reincorporates Abydos 516 Cassaibile is annexed by Syracuse
515 Molpagoras is succeeded by Histiaeos 515
Hippias becomes sole ruler after the death of Hipparchus.
514 Tenedos, Lesbos and Abydos is annexed by Persian Empire
513 Miltiades II defects from Athens to Persia 513
Myrcinos is founded by Ionians 513 Persia annexes
Thrace (Region) 513
Cinyps, Libya, a failed Greek attempt to build a city under the leadership of Dorieus. 
512 Antandrus is annexed by Persian Empire 512 Persian vassalization of Naxos
511 Piraeus is founded and annexed by Athens 511 Thracian Chernessos is annexed by Persian Empire
510 Kroton annexes Sybaris and overthrows Telys 510
Pythagoras establishes his own school. 510 Peithagoras is overthrown by
Euryleon 510 Minoa is renamed Heraclea Minoa
510 Cinyps is annexed by Carthage
508 Andros and Naxos are annexed by Persian Empire 508
Hippias is forced to leave Athens.
507 Plataea is sieged by Boeotian League 507
Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power, increases democracy.
506 Boeotian League is repulsed from Plataea by Athens 506 Cumae is overthrown by
Aristodemus 506 Alcamenes is overthrown by
Alcandros 506 The
Levantine Plain is conquered by Athens and becomes a Cleurchy
505 Hegesistratos of Sigeion dies 505
Cleander overthrows Gela
504 Cleinias overthrows Croton 504 Taras
defeats the Iapygians
503 Naxos declares independence from the Persian Empire
502 Euryleon is overthrown by Selinus
500 Pythagoras dies in Croton, Italy, when he was in Metapontum? 500 Heraclea Minoa is sacked by Carthage
Morgantina and Centuripe are hellenized and Licodia is founded by Leontini
499 Miletus Siege of Naxos (Naxan Victory) 499 Independence of Paros
499 Alcandros is overthrown by Akragas
499 Ionian Revolt starts
499 Éphesos, Klazomenai, Mílētos, Samos,
Myus, Chios, Samos, Mytilene, Mylasa, Termera, Kyme and Priene declare independence from Persian Empire
498 Cyprus (Except Amathos), Caria, Paesos, Abydos, Cios, Percote, Lampsakos, Myrcinos, Tenedos, Dardanos, and Byzantium declare independence from Persian Empire 498 Amathos is sieged by Cyprus
498 Cleander is overthrown by
Hippocrates 498 Hippocrates vassalized Leontini and puts
Aenesidemus as tyrant 498 Licodia is annexed by Syracuse
497 Eion is sieged by Athens 497 Dardanos, Myrcinos, Abydos, Kyme, Klazomenai, Percote, Lampsakos, Cyprus, Cios and Paesos are reannexed by Persian Empire
497 Catania is vassalized by Hippocrates and Deinmenes is put in charge as tyrant
497 Persian Empire occupies all Carian land north of
496 Byzantium is overthrown by Histiaeos 496 Myrcinos is reannexed by the Persian Empire
496 Athenian Tyrant Miltiades II annexes Thracian Chernessos
496 Naxos is vassalized by Hippocrates
495 Cleinias dies
494 Rhegium is overthrown by Anaxilas 494 Zancle is vassalized by Hippocrates and
Scythes put in charge 494 Priene, Samos and Miletus are annexed by Persian Empire
493 Byzantium sieges Thasus 493 Ionian revolt crushed
493 Zancle is settled by Samian refugees and renamed Messene
493 Zancle is conquered by Rhegion
492 Kamarina (now rebuilt) and Ergezio are vassalized by Hippocrates 492 Abdera and Thracian Chernessos are annexed by the Persian Empire
491 Hippocrates is overthrown by Gelon 491 Fort Scyllaeum is founded by Rhegion
490 Aristodemus dies 490 Persian conquest of
Rhodes 490 Persian Siege of Naxos (Naxan Victory)
490 Persian conquest of Paros
490 Persian sacking of
Themistocles and Miltiades, Athenians, defeat Darius at Marathon, Phidippides runs with news. 490 Taras defeats the Iapygians in battle
488 Akragas is overthrown by Theron
486 Himera is overthrown by Terillus
485 Gelon annexes Syracuse (Except Kamarina and Licodia), Gela is given to Hieron
484 Kamarina is destroyed by Gelon 484
Aeschylus, Athenian playwright wins his first victory at the City Dionysia.
483 Megara Hyblaea and Licodia are destroyed by Gelon 483 Theron puts his son
Thrasydaeus in charge of Himera as his vassal
481 Andros, Aegina and Akanthus among many other Greek Poleis declare allegiance to Persia 481 The Naxos,
Milos, Sparta, Athens, Korinth, Kythnos and many other Greek Poleis form the Hellenic League to fight against the Persian Empire Alexander The Great, fighting Classical Greece Classical period (480 BC – 323 BC).
480 Aegina and Andros are impressed into the Hellenic League 480
Emporion ousts Carthaginian influences 480
Leonidas, Spartan, sacrifices 300 Spartan soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is commanding the Persians. 480 Croton, Leucas and Corcyra joins the Hellenic League
480 Simultaneous with Thermopylae, the Greeks and Persians fight to a draw in the naval
Battle of Artemisium. 480 Boeotia,
Attica and Phocis are occupied by Persia 480
Battle of Salamis: Themistocles, Athenian general, lures Persians into Bay of Salamis, Xerxes loses and goes home, leaves behind Mardonius. 480 Possibly simultaneous with the Battle of Salamis,
Battle of Himera between Carthage and Akragas (Theron)-Syracuse (Gelon)-Himera (Thrasydaeus)
479 Pausanias, Greek general routs Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea. 479
Battle of Mycale 479 Rhodes, Samos, Kos and many Greek cities in Persia begin to declare independence
479 Paros is vassalized by Athens
479 Athens annexes
Sestos is sieged by Athens 479 Boeotian League is dissolved by Hellenic League
Sicel Ducetius overthrows Miniu
478 Byzantium is sieged by Athens 478
Delian League is founded by Athens and is soon joined by Ionia, Delos, Kos, Euboea, Tilos, Rhodes, Karpathos, Athenai, Paros, Troezen, Sifnos, Doris, Aeolis, Andros, Aenea, Akanthos, Samos, Chalcis, Eretria, Chios, Methymna, Chalkidiki, Mutilḗnē, Sigeion, Éphesos and many others 478 Gelon dies and is succeeded by Hieron, Polyzelos is put in control of Gela
477 The Persian Empire abandons Europe except Doriskus and Eion 477 Chalcedon, Byzantium, Carystus,
Ainos, Perinthos and others join the Delian League 477 Andros is turned into an Athenian
476 Micythus becomes Tyrant of Rhegion after Anaxilas' death 476 Catania is split between Hieron and Ducetius, Catania is renamed
Aetna, settled by Dorians and ruled by the Tyrant Deinmenes II 476 Taras allies with Rhegion to protect themselves from the Iapygians, but later lose to them in battle
476 Himera is settled by
Doric colonists 476 Sybaris declares independence from Kroton
Cimon elected general each year
475 Sybaris is annexed by Kroton 475 Abdera and Eion join the Delian League
Skyros is annexed by Athens
474 Battle of Cumae 474 Naxos joins the Delian League
474 Hieron occupies the
Parthenopean Islands 474
Pindar, Greek poet relocates to Thebes (in Greece) from court at Syracuse.
473 Taras is defeated by the Iapygians
472 Thrasydaeus annexes Akragas after death of Theron
471 Naxos leaves the Delian League and is subsequently sieged by Athens 471
470 Dénia, Hēmeroskopeion ( Ancient Greek: Ἡμεροσκοπεῖον) is founded by Massaliot Greeks.   The town was situated on the cape then called Artemisium (  Ancient Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον) or Dianium (  Ancient Greek: Διάνιον), named from a temple of Ephesia Artemis built upon it (goddess Artemis was called Diana in Latin). 470 Naxos is impressed into the Delian League
470 Ducetius annexes Ergezio
470 The new urban zone of
Neápolis ( Νεάπολις) was founded by citizens of the nearby Greek city of Cumae on the plain of Parthenope after the victorious Battle of Cumae
469 Illios is annexed by Mytilene 469 Klazomenai, Phaselis, Aspendos, Doris and Priene join the Delian League
468 Thrasydaeus is overthrown by Akragas 468
Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for Athenian Prize for drama.
467 Micythus steps down to Leophron
466 Taras is defeated by the Iapygians 466 Taras' monarchy is overthrown by democrats
Thrasybulos succeeds Hieron
465 Thasus leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens 465 Abydos and Troad join the Delian League
465 Thracian Chernessos is annexed by Athens
465 Deinmenes II, Aenesidemus, Thrasybulos and Polyzelos are overthrown by their respective cities
463 Thasus is impressed into the Delian League
462 Megara leaves the Peloponnesian League
461 Catania, Naxos and Catania declare independence from Syracuse, Dorian settlers are removed from Catania 461 Kamarina is refounded under the Tyranny of
Cimon ostracized. 461 Thera joins the Peloponnesian League
461 Messene and Rhegion separate and oust Leophron
460 Taras defeats the Iapygians 460 Aetna is founded
First Peloponnesian War Starts
459 Aegina is sieged by Athens 459:
Morgantina is annexed by Ducetius 459-455
Siege of Memphis, destruction of the Athenian fleet by Megabyzus
458 Imbros is annexed by Athens
457 Aegina is impressed into the Delian League 457 Delphi is annexed by Phocis
Pericles, Athenian statesman begins Golden Age, he was taught by Anaxagoras, who believed in dualistic Universe and atoms. 457 Boeotia (Except Thebes), Phocis and Locris join the Delian League
456 Gythium is raided by Athens 456
Zakynthos joins the Delian League 456
Castrugiuvanni (Enna) join Ducetius 456
455 Nafpaktos is impressed into the Delian League and settled with Messenian Helots
454 Abacaenum is annexed by Ducetius 454 Movement of Delian treasury to Athens and start of the First Athenian Empire
454 Athenian annexation of Delos
453 Palike is founded by Ducetius
452 Akragas and Aetna are annexed by Ducetius, Ducetius sieges Motyon 452
Nea Sybaris is founded by Sybarites
451 Athens sieges Kition 451
Motyon is occupied by Ducetius
450 Naxos becomes a cleurchy 450 Akragas and Motyon are liberated from Ducetius starting a decades long conflict between Syracuse+friends and the Sicels
449 Delphi declares independence from Phocis 449 Ducetius abandons the Sicel Federation he created and is forced to go into exile at Korinth
449 Morgantina is annexed Syracuse
Herodotus, Greek Historian, writes History of Greco-Persian War from 490–479.
448 Delphi is annexed by Phocis
447 Ictinus and Callicrates, Greek architects, begin construction of the Parthenon. 447 Nea Sybaris is annexed by Kroton
447 Chalcis leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens
446 Phocis, Locris and Boeotia leave the Delian League, Boeotia unites into the Boeotian League and joins the Peloponnesian League
446 Megara joins the Peloponnesian League 446 Kale Akte is founded by Ducetius
Achaea and Trozen leave the Peloponnesian League and join the Delian League 446-445 Euboean Revolt
445 Euboea is impressed into the Delian League 445
Histiaea becomes an Athenian cleurchy 445 First Peloponnesian War Ends
445 Troezen is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
443 Thurii is founded by Sybarites and Various Hellenes
441 Euripides, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize. 441
Sybaris on the Traeis is founded by Sybarites exiled from Thurii
440 Samos leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens 440 Palike is destroyed, ending the Sicel Federation
440 Ducetius dies
439 Samos is impressed into the Delian League
438 Founding of the Bosporan Kingdom 
437 Newly founded Amphipolis annexes Eion 437 Athens allies with
436 Taulantii-Epidamos War
435 Phidias, Greek sculptor, completes statue of Zeus at Elis, 1 of 7 wonders of the world.
434 Epidamos becomes a democracy 434 Epidamos is annexed by Korinth
434 Kerkyra allies with Taulantii and siege Epidamos
434 Kerkyra seizes Outer Epidamos (City)
434 Battle of Leukimme
434 Kerkyra raids
Kyllene 434 Kerkyra joins Delian League
433 Battle of Sybota 433
Anactorium is annexed by Korinth
432 Psaumis dies 432 Potidaea leaves the Delian League and is
sieged by Athens 432
Pydna is sieged by Athens 432 End of "Golden Age" of Athens
431 Sparta commanded by King Archidamus II prepares to destroy Athens thus starting the Peloponnesian War. 431 Plataea is sieged by Thebes
Pagae and Atalanta is occupied by Athens 431 Aegina is annexed by Athens
Empedocles, Greek doctor, believes body has Four Temperaments.
430 Athens abandons the Siege of Pydna 430
Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League 430 Spartan Siege of Zakynthos (Local Victory)
430 Failed peace mission by
Athens, bubonic plague year, Sparta takes no prisoners. 430
Leucippus, Greek philosopher, believes every natural event has natural cause. Athenian Plague begins in Athens.
429 Herakleion is annexed by Macedonia 429 Potidaea is impressed into the Delian League
429 All Chalkidiki cities (Except Mende, Acanthus, Scione, Stagirus and Aphytis) leave the Delian League
429 Athens Siege of
Kydonia (Local Victory) 429
Phormio, Athenian admiral, wins the Battle of Chalcis/Rhium. 429
Pericles dies of Athenian Plague, possibly typhus or bubonic plague. 429
Hippocrates, Greek doctor, believes diseases have physical cause. 429 First Battle of Naupaktos (Athenian Victory)
428 Plato born. 428 Mytilene and
Antissa leave the Delian league and Mytilene is sieged by Athens, Antissa is sieged by Methymna 428 Illios joins the Delian League
427 Suppression of Mytilene, Antissa is annexed by Methymna, Mytilene becomes an Athenian Cleurchy, Mytilene Troad joins the Delian League as independent cities 427
Archidamus II dies, Alcidas, Greek admiral sent to help Lesbos, raids Ionia and flees after seeing Athenian might. Athenian Plague returns. 427 Plataea is impressed into the Boeotian League and by extension, the Peloponnesian League
Aristophanes, Greek playwright, wins Athenian Prize. 427 Corcyran Civil War (Democratic Victory)
427 First Athenian Intervention in Sicily begins
426 Megara occupies Pegae
426 Athens sieges Lecus
426 Pylos, Messene, Mylae,
Aegitium and Tichium are occupied by Athens, Pylos is founded by escaped Helots 426
Battle of Tanagra 426 Amfissa joins the Peloponnesian League
Ozolian Locris join the Delian League
426 Demosthenes, Athenian general, and Cleon, Athenian demagogue, revitalizes Athenian forces, makes bold plans opposed by Nicias, his first military campaign barely succeeds. 426 Ambrakia occupies
Olpae and Argos 426
Acarnanian League and Amphilochian League are founded and join the Delian League 425 Acarnania occupies Olpae and Argos
425 Athenian fleet bottles up Spartan navy at Navarino Bay, Nicias resigns. 425 Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League
425 Athens occupies
Sphacteria 425 Morgantina is annexed by Kamarina
425 Ozolian Locris joins the Peloponnesian League
425 Athens withdraws from Lecas and
Acarnania 425 Athens withdraws from Messene and Mylae is impressed into the Delian League
424 Herakleion is annexed by Makedonia
424 Eion, Akanthus and Amphipolis are sieged by Sparta
424 Stagira joins the Peloponnesian League
424 Nisaia, and
Siphae are occupied by Athenai 424 Thyrea is occupied by Athens
424 First Athenian Intervention in Sicily ends
424 Pagondas of Thebes (in Greece) crushes Athenian army at the Battle of Delium, Brasidas a Spartan general, has a successful campaign in the Chalcidice, Cleon exiles Thucydides for 20 years for arriving late. 423 Sparta occupied Amphipolis and Scione
423 Torone is occupied by Makedonia
423 Akanthus joins the Peloponnesian League
423 Truce of Laches supposed to stop Brasidas but doesn't, Nicias commands Athenian forces in retaking Mende. 423 Olynthus form the
Chalcidian League independent of the Delian League 422 Stagira is sieged by Athens
422 Neapolis is annexed by Rome
422 Torone and Scione are impressed into the Delian League
422 Cleon meets Brasidas outside of Amphipolis, both are killed ( Battle of Amphipolis). 422 Syracuse annexes the now weak Leontini
421 Peace of Nicias brings temporary end to war, but Alcibiades, a nephew of Pericles, makes anti-Sparta alliance. 421 Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League
421 Cumae is annexed by
Oscans 421 Athens abandons the Siege of Stagira
421 Delphi declares independence from Phocis
Apollonia, Potidaea, Akanthus, Stageira and others join the Chalcidian League
420 Mantineia, Argos, Elis, Sicyon and Achaea betray Sparta and switch to the Delian League 419 Athens occupies Epidauros
419 King Agis II of Sparta attacks Argos, makes treaty.
418 Battle of Mantinea, greatest land battle of war, gives Sparta victory over Argos, which violated treaty, Alcibiades thrown out, alliance ended. 418 Orchmenos is occupied by Argos
417 Orchmenos is given to Boeotia
417 Sicyon joins the Peloponnesian League
417 Epidauros is occupied by Sparta
Melos is sieged by Athens
416 Alcibiades makes plans, is restored to power. 416 Selinus annexes Segesta's frontier provinces
416 Massacre of the Melians.
415 Hermai statues are mutilated in Athens, Alcibiades accused, asks for inquiry, told to set sail for battle ( Sicilian Expedition), is condemned to death in absentia, he defects to Sparta. 415 Many Syracusan cities rebel
Siege of Syracuse 414-413 Metapontion allies with Athens
414 Lamachus, Athenian commander killed at Syracuse.
413 Nicias and Demosthenes killed at Syracuse 413 Leontini and Kamarina are vassalized by Syracuse
413 Herakleion is annexed by Makedonia
413 Miletus and Khios betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
412 Alcibiades is expelled from Sparta, conspires to come back to Athens. 412 Methymna is occupied by Sparta
412 Klazomenai and Kyzikus betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
412 Chios is sieged by Athens
412 Aygrion dies and is succeeded by Aygris
411 Sparta allies with Persia
411 Aspendos is annexed by Persia
411 Kyzikus and Klazomenai are impressed into the Delian League
Oropos is occupied by Boeotia 411 Illios is annexes by
Lampsacus 411 Athens abandons the Siege of Chios
411 Sparta leaves Methymna
411 Euboea, Byzantium, Abydos, Andros, Antandrus, Lampsacus, Chalcedon and Rodos betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
411 Abydos is overthrown by Dercylidas
411 Selinus attacks Segesta once again and aggravates Carthage
411 Athens is overthrown by the
410 After several successes, Athenian demagogue Cleophon rejects Spartan peace offers. 410 Segesta is annexed by Carthage
410 Four Hundred are overthrown by Athens
409 Antandrus is annexed by Persia
409 Abydos is sieged by Athens
409 Sparta sieges Klazomenai
409 Selinus and Himera are sacked by Carthage
409 Byzantium recaptured by Alcibiades for Athens. 408 The 3 poleis of
Rodos unite and build a new capital called Rodos 408 Athens sieges Paleopoli
408 Athens abandons Siege of Abydos
408 Sparta abandons the Siege of Klazomenai
408 Alcibiades reenters Athens in triumph, Lysander, a Spartan commander, has fleet built at Ephesus. 407 Thermae is founded by Carthage
407 Athens abandons the Siege of Paleopoli
407 Lysander begins destruction of Athenian fleet, Alcibiades stripped of power. 406 Sparta sieges Methymna
406 Akragas is sacked by Carthage
406 Callicratides, Spartan naval commander, loses Battle of Arginusae over blockade of Mitylene harbor, Sparta sues for peace, rejected by Cleophon. 405 Methymna is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
405 Syracuse is overthrown by
Dionysius the Elder 405 Melos is annexed by Sparta
405 Gela, Kamarina and Akrillai is sacked by Carthage
405 Carthage allow the people of the sacked cities to return as Carthaginian subjects and rebuild their cities
405 Leontini and Morgantina declare independence from Syracuse
405 Carthage annexes
Elymi, Sicel and Sican territory
405 The naval Battle of in which Lysander captures the Athenian fleet, Spartan king Aegospotami Pausanias besieges Athens, Cleophon executed, Corinth and Thebes demand destruction of Athens. 405 Klazomenai and Ephesus betray Athens and join the All Carthaginian subjects (Except Ziz, their islands, Motya, Solus, Elymi, Segesta, and Entella) gain independence
404 Athens capitulates April 25. Theramenes secures terms, prevents total destruction of Athens, Theramenes and Alcibiades are killed. 404 Delian League is dissolved
404 Korinth leaves the Peloponnesian League
Entella is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Carthage 404 Aygris becomes a Syracusan Subject
404 Nafpaktos is annexed by Ozolian Locris
404 Athens is overthrown by the
Thirty 404 Athens joins the Peloponnesian League
403 Aeimnestus, who is loyal to Dionysius, overthrows Castrugiuvanni
403 Aetna is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
403 Dionysius destroys Naxos and Catania and Sicels split Naxos with Syracuse, Catania is ruled by Campanian mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
403 Athens overthrows the Thirty
403 Athens leaves the Peloponnesian League and refounds the Delian League
402 Elis leaves the Peloponnesian League and is subsequently sieged by Sparta
401 Euboea joins the Delian League
401 Elis is sacked and impressed into the Peloponnesian League
401 Dionysius free Castrugiuvanni from Aeimnestus
401 Poseidonia is annexed by
401 Thucydides, Greek historian, leaves account of " Golden Age of Pericles" and Peloponnesian War at his death ( History of the Peloponnesian War). 400
Adranon is founded by Dionysius 400 Aygris annexes Centuripe
400 Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing 399 Illios declares independence from Lampsacus
399 Sparta sways Persian Controlled Greek cities near
Pergamon to their side and march on Egyptian Larissa and siege it
399 Socrates, Greek philosopher, condemned to death for corrupting youth. 398 Ionia joins the Peloponnesian League
398 All Carthaginian subjects (Except
Ziz, their islands, Motya, Solus, Elymi, Segesta, and Entella) gain independence from Carthage 398 Dionysius sieges Segesta and Entella
398 Mainland territory of Motya is occupied by Dionysius
397 Motya is destroyed by Dionysius and the Carthaginians build
Lilybaion to replace it 397 Dionysius abandons the Sieges of Entella and Segesta
397 Eryx, Segesta, Lipari, Messene and Entella are annexed by Carthage
397 Carthage allies with the Sicel cities except
Tauormenion is founded by Carthage to be a supply base, settled by Sicels 397 Carthaginian forces have to go the long way around
Mount Etna due to an eruption 397 Catania is occupied by Carthage
Battle of Catania 397 Syracuse is sieged by Carthage
396 Carthage lifts the
Siege of Syracuse and abandons Eastern Sicily except Messene and Lipari 396 Himera and Selinus are annexed by Carthage
396 Gela, Ergezio, Catania, Adranon, Kamarina and Leontini are annexed by Dionysius
Tyndaris is founded by Dionysius to combat piracy and a base of operations 396 Persia annexes Rodos
396 Sparta campaigns in
Phrygia 395 Sparta campaigns in Ionia,
Caria and march up to Sardis 395 Orchmenus leaves the Boeotian League
Cephaloedium is annexed by Dionysius 395 Mylae is annexed by Rhegion
395 Argos, Korinthos and Boeotian League leave the Peloponnesian League
394 Sparta withdraws from
Anatolia 394 All Thracian and Anatolian Greek cities leave the Peloponnesian League (Except Sestos and Abydos)
394 Virtually all Greek Anatolian cities are annexed by Persia
394 Klazomenaites relocate to an island off shore
394 Mylae is annexed by Syracuse
393 Lipari is annexed by Syracuse
Italiote League is formed by Sybaris on the Traeis, Croton, Caulonia, Thurii, Rhegium and Velia 393 Imbros, Lemnos and Skyros are annexed by Athens
393 Makedonia starts paying tribute to the newly formed
Kingdom of Dardania 393 Chalcidian League annexes some Makedonian land
392 Sparta occupies
Lechaeum 392 Heraclea Minoa, Akragas and Sicani territory are annexed by Carthage
392 Sicel territory is annexed by Dionysius
392 Makedonia stops paying tribute to Dardania
392 Makedonia reannexes the land taken by the Chalcidian League
Damastion is annexed by Dardania 391 Korinth occupies
Phlius 391 Tauromenion is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
391 Makedonia starts pays tribute to Dardania
Acarnanian League joins the Peloponnesian League 390 Dercylidas is succeeded by
Anaxibios 390 Himera is merged into Thermae
390 Dionysius transfers control of Mylae to Messene
390 Kroton is annexed by Syracuse
390 Argos and Korinth unite into Argos-Korinth
390 Castrugiuvani is annexed by Syracuse
389 Metapontion is annexed by Syracuse
389 Anaxibios is overthrown by Abydos
387 Rhegion is annexed by Syracuse and renamed it to Phoebea
387 Peace of Antalcidas concluded between the Greeks and the Persians that leads to virtually all Greek cities in Asia Minor being annexed by Persia 387
Ancona is founded by Greek settlers from Syracuse, who gave it its name: Ancona stems from the Greek word Ἀγκών (Ankòn), meaning "elbow" 387 Argos and Korinth split
387 All cities gain independence and all league except the Peloponnesian League are disbanded
386 Phlius becomes a democracy
385 Dardania attacks
Molossia 385 The
Greeks colonized the island of Pharos ( Hvar, Croatia).  384 Dionysius occupies Pyrgi and Caere
384 Chalcidian League annexes Makedonia land including
Pella 383 Gela gains independence from Syracuse
383 Dionysius leaves
Liburnia sieges Pharos 383 Potidaea leaves the Chalcidian League
382 Thebes is overthrown by Leontiades and Archias
382 Thebes is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
380 Sparta sieges Phlius
380 Makedonia recaptures their former territory
379 Kroton is annexed by Dionysius
379 Phlius is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
379 The Chalcidian League is disbanded and its former members are impressed into the Peloponnesian League and Potidaea and Korinth also join the league
379 Leontiades and Archias are overthrown and Thebes leaves the Peloponnesian League
379 Sparta occupies
Themison overthrows Eretria 377 The Boeotian League is refounded by Thebes
376 Abdera is sacked by the
Triballi and Maroneia 376 Thespiae and the rest of Boeotia are liberated and join the Boeotian League
375 The Acarnanian League defects from the Peloponnesian League and joins the Delian League
375 Chalcidian League is reestablished by Olynthus and joins the Delian League
373 Kerkyra is sieged by Sparta
371 Sparta leaves Kerkyra
370 Gythium is occupied by Thebes
Heraclea Sintica is founded by Makedonia 369 Korinth is overthrown by
Aetolian League is founded 367 Daparria is annexed by Dardania
367 Kroton is annexed by
Bruttian League 366 Opus declares independence from Athens with the help of Themison
365 Opus requests Thebes to protect them from Athens and sends a garrison. Opus is impressed into the Boeotian League
364 Timophanes is assassinated
364 Orchmenus leaves the Boeotian League and is subsequently sieged by Thebes
363 Orchmenus is impressed into the Boeotian League
363 Pydna is impressed into the Delian League
362 Themison dies and is succeeded by
Plutarch 361 Potidaea and Torone are impressed into the Delian League and become Athenian Cluerchies
360 Tauromenion overthrows the mercenaries and falls under the tyranny of Andromache
360 Illios is overthrown by
Charidemos 360 Abydos is overthrown by Iphiades
359 Charidemos is overthrown by Illios
359 Dardania annexes
Lake Ohrid and Upper Macedonia 359
Archelaus annexes Methone, Aegae and Pydna 358 Archelaus is annexed by Makedonia
358 Macedonia reannexes Lake Ohrid,
Lynkestis and Upper Macedonia from Dardania 358 Makedonia annexes
Social War Starts 357
Kos, Khios, Rodos and Byzantium leave the Delian League 357 Makedonia annexes Pydna and Amphipolis
357 Dionysius II is overthrown by
Dion 356 Phocis annexes Delphi
356 Locris is annexed by Dionysius II
356 Lemnos, Samos and Imbros is occupied by Chios and leave the Delian League
356 Makedonia annexes
Crenides, renames it Philippi and settles it with Makedonians 356 Makedonian border set on
Nestus river 356 Potidaea and
Anthemus are annexed by Chalcidian League 356 Makedonia sieges Methone
356 Lokros is overthrown by Dionysius II
355 Social War Ends
355 Argolas is sieged by Phocis
355 Dion is overthrown by
Callipus 354 Methone and Abdera are annexed by Makedonia
354 Phocis abandons the Siege of Argolas
Thessaly is vassalized by Phocis 353 Catania is annexed by Callipus
353 Makedonia occupied Pagasae
353 Thessaly is vassalized by Makedonia
352 Callipus is overthrown by Hipparinos (Callipus keeps Catania)
352 Nicodemus overthrows Centuripe
352 Orchmenus and
Chaeronea are occupied by Phocis 351 Rhegion is annexed by Callipus
350 Akanthus is annexed by Makedonia
Nice (Nicaea) is founded by the Greeks of Massalia ( Marseille), and was given the name of Nikaia (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; Nike (Νίκη) was the Greek goddess of victory. 350 Hipparinos is overthrown by Aretaeus
Mamercus ousts Callippus from Catania 349 Plutarch is expelled from Eretria
349 Aretaeus is overthrown by Nysaios
348 Stagira is annexed by Makedonia
348 Callipus is overthrown by
Leptines 347 Leontini is overthrown by
347 Plato, Greek philosopher, founder of Academy, dies. 347 Methymna is overthrown by Kleommis
346 Phocis withdraws from Boeotia
346 Dionysius II leaves Locris and overthrows Nysaios
Lyttos is sieged by Knossos 346 Makedonia occupies Thermopylae and
Antikyra, Nicaea is occupied by Thessaly 345 Makedonia withdraws from Thermopylae and Antikyra
Grabaei becomes a vassal of Macedonia 345 Hicetas sieges Syracuse and seizes Syracuse's territory
345 The Pro-Makedonian Tyrant
Hipparchus overthrows Eretria 345 Mainland
Syracuse (City) is occupied by Hicetas leaving only the citadel in Dionysius' control 344 Macedonia occupies Illios and annexes Tenedos
344 Siege of Lyttos lifted by Knossos
344 Knossos sieges
Kydonia 344 Hicetas is repulsed by
Timoleon from Syracuse 344 Timoleon takes control of all Syracusan forces outside the citadel
343 Messene is rebuilt by Timoelon, Adranon is freed from mercenary control, Nicodemus is overthrown by Centuripe with help of Timoleon
343 Timoleon annexes the citadel
343 Siege of Kydonia is lifted by Knossos
342 Rhegion is freed by Timoleon
342 Aristotle, Greek philosopher, begins teaching Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon. 341 Hipparchus is overthrown by Athenian forces and impressed into the Delian league
341 Samothrace is annexed by Makedonia
340 Antipolis (modern day
Antibes) is founded by Phocaean Greeks from Massilia.  340 Skyros is annexed by Makedonia
340 Entella is freed by Timoleon
Elateia is occupied by Makedonia 339 Agyris and Aetna are freed by Timoleon
339 Nicaea is occupied by Boeotia
338 Amphissa is annexed by Delphi
338 Thyrea is annexed by Argos
338 Mamercus dies
338 Cumae is annexed by
Rome 338 Leontini is freed by Timoleon
338 Nafpaktos joins the Aetolian League
338 King Philip II of Macedon defeats Athens and Thebes at Battle of Chaeronea August 2 and establishes League of Corinth during winter of 338 BC/337 BC. 337 Amfissa declares independence from Delphi
336 Timoleon dies
Lesbos is annexed by Makedonia
336 Alexander succeeds father Philip II, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis. 334 Andromache dies and his city is annexed by Syracuse
334 Battle of the Granicus 333
Saminum is occupied by Epirus
333 Alexander defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, but Darius III escapes. 332
Epirus occupies Heraclea, Metapontium, Southern Lucania, Daunia, Paestum, Terina and Sipontum 332
Siege of Tyre 332
Siege of Gaza
332 Alexander conquers Egypt.
332 Alexandria is founded by Alexander the Great 331
Epirus occupies Cosentia 331
Battle of Pandosia 331
Gerasa ( Jordan) is founded by Makedonian veterans
331 at Battle of Gaugamela October 1, Alexander ends Achaemenid Dynasty and conquers Persian Empire. 331
Alexander the Great enters in Babylon 331 Tauromenion is freed by Carthage
331 Battle of the Uxian Defile (East of Susa, Iran) 330 Sparta joins the
League of Corinth 330
Battle of the Persian Gate, destruction of Persepolis (modern Iran) 330-325
Pytheas makes the earliest Greek voyage to Great Britain and the Arctic Circle for which there is a record.
329 Siege of Cyropolis
329 Battle of Jaxartes
329 Alexander conquers Samarkand, Uzbekistan 329
Alexander the Great founds Alexandria Eschate in modern Tajikistan 329-160
Dayuan Kingdom.  328 Sybaris on the Traeis is annexed by Bruttian League
327 Oenidae is impressed into the Aetolian League
327 Under the command of Alexander the Great the forces of the Hellenic League captures the fortress of the Sogdian Rock. Sogdiana and the Kabul region came under Hellenic control
327 Alexander invades northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to march further eastwards. 326
Battle of the Hydaspes 326 Samos joins the Delian League
Alexandria Bucephalous (located on the Hydaspes river, Pakistan) is founded by Alexander the Great in memory of his beloved horse Bucephalus 325
Nearchus serving under Alexander the Great discovers Tylos (the name used by the Greeks to refer to Bahrain).  324 Kroton is overthrown by
Menedemus 324 Charax Spasinu, one of Alexander's last cities before his death, is established at the head of the Persian Gulf (modern Iraq) replacing a small Persian settlement, Durine.  Hellenistic Greece Hellenistic period (323 BC – 146 BC).
323 King Alexander dies, his generals vie for power in Wars of the Diadochi
322– 320 First War of the Diadochi.
320 Partition of Triparadisus.
320– 311 Second War of the Diadochi.
316 Menander, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize.
312– 63 Seleucid Empire.
310 Zeno of Citium founds his stoic school in Athens.
310 Battle of White Tunis (near modern Tunis, Tunisia)
307 Epicurus founds his philosophic school in Athens.
305– 30 Ptolemaic Kingdom.
305 Seleucia, also known as or Seleucia-on-Tigris (modern Seleucia on the Tigris Iraq) is founded by Seleucus I Nicator
301 Battle of Ipsus.
300 Antioch, is founded by Seleucus I Nicator in honor of his father Antiochus
300 Euclid, Greek mathematician, publishes treating both geometry and number theory (see also Elements, Euclidean algorithm).
295 Athens falls to Demetrius, Lachares killed.
282– 133 Kingdom of Pergamon.
281 Creation of the Achaean League.
280 The Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) is founded (modern day Split).
280– 275 Pyrrhic War.
279 Gallic invasion of the Balkans.
274– 271 First Syrian War.
267– 262 Chremonidean War.
265 Archimedes, Greek mathematician, develops Archimedes' screw, specific gravity, center of gravity; anticipates discoveries of integral calculus.
260– 253 Second Syrian War.
256– 125 Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
246– 241 Third Syrian War.
235 Tanais (Rostov-on-Don, Russia) is founded by merchant adventurers from Miletus
220 Euthydemus I of the Greco-Bactrians led expeditions as far as Kashgar and Ürümqi in Xinjiang, leading to the first known contacts between China and the West. 
219– 217 Fourth Syrian War.
214– 205 First Macedonian War.
203– 200 Fifth Syrian War.
200– 196 Second Macedonian War.
192– 188 Roman–Syrian War.
180–10 AC Indo-Greek Kingdom.
172– 167 Third Macedonian War.
170– 168 Sixth Syrian War.
155 BC Attack of the Indo-Greeks on Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to  Megasthenes, who describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls.  
150 BC King Attalus II of Pergamon founds the city of Attaleia or Antalya in his honour.
150– 148 Fourth Macedonian War. 146– 146 Battle of Corinth See also Notes Wasson, Ruck, Hofmann, The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978. ISBN 0-15-177872-8. References
Leon E. Seltzer, ed. (1952), , New York: Columbia University Press, p. 1157, Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World OL 6112221M
P. Christiaan Klieger (29 November 2012). . Lexington Books. pp. 165–. The Microstates of Europe: Designer Nations in a Post-Modern World ISBN 978-0-7391-7427-2.
Kalinin, Igor. "Одесские достопримечательности — раскопки греческого поселения". odessaguide.net.
^ M.J. Traister and T.V. Shelov-Kovedyayev,
“An inscribed conical clay object from Hermonassa”
"Wadi Caam: The Greeks in Tripolitania!". Temehu . Retrieved . 10 May 2012
Spann, P., R. Warner, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 265880 (Dianium/Hemeroskopeion)". Pleiades . Retrieved . July 31, 2012 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Strabo, Geography, translated by H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A., Ed. (1903)
^ Greek text: Strabo. ed. A. Meineke, Geographica. Leipzig: Teubner. (1877)
Smith, William (1852). . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (Abacaenum – Hytanis) 1. Boston: Little, Brown. p. 773.
Hind, John. "The Bosporan Kingdom". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, J.; Hornblower, S.; Ostwald, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History. VI - The 4th Century BC. Cambridge: CUP. pp. 476–511.
^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,
ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 114,"... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ..."
Freely, John, The western shores of Turkey: discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, p. 91
^ It is mentioned in the accounts of the famous Chinese
explorer Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the numerous embassies that followed him into Central Asia. The country of Dayuan is generally accepted as city state relating to the Ferghana Valley, and its Greek city Alexandria Eschate (modern Khujand, Tajikistan)
^ Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society By Curtis E. Larsen p. 50
Jona Lendering, Charax at Livius.org
^ The Greek historian
Strabo too writes that: "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres (Chinese) and the Phryni". ( Strabo, XI.XI.I)
^ "The advance of the Greek to Pataliputra is recorded from the Indian side in the Yuga-purana", Tarn, p.145
^ "The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians
... Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates." Arr. Ind. 10. "Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians.", quoting Megasthenes Text Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
^ "The text of the Yuga Purana, as we have shown, gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra in which the Indo-Greeks took part, for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa and destroyed Pataliputra", Narain,
The Indo-Greeks, p. 112. Aspasia
Aspasia (; Greek: Ἀσπασία /as.pa.sí.aː/; c. 470–c. 400 BC) was an influential immigrant to Classical-era Athens who was the lover and partner of the statesman Pericles. The couple had a son, Pericles the Younger, but the full details of the couple's marital status are unknown. According to Plutarch, her house became an intellectual centre in Athens, attracting the most prominent writers and thinkers, including the philosopher Socrates. There are also suggestions in ancient sources that the teachings of Aspasia influenced Socrates. Aspasia is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and others.
Though she spent most of her adult life in Greece, few details of her life are fully known. Many scholars have credited ancient comic depictions of Aspasia as a brothel keeper and a prostitute despite their inherent implausibility. Aspasia's role in history provides crucial insight to the understanding of the women of ancient Greece. Very little is known about women from her time period. One scholar stated that, "To ask questions about Aspasia's life is to ask questions about half of humanity."
Battle of Marathon
The Battle of Marathon (Ancient Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, romanized: Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars.
The first Persian invasion was a response to Athenian involvement in the Ionian Revolt, when Athens and Eretria had sent a force to support the cities of Ionia in their attempt to overthrow Persian rule. The Athenians and Eretrians had succeeded in capturing and burning Sardis, but they were then forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn down Athens and Eretria. According to Herodotus, Darius had his bow brought to him and then shot an arrow "upwards towards heaven", saying as he did so: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!". Herodotus further writes that Darius charged one of his servants to say "Master, remember the Athenians" three times before dinner each day.At the time of the battle, Sparta and Athens were the two largest city-states in Greece. Once the Ionian revolt was finally crushed by the Persian victory at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC, Darius began plans to subjugate Greece. In 490 BC, he sent a naval task force under Datis and Artaphernes across the Aegean, to subjugate the Cyclades, and then to make punitive attacks on Athens and Eretria. Reaching Euboea in mid-summer after a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians proceeded to besiege and capture Eretria. The Persian force then sailed for Attica, landing in the bay near the town of Marathon. The Athenians, joined by a small force from Plataea, marched to Marathon, and succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of Marathon. The Athenians also sent a message asking for support to the Spartans. When the messenger arrived in Sparta, the Spartans were involved in a religious festival and gave this as a reason for not coming to aid of the Athenians.
The Athenians and their allies chose a location for the battle, with marshes and mountainous terrain, that prevented the Persian cavalry from joining the Persian infantry. Miltiades, the Athenian general, ordered a general attack against the Persian forces, composed primarily of missile troops. He reinforced his flanks, luring the Persians' best fighters into his centre. The inward wheeling flanks enveloped the Persians, routing them. The Persian army broke in panic towards their ships, and large numbers were slaughtered. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece, and the Persian force retreated to Asia. Darius then began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition. After Darius died, his son Xerxes I restarted the preparations for a second invasion of Greece, which finally began in 480 BC.
The Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten; the eventual Greek triumph in these wars can be seen to have begun at Marathon. The battle also showed the Greeks that they were able to win battles without the Spartans, as they had heavily relied on Sparta previously. This victory was largely due to the Athenians, and Marathon raised Greek esteem of them. The following two hundred years saw the rise of the Classical Greek civilization, which has been enduringly influential in western society and so the Battle of Marathon is often seen as a pivotal moment in Mediterranean and European history.
The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber, The Book of Times) was a universal chronicle, one of Jerome's earliest attempts at history. It was composed c. 380 in Constantinople; this is a translation into Latin of the chronological tables which compose the second part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a supplement covering the period from 325 to 379. Despite numerous errors taken from Eusebius, and some of his own, Jerome produced a valuable work of universal history, if only for the example which it gave to such later chroniclers as Prosper of Aquitaine, Cassiodorus, and Victor of Tunnuna to continue his annals. In conformity with the Chronicon of Eusebius (early 4th century), Jerome dated Creation to 5201 BC.The Chronicle includes a chronology of the events of Greek mythology, based on the work of Hellenistic scholars such as Apollodorus, Diodorus Siculus, and Eusebius. While the earlier parts are obviously unhistorical, there may be scattered remnants of historical events of late Mycenean Greece from entries of the 12th century BC. (See the historicity of the Iliad. Notably, Jerome's date for the capture of Troy of 1183 BC corresponds remarkably well with the destruction layer of Troy VIIa, the main candidate for the historical inspiration of legendary Troy, dated to c. 1190 BC.) Homer himself is dated to 940 BC, while modern scholarship usually dates him after 800 BC.
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn). Archon (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord", frequently used as the title of a specific public office, while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.
In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon, the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler"), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler"). The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.
History by period
This history by period summarizes significant eras in the history of the world, from the ancient world to the present day.
History of Greece
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is similarly elastic in what it includes. Generally, the history of Greece is divided into the following periods:
Neolithic Greece covering a period beginning with the establishment of agricultural societies in 7000 BC and ending in 3200/3100 BC,
Helladic (Minoan or Bronze Age) chronology covering a period beginning with the transition to a metal-based economy in 3200/3100 BC to the rise and fall of the Mycenaean Greek palaces spanning roughly five centuries (1600–1100 BC),
Ancient Greece covering a period from the fall of the Mycenaean civilization in 1100 BC to 146 BC spanning multiple sub-periods including the Greek Dark Ages (or Iron Age, Homeric Age), Archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period,
Roman Greece covering a period from the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC to 324 AD,
Byzantine Greece covering a period from the establishment of the capital city of Byzantium, Constantinople, in 324 AD until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD,
Ottoman Greece covering a period from 1453 up until the Greek Revolution of 1821,
Modern Greece covering a period from 1821 to the present.At its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Egypt all the way to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories (e.g. Turkey, Albania, Italy, Libya, Levant, Armenia, Georgia) and Greek emigrants have assimilated into differing societies across the globe (e.g. North America, Australia, Northern Europe, South Africa). Nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece (independent since 1821) and Cyprus.
List of time periods
The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization. This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (time periods in the origin and mass evolution of the universe), geological (time periods in the origin and evolution of the Earth), anthropological (time periods in the origin and evolution of humans) and historical (time periods in the origin and evolution of human civilization)..
List of timelines
This is a list of timelines currently on Wikipedia.
Pericles (; Attic Greek: Περικλῆς Periklēs, pronounced [pe.ri.klɛ̂ːs] in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age – specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, a contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens". Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire, and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles", though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars, or as late as the next century.
Pericles promoted the arts and literature; it is principally through his efforts that Athens acquired the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon). This project beautified and protected the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people. Pericles also fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist. He, along with several members of his family, succumbed to the Plague of Athens in 429 BC, which weakened the city-state during a protracted conflict with Sparta.
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