Timeline of ancient Greece

This is a timeline of Ancient Greece from its emergence around 800 BC to its subjection to the Roman Empire in 146 BC.

For earlier times, see Greek Dark Ages, Aegean civilizations and Mycenaean Greece. For later times see Roman Greece, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Greece.

For modern Greece after 1820, see Timeline of modern Greek history.

Archaic Greece

Archaic Period (800 BC – 481 BC).

Late Archaic Period

  • 561 Peisistratos takes power in Athens for first time.
  • 560 Ephesus is sieged by Lydia
  • 560 Phalaris annexes Himera
  • 559 Ephesus is annexed by Lydia
  • 559-550 Lydia annexes Aeolis and Ionia
  • 559 Achilleion is founded and annexed by Mytilene
  • 557 Argos is overthrown by Perilaus
  • 556 Phlius is overthrown by Leo
  • 555 Helike (Elche) is established by Greeks from the Achaian city of Helice
  • 555 Peisistratos driven out by Lycurgus who is commander of nobles.
  • 555 Miltiades I unites Thracian Chernessos under his rule
  • 554 Phalaris is overthrown by Akragas and Himera gains independence
  • 553 Kamarina declares independence from Syracuse
  • 552 Kamarina is annexed by Syracuse
  • 551 Telemachus overthrows Akragas
  • 550 Minoa is founded by Selinus
  • 550 Odessa[4] is established by the Greek city of Histria.
  • 550 Miltiades II is born
  • 549 Peisistratos restored by help of Megacles.
  • 549 Boeotian League is founded
  • 548 Lesbos sieges Sigeion
  • 547 Athens repulses the Lesbans and Sigeion (Now ruled by Hegesistratos) becomes an Athenian vassal
  • 546 Sparta annexes Kynouria, Thyrea and Kythera from Argos
  • 546 Croesus, rich king of Lydia, captured at Sardis by Persians.
  • 545 Miletus is overthrown by Molpagoras
  • 545 Lygdamis becomes Tyrant of Naxos
  • 545 The ancient Greek colony of Hermonassa (Krasnodar Krai, Russia) is founded by Ionians and Cretans.[5]
  • 544 Abdera starts its Golden Age
  • 543 Phanagoria, (Krasnodar Krai, Russia), is founded by Teian colonists who had to flee Asia Minor in consequence of their conflict with Cyrus the Great.
  • 542 Peisistratos expelled, makes fortune from Thracian mines.
  • 542 The colony of Gorgippia (Krasnodar Krai, Russia) was built by Pontic Greeks.
  • 541 Telemachus is overthrown by Alcamenes
  • 540 Naxan vassalization of Paros
  • 540 Selinus is overthrown by Theron
  • 538 Sybaris conquers Siris
  • 538 Samos is overthrown by Polycrates
  • 536 Samos annexes South Mycale from Miletus
  • 535 Perilaus dies
  • 534 Athens starts extracting tribute from Ios
  • 532 Croton is overthrown by Cylonius
  • 532 Peisistratos restored by Thessaly and Lygdamis of Naxos.
  • 531 Ikaria is annexed by Samos
  • 530 Emporion becomes a Carthaginian vassal
  • 530 Maktorion is founded by exiled Gelans
  • 530 Tegea joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 529 Leo dies
  • 528 Maktorion is abandoned and the settlers move to Gela
  • 527 Peisistratos dies, succeeded by sons Hippias and Hipparchus.
  • 527 Rineia and Delos are annexed by Samos
  • 526 Cylonius is overthrwon by Kroton
  • 525 Netum is annexed by Syracuse
  • 525 The ancient Greek city of Euesperides, (modern day Benghazi) is founded by people from Cyrene
  • 525 Persian Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great takes Egypt.
  • 524 Samos annexes Donousa
  • 524 Lgydamis of Naxos is overthrown
  • 523 Chalcedon is annexed by Persian Empire
  • 522 Death of Polycrates of Samos and succession of Maiandrios
  • 521 Overthrow of Maiandros by Persian backed Syloson
  • 520 Peithagoras overthrows Theron
  • 519 Plataea leaves the Boeotian League and is sieged by the latter
  • 519 Miltiades is overthrown by Stesagoras
  • 519 Abydos declares independence from Stesagoras and is led by the Persian Tyrant Daphnis
  • 518 Athens repulses the Boeotians from Plataea
  • 517 Sybaris is overthrown by Telys
  • 516 Miltiades II an Athenian Tyrant succeeds Stesagoras and reincorporates Abydos
  • 516 Cassaibile is annexed by Syracuse
  • 515 Molpagoras is succeeded by Histiaeos
  • 515 Hippias becomes sole ruler after the death of Hipparchus.
  • 514 Tenedos, Lesbos and Abydos is annexed by Persian Empire
  • 513 Miltiades II defects from Athens to Persia
  • 513 Myrcinos is founded by Ionians
  • 513 Persia annexes Thrace (Region)
  • 513 Cinyps, Libya, a failed Greek attempt to build a city under the leadership of Dorieus.[6]
  • 512 Antandrus is annexed by Persian Empire
  • 512 Persian vassalization of Naxos
  • 511 Piraeus is founded and annexed by Athens
  • 511 Thracian Chernessos is annexed by Persian Empire
  • 510 Kroton annexes Sybaris and overthrows Telys
  • 510 Pythagoras establishes his own school.
  • 510 Peithagoras is overthrown by Euryleon
  • 510 Minoa is renamed Heraclea Minoa
  • 510 Cinyps is annexed by Carthage
  • 508 Andros and Naxos are annexed by Persian Empire
  • 508 Hippias is forced to leave Athens.
  • 507 Plataea is sieged by Boeotian League
  • 507 Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power, increases democracy.
  • 506 Boeotian League is repulsed from Plataea by Athens
  • 506 Cumae is overthrown by Aristodemus
  • 506 Alcamenes is overthrown by Alcandros
  • 506 The Levantine Plain is conquered by Athens and becomes a Cleurchy
  • 505 Hegesistratos of Sigeion dies
  • 505 Cleander overthrows Gela
  • 504 Cleinias overthrows Croton
  • 504 Taras defeats the Iapygians
  • 503 Naxos declares independence from the Persian Empire
  • 502 Euryleon is overthrown by Selinus
  • 500 Pythagoras dies in Croton, Italy, when he was in Metapontum?
  • 500 Heraclea Minoa is sacked by Carthage
  • 500 Morgantina and Centuripe are hellenized and Licodia is founded by Leontini
  • 499 Miletus Siege of Naxos (Naxan Victory)
  • 499 Independence of Paros
  • 499 Alcandros is overthrown by Akragas
  • 499 Ionian Revolt starts
  • 499 Éphesos, Klazomenai, Mílētos, Samos, Myus, Chios, Samos, Mytilene, Mylasa, Termera, Kyme and Priene declare independence from Persian Empire
  • 498 Cyprus (Except Amathos), Caria, Paesos, Abydos, Cios, Percote, Lampsakos, Myrcinos, Tenedos, Dardanos, and Byzantium declare independence from Persian Empire
  • 498 Amathos is sieged by Cyprus
  • 498 Cleander is overthrown by Hippocrates
  • 498 Hippocrates vassalized Leontini and puts Aenesidemus as tyrant
  • 498 Licodia is annexed by Syracuse
  • 497 Eion is sieged by Athens
  • 497 Dardanos, Myrcinos, Abydos, Kyme, Klazomenai, Percote, Lampsakos, Cyprus, Cios and Paesos are reannexed by Persian Empire
  • 497 Catania is vassalized by Hippocrates and Deinmenes is put in charge as tyrant
  • 497 Persian Empire occupies all Carian land north of Pedasos (Carian)
  • 496 Byzantium is overthrown by Histiaeos
  • 496 Myrcinos is reannexed by the Persian Empire
  • 496 Athenian Tyrant Miltiades II annexes Thracian Chernessos
  • 496 Naxos is vassalized by Hippocrates
  • 495 Cleinias dies
  • 494 Rhegium is overthrown by Anaxilas
  • 494 Zancle is vassalized by Hippocrates and Scythes put in charge
  • 494 Priene, Samos and Miletus are annexed by Persian Empire
  • 493 Byzantium sieges Thasus
  • 493 Ionian revolt crushed
  • 493 Zancle is settled by Samian refugees and renamed Messene
  • 493 Zancle is conquered by Rhegion
  • 492 Kamarina (now rebuilt) and Ergezio are vassalized by Hippocrates
  • 492 Abdera and Thracian Chernessos are annexed by the Persian Empire
  • 491 Hippocrates is overthrown by Gelon
  • 491 Fort Scyllaeum is founded by Rhegion
  • 490 Aristodemus dies
  • 490 Persian conquest of Rhodes
  • 490 Persian Siege of Naxos (Naxan Victory)
  • 490 Persian conquest of Paros
  • 490 Persian sacking of Eretria
  • 490 Themistocles and Miltiades, Athenians, defeat Darius at Marathon, Phidippides runs with news.
  • 490 Taras defeats the Iapygians in battle
  • 488 Akragas is overthrown by Theron
  • 486 Himera is overthrown by Terillus
  • 485 Gelon annexes Syracuse (Except Kamarina and Licodia), Gela is given to Hieron
  • 484 Kamarina is destroyed by Gelon
  • 484 Aeschylus, Athenian playwright wins his first victory at the City Dionysia.
  • 483 Megara Hyblaea and Licodia are destroyed by Gelon
  • 483 Theron puts his son Thrasydaeus in charge of Himera as his vassal
  • 481 Andros, Aegina and Akanthus among many other Greek Poleis declare allegiance to Persia
  • 481 The Naxos, Milos, Sparta, Athens, Korinth, Kythnos and many other Greek Poleis form the Hellenic League to fight against the Persian Empire
  • Alexander The Great, fighting

Classical Greece

Classical period (480 BC – 323 BC).
  • 480 Aegina and Andros are impressed into the Hellenic League
  • 480 Emporion ousts Carthaginian influences
  • 480 Leonidas, Spartan, sacrifices 300 Spartan soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae so main force can escape; Xerxes son of Darius is commanding the Persians.
  • 480 Croton, Leucas and Corcyra joins the Hellenic League
  • 480 Simultaneous with Thermopylae, the Greeks and Persians fight to a draw in the naval Battle of Artemisium.
  • 480 Boeotia, Attica and Phocis are occupied by Persia
  • 480 Battle of Salamis: Themistocles, Athenian general, lures Persians into Bay of Salamis, Xerxes loses and goes home, leaves behind Mardonius.
  • 480 Possibly simultaneous with the Battle of Salamis, Battle of Himera between Carthage and Akragas (Theron)-Syracuse (Gelon)-Himera (Thrasydaeus)
  • 479 Pausanias, Greek general routs Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea.
  • 479 Battle of Mycale
  • 479 Rhodes, Samos, Kos and many Greek cities in Persia begin to declare independence
  • 479 Paros is vassalized by Athens
  • 479 Athens annexes Tenedos
  • 479 Sestos is sieged by Athens
  • 479 Boeotian League is dissolved by Hellenic League
  • 479 Sicel Ducetius overthrows Miniu
  • 478 Byzantium is sieged by Athens
  • 478 Delian League is founded by Athens and is soon joined by Ionia, Delos, Kos, Euboea, Tilos, Rhodes, Karpathos, Athenai, Paros, Troezen, Sifnos, Doris, Aeolis, Andros, Aenea, Akanthos, Samos, Chalcis, Eretria, Chios, Methymna, Chalkidiki, Mutilḗnē, Sigeion, Éphesos and many others
  • 478 Gelon dies and is succeeded by Hieron, Polyzelos is put in control of Gela
  • 477 The Persian Empire abandons Europe except Doriskus and Eion
  • 477 Chalcedon, Byzantium, Carystus, Ainos, Perinthos and others join the Delian League
  • 477 Andros is turned into an Athenian cleurchy
  • 476 Micythus becomes Tyrant of Rhegion after Anaxilas' death
  • 476 Catania is split between Hieron and Ducetius, Catania is renamed Aetna, settled by Dorians and ruled by the Tyrant Deinmenes II
  • 476 Taras allies with Rhegion to protect themselves from the Iapygians, but later lose to them in battle
  • 476 Himera is settled by Doric colonists
  • 476 Sybaris declares independence from Kroton
  • 476–462 Cimon elected general each year
  • 475 Sybaris is annexed by Kroton
  • 475 Abdera and Eion join the Delian League
  • 475 Skyros is annexed by Athens
  • 474 Battle of Cumae
  • 474 Naxos joins the Delian League
  • 474 Hieron occupies the Parthenopean Islands
  • 474 Pindar, Greek poet relocates to Thebes (in Greece) from court at Syracuse.
  • 473 Taras is defeated by the Iapygians
  • 472 Thrasydaeus annexes Akragas after death of Theron
  • 471 Naxos leaves the Delian League and is subsequently sieged by Athens
  • 471 Themistocles ostracized.
  • 470 Dénia, Hēmeroskopeion (Ancient Greek: Ἡμεροσκοπεῖον) is founded by Massaliot Greeks.[7][8][9] The town was situated on the cape then called Artemisium (Ancient Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον) or Dianium[10] (Ancient Greek: Διάνιον), named from a temple of Ephesia Artemis built upon it (goddess Artemis was called Diana in Latin).
  • 470 Naxos is impressed into the Delian League
  • 470 Ducetius annexes Ergezio
  • 470 The new urban zone of Neápolis (Νεάπολις) was founded by citizens of the nearby Greek city of Cumae on the plain of Parthenope after the victorious Battle of Cumae
  • 469 Illios is annexed by Mytilene
  • 469 Klazomenai, Phaselis, Aspendos, Doris and Priene join the Delian League
  • 468 Thrasydaeus is overthrown by Akragas
  • 468 Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for Athenian Prize for drama.
  • 467 Micythus steps down to Leophron
  • 466 Taras is defeated by the Iapygians
  • 466 Taras' monarchy is overthrown by democrats
  • 466 Thrasybulos succeeds Hieron
  • 465 Thasus leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens
  • 465 Abydos and Troad join the Delian League
  • 465 Thracian Chernessos is annexed by Athens
  • 465 Deinmenes II, Aenesidemus, Thrasybulos and Polyzelos are overthrown by their respective cities
  • 463 Thasus is impressed into the Delian League
  • 462 Megara leaves the Peloponnesian League
  • 461 Catania, Naxos and Catania declare independence from Syracuse, Dorian settlers are removed from Catania
  • 461 Kamarina is refounded under the Tyranny of Psaumis
  • 461 Cimon ostracized.
  • 461 Thera joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 461 Messene and Rhegion separate and oust Leophron
  • 460 Taras defeats the Iapygians
  • 460 Aetna is founded
  • 460 First Peloponnesian War Starts
  • 459 Aegina is sieged by Athens
  • 459: Morgantina is annexed by Ducetius
  • 459-455 Siege of Memphis, destruction of the Athenian fleet by Megabyzus
  • 458 Imbros is annexed by Athens
  • 457 Aegina is impressed into the Delian League
  • 457 Delphi is annexed by Phocis
  • 457 Pericles, Athenian statesman begins Golden Age, he was taught by Anaxagoras, who believed in dualistic Universe and atoms.
  • 457 Boeotia (Except Thebes), Phocis and Locris join the Delian League
  • 456 Gythium is raided by Athens
  • 456 Zakynthos joins the Delian League
  • 456 Castrugiuvanni (Enna) join Ducetius
  • 456 Aeschylus dies.
  • 455 Nafpaktos is impressed into the Delian League and settled with Messenian Helots
  • 454 Abacaenum is annexed by Ducetius
  • 454 Movement of Delian treasury to Athens and start of the First Athenian Empire
  • 454 Athenian annexation of Delos
  • 453 Palike is founded by Ducetius
  • 452 Akragas and Aetna are annexed by Ducetius, Ducetius sieges Motyon
  • 452 Nea Sybaris is founded by Sybarites
  • 451 Athens sieges Kition
  • 451 Motyon is occupied by Ducetius
  • 450 Naxos becomes a cleurchy
  • 450 Akragas and Motyon are liberated from Ducetius starting a decades long conflict between Syracuse+friends and the Sicels
  • 449 Delphi declares independence from Phocis
  • 449 Ducetius abandons the Sicel Federation he created and is forced to go into exile at Korinth
  • 449 Morgantina is annexed Syracuse
  • 449 Herodotus, Greek Historian, writes History of Greco-Persian War from 490–479.
  • 448 Delphi is annexed by Phocis
  • 447 Ictinus and Callicrates, Greek architects, begin construction of the Parthenon.
  • 447 Nea Sybaris is annexed by Kroton
  • 447 Chalcis leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens
  • 446 Phocis, Locris and Boeotia leave the Delian League, Boeotia unites into the Boeotian League and joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 446 Megara joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 446 Kale Akte is founded by Ducetius
  • 446 Achaea and Trozen leave the Peloponnesian League and join the Delian League
  • 446-445 Euboean Revolt
  • 445 Euboea is impressed into the Delian League
  • 445 Histiaea becomes an Athenian cleurchy
  • 445 First Peloponnesian War Ends
  • 445 Troezen is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
  • 443 Thurii is founded by Sybarites and Various Hellenes
  • 441 Euripides, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize.
  • 441 Sybaris on the Traeis is founded by Sybarites exiled from Thurii
  • 440 Samos leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens
  • 440 Palike is destroyed, ending the Sicel Federation
  • 440 Ducetius dies
  • 439 Samos is impressed into the Delian League
  • 438 Founding of the Bosporan Kingdom[11]
  • 437 Newly founded Amphipolis annexes Eion
  • 437 Athens allies with Messapia
  • 436 Taulantii-Epidamos War
  • 435 Phidias, Greek sculptor, completes statue of Zeus at Elis, 1 of 7 wonders of the world.
  • 434 Epidamos becomes a democracy
  • 434 Epidamos is annexed by Korinth
  • 434 Kerkyra allies with Taulantii and siege Epidamos
  • 434 Kerkyra seizes Outer Epidamos (City)
  • 434 Battle of Leukimme
  • 434 Kerkyra raids Kyllene
  • 434 Kerkyra joins Delian League
  • 433 Battle of Sybota
  • 433 Anactorium is annexed by Korinth
  • 432 Psaumis dies
  • 432 Potidaea leaves the Delian League and is sieged by Athens
  • 432 Pydna is sieged by Athens
  • 432 End of "Golden Age" of Athens
  • 431 Sparta commanded by King Archidamus II prepares to destroy Athens thus starting the Peloponnesian War.
  • 431 Plataea is sieged by Thebes
  • 431 Pagae and Atalanta is occupied by Athens
  • 431 Aegina is annexed by Athens
  • 431 Empedocles, Greek doctor, believes body has Four Temperaments.
  • 430 Athens abandons the Siege of Pydna
  • 430 Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League
  • 430 Spartan Siege of Zakynthos (Local Victory)
  • 430 Failed peace mission by Athens, bubonic plague year, Sparta takes no prisoners.
  • 430 Leucippus, Greek philosopher, believes every natural event has natural cause. Athenian Plague begins in Athens.
  • 429 Herakleion is annexed by Macedonia
  • 429 Potidaea is impressed into the Delian League
  • 429 All Chalkidiki cities (Except Mende, Acanthus, Scione, Stagirus and Aphytis) leave the Delian League
  • 429 Athens Siege of Kydonia (Local Victory)
  • 429 Phormio, Athenian admiral, wins the Battle of Chalcis/Rhium.
  • 429 Pericles dies of Athenian Plague, possibly typhus or bubonic plague.
  • 429 Hippocrates, Greek doctor, believes diseases have physical cause.
  • 429 First Battle of Naupaktos (Athenian Victory)
  • 428 Plato born.
  • 428 Mytilene and Antissa leave the Delian league and Mytilene is sieged by Athens, Antissa is sieged by Methymna
  • 428 Illios joins the Delian League
  • 427 Suppression of Mytilene, Antissa is annexed by Methymna, Mytilene becomes an Athenian Cleurchy, Mytilene Troad joins the Delian League as independent cities
  • 427 Archidamus II dies, Alcidas, Greek admiral sent to help Lesbos, raids Ionia and flees after seeing Athenian might. Athenian Plague returns.
  • 427 Plataea is impressed into the Boeotian League and by extension, the Peloponnesian League
  • 427 Aristophanes, Greek playwright, wins Athenian Prize.
  • 427 Corcyran Civil War (Democratic Victory)
  • 427 First Athenian Intervention in Sicily begins
  • 426 Megara occupies Pegae
  • 426 Athens sieges Lecus
  • 426 Pylos, Messene, Mylae, Aegitium and Tichium are occupied by Athens, Pylos is founded by escaped Helots
  • 426 Battle of Tanagra
  • 426 Amfissa joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 426 Ozolian Locris join the Delian League
  • 426 Demosthenes, Athenian general, and Cleon, Athenian demagogue, revitalizes Athenian forces, makes bold plans opposed by Nicias, his first military campaign barely succeeds.
  • 426 Ambrakia occupies Olpae and Argos
  • 426 Acarnanian League and Amphilochian League are founded and join the Delian League
  • 425 Acarnania occupies Olpae and Argos
  • 425 Athenian fleet bottles up Spartan navy at Navarino Bay, Nicias resigns.
  • 425 Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League
  • 425 Athens occupies Sphacteria
  • 425 Morgantina is annexed by Kamarina
  • 425 Ozolian Locris joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 425 Athens withdraws from Lecas and Acarnania
  • 425 Athens withdraws from Messene and Mylae is impressed into the Delian League
  • 424 Herakleion is annexed by Makedonia
  • 424 Eion, Akanthus and Amphipolis are sieged by Sparta
  • 424 Stagira joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 424 Nisaia, and Siphae are occupied by Athenai
  • 424 Thyrea is occupied by Athens
  • 424 First Athenian Intervention in Sicily ends
  • 424 Pagondas of Thebes (in Greece) crushes Athenian army at the Battle of Delium, Brasidas a Spartan general, has a successful campaign in the Chalcidice, Cleon exiles Thucydides for 20 years for arriving late.
  • 423 Sparta occupied Amphipolis and Scione
  • 423 Torone is occupied by Makedonia
  • 423 Akanthus joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 423 Truce of Laches supposed to stop Brasidas but doesn't, Nicias commands Athenian forces in retaking Mende.
  • 423 Olynthus form the Chalcidian League independent of the Delian League
  • 422 Stagira is sieged by Athens
  • 422 Neapolis is annexed by Rome
  • 422 Torone and Scione are impressed into the Delian League
  • 422 Cleon meets Brasidas outside of Amphipolis, both are killed (Battle of Amphipolis).
  • 422 Syracuse annexes the now weak Leontini
  • 421 Peace of Nicias brings temporary end to war, but Alcibiades, a nephew of Pericles, makes anti-Sparta alliance.
  • 421 Herakleion is impressed into the Delian League
  • 421 Cumae is annexed by Oscans
  • 421 Athens abandons the Siege of Stagira
  • 421 Delphi declares independence from Phocis
  • 421 Argulus, Apollonia, Potidaea, Akanthus, Stageira and others join the Chalcidian League
  • 420 Mantineia, Argos, Elis, Sicyon and Achaea betray Sparta and switch to the Delian League
  • 419 Athens occupies Epidauros
  • 419 King Agis II of Sparta attacks Argos, makes treaty.
  • 418 Battle of Mantinea, greatest land battle of war, gives Sparta victory over Argos, which violated treaty, Alcibiades thrown out, alliance ended.
  • 418 Orchmenos is occupied by Argos
  • 417 Orchmenos is given to Boeotia
  • 417 Sicyon joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 417 Epidauros is occupied by Sparta
  • 416 Melos is sieged by Athens
  • 416 Alcibiades makes plans, is restored to power.
  • 416 Selinus annexes Segesta's frontier provinces
  • 416 Massacre of the Melians.
  • 415 Hermai statues are mutilated in Athens, Alcibiades accused, asks for inquiry, told to set sail for battle (Sicilian Expedition), is condemned to death in absentia, he defects to Sparta.
  • 415 Many Syracusan cities rebel
  • 415-413 Siege of Syracuse
  • 414-413 Metapontion allies with Athens
  • 414 Lamachus, Athenian commander killed at Syracuse.
  • 413 Nicias and Demosthenes killed at Syracuse
  • 413 Leontini and Kamarina are vassalized by Syracuse
  • 413 Herakleion is annexed by Makedonia
  • 413 Miletus and Khios betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
  • 412 Alcibiades is expelled from Sparta, conspires to come back to Athens.
  • 412 Methymna is occupied by Sparta
  • 412 Klazomenai and Kyzikus betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
  • 412 Chios is sieged by Athens
  • 412 Aygrion dies and is succeeded by Aygris
  • 411 Sparta allies with Persia
  • 411 Aspendos is annexed by Persia
  • 411 Kyzikus and Klazomenai are impressed into the Delian League
  • 411 Oropos is occupied by Boeotia
  • 411 Illios is annexes by Lampsacus
  • 411 Athens abandons the Siege of Chios
  • 411 Sparta leaves Methymna
  • 411 Euboea, Byzantium, Abydos, Andros, Antandrus, Lampsacus, Chalcedon and Rodos betray Athens and join the Peloponnesian League
  • 411 Abydos is overthrown by Dercylidas
  • 411 Selinus attacks Segesta once again and aggravates Carthage
  • 411 Athens is overthrown by the Four Hundred
  • 410 After several successes, Athenian demagogue Cleophon rejects Spartan peace offers.
  • 410 Segesta is annexed by Carthage
  • 410 Four Hundred are overthrown by Athens
  • 409 Antandrus is annexed by Persia
  • 409 Abydos is sieged by Athens
  • 409 Sparta sieges Klazomenai
  • 409 Selinus and Himera are sacked by Carthage
  • 409 Byzantium recaptured by Alcibiades for Athens.
  • 408 The 3 poleis of Rodos unite and build a new capital called Rodos
  • 408 Athens sieges Paleopoli
  • 408 Athens abandons Siege of Abydos
  • 408 Sparta abandons the Siege of Klazomenai
  • 408 Alcibiades reenters Athens in triumph, Lysander, a Spartan commander, has fleet built at Ephesus.
  • 407 Thermae is founded by Carthage
  • 407 Athens abandons the Siege of Paleopoli
  • 407 Lysander begins destruction of Athenian fleet, Alcibiades stripped of power.
  • 406 Sparta sieges Methymna
  • 406 Akragas is sacked by Carthage
  • 406 Callicratides, Spartan naval commander, loses Battle of Arginusae over blockade of Mitylene harbor, Sparta sues for peace, rejected by Cleophon.
  • 405 Methymna is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
  • 405 Syracuse is overthrown by Dionysius the Elder
  • 405 Melos is annexed by Sparta
  • 405 Gela, Kamarina and Akrillai is sacked by Carthage
  • 405 Carthage allow the people of the sacked cities to return as Carthaginian subjects and rebuild their cities
  • 405 Leontini and Morgantina declare independence from Syracuse
  • 405 Carthage annexes Elymi, Sicel and Sican territory
  • 405 The naval Battle of Aegospotami in which Lysander captures the Athenian fleet, Spartan king Pausanias besieges Athens, Cleophon executed, Corinth and Thebes demand destruction of Athens.
  • 405 Klazomenai and Ephesus betray Athens and join the All Carthaginian subjects (Except Ziz, their islands, Motya, Solus, Elymi, Segesta, and Entella) gain independence
  • esian League
  • 404 Athens capitulates April 25. Theramenes secures terms, prevents total destruction of Athens, Theramenes and Alcibiades are killed.
  • 404 Delian League is dissolved
  • 404 Korinth leaves the Peloponnesian League
  • 404 Entella is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Carthage
  • 404 Aygris becomes a Syracusan Subject
  • 404 Nafpaktos is annexed by Ozolian Locris
  • 404 Athens is overthrown by the Thirty
  • 404 Athens joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 403 Aeimnestus, who is loyal to Dionysius, overthrows Castrugiuvanni
  • 403 Aetna is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
  • 403 Dionysius destroys Naxos and Catania and Sicels split Naxos with Syracuse, Catania is ruled by Campanian mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
  • 403 Athens overthrows the Thirty
  • 403 Athens leaves the Peloponnesian League and refounds the Delian League
  • 402 Elis leaves the Peloponnesian League and is subsequently sieged by Sparta
  • 401 Euboea joins the Delian League
  • 401 Elis is sacked and impressed into the Peloponnesian League
  • 401 Dionysius free Castrugiuvanni from Aeimnestus
  • 401 Poseidonia is annexed by Lucanians
  • 401 Thucydides, Greek historian, leaves account of "Golden Age of Pericles" and Peloponnesian War at his death (History of the Peloponnesian War).
  • 400 Adranon is founded by Dionysius
  • 400 Aygris annexes Centuripe
  • 400 Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing
  • 399 Illios declares independence from Lampsacus
  • 399 Sparta sways Persian Controlled Greek cities near Pergamon to their side and march on Egyptian Larissa and siege it
  • 399 Socrates, Greek philosopher, condemned to death for corrupting youth.
  • 398 Ionia joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 398 All Carthaginian subjects (Except Ziz, their islands, Motya, Solus, Elymi, Segesta, and Entella) gain independence from Carthage
  • 398 Dionysius sieges Segesta and Entella
  • 398 Mainland territory of Motya is occupied by Dionysius
  • 397 Motya is destroyed by Dionysius and the Carthaginians build Lilybaion to replace it
  • 397 Dionysius abandons the Sieges of Entella and Segesta
  • 397 Eryx, Segesta, Lipari, Messene and Entella are annexed by Carthage
  • 397 Carthage allies with the Sicel cities except Assorus
  • 397 Tauormenion is founded by Carthage to be a supply base, settled by Sicels
  • 397 Carthaginian forces have to go the long way around Mount Etna due to an eruption
  • 397 Catania is occupied by Carthage
  • 397 Battle of Catania
  • 397 Syracuse is sieged by Carthage
  • 396 Carthage lifts the Siege of Syracuse and abandons Eastern Sicily except Messene and Lipari
  • 396 Himera and Selinus are annexed by Carthage
  • 396 Gela, Ergezio, Catania, Adranon, Kamarina and Leontini are annexed by Dionysius
  • 396 Tyndaris is founded by Dionysius to combat piracy and a base of operations
  • 396 Persia annexes Rodos
  • 396 Sparta campaigns in Phrygia
  • 395 Sparta campaigns in Ionia, Caria and march up to Sardis
  • 395 Orchmenus leaves the Boeotian League
  • 395 Cephaloedium is annexed by Dionysius
  • 395 Mylae is annexed by Rhegion
  • 395 Argos, Korinthos and Boeotian League leave the Peloponnesian League
  • 394 Sparta withdraws from Anatolia
  • 394 All Thracian and Anatolian Greek cities leave the Peloponnesian League (Except Sestos and Abydos)
  • 394 Virtually all Greek Anatolian cities are annexed by Persia
  • 394 Klazomenaites relocate to an island off shore
  • 394 Mylae is annexed by Syracuse
  • 393 Lipari is annexed by Syracuse
  • 393 Italiote League is formed by Sybaris on the Traeis, Croton, Caulonia, Thurii, Rhegium and Velia
  • 393 Imbros, Lemnos and Skyros are annexed by Athens
  • 393 Makedonia starts paying tribute to the newly formed Kingdom of Dardania
  • 393 Chalcidian League annexes some Makedonian land
  • 392 Sparta occupies Lechaeum
  • 392 Heraclea Minoa, Akragas and Sicani territory are annexed by Carthage
  • 392 Sicel territory is annexed by Dionysius
  • 392 Makedonia stops paying tribute to Dardania
  • 392 Makedonia reannexes the land taken by the Chalcidian League
  • 392 Damastion is annexed by Dardania
  • 391 Korinth occupies Phlius
  • 391 Tauromenion is overthrown by mercenaries loyal to Dionysius
  • 391 Makedonia starts pays tribute to Dardania
  • 390 The Acarnanian League joins the Peloponnesian League
  • 390 Dercylidas is succeeded by Anaxibios
  • 390 Himera is merged into Thermae
  • 390 Dionysius transfers control of Mylae to Messene
  • 390 Kroton is annexed by Syracuse
  • 390 Argos and Korinth unite into Argos-Korinth
  • 390 Castrugiuvani is annexed by Syracuse
  • 389 Metapontion is annexed by Syracuse
  • 389 Anaxibios is overthrown by Abydos
  • 387 Rhegion is annexed by Syracuse and renamed it to Phoebea
  • 387 Peace of Antalcidas concluded between the Greeks and the Persians that leads to virtually all Greek cities in Asia Minor being annexed by Persia
  • 387 Ancona is founded by Greek settlers from Syracuse, who gave it its name: Ancona stems from the Greek word Ἀγκών (Ankòn), meaning "elbow"
  • 387 Argos and Korinth split
  • 387 All cities gain independence and all league except the Peloponnesian League are disbanded
  • 386 Phlius becomes a democracy
  • 385 Dardania attacks Molossia
  • 385 The Greeks colonized the island of Pharos (Hvar, Croatia).[12]
  • 384 Dionysius occupies Pyrgi and Caere
  • 384 Chalcidian League annexes Makedonia land including Pella
  • 383 Gela gains independence from Syracuse
  • 383 Dionysius leaves Eturia
  • 383 Liburnia sieges Pharos
  • 383 Potidaea leaves the Chalcidian League
  • 382 Thebes is overthrown by Leontiades and Archias
  • 382 Thebes is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
  • 380 Sparta sieges Phlius
  • 380 Makedonia recaptures their former territory
  • 379 Kroton is annexed by Dionysius
  • 379 Phlius is impressed into the Peloponnesian League
  • 379 The Chalcidian League is disbanded and its former members are impressed into the Peloponnesian League and Potidaea and Korinth also join the league
  • 379 Leontiades and Archias are overthrown and Thebes leaves the Peloponnesian League
  • 379 Sparta occupies Thespiae
  • 378 Themison overthrows Eretria
  • 377 The Boeotian League is refounded by Thebes
  • 376 Abdera is sacked by the Triballi and Maroneia
  • 376 Thespiae and the rest of Boeotia are liberated and join the Boeotian League
  • 375 The Acarnanian League defects from the Peloponnesian League and joins the Delian League
  • 375 Chalcidian League is reestablished by Olynthus and joins the Delian League
  • 373 Kerkyra is sieged by Sparta
  • 371 Sparta leaves Kerkyra
  • 370 Gythium is occupied by Thebes
  • 370 Heraclea Sintica is founded by Makedonia
  • 369 Korinth is overthrown by Timophanes
  • 368 Aetolian League is founded
  • 367 Daparria is annexed by Dardania
  • 367 Kroton is annexed by Bruttian League
  • 366 Opus declares independence from Athens with the help of Themison
  • 365 Opus requests Thebes to protect them from Athens and sends a garrison. Opus is impressed into the Boeotian League
  • 364 Timophanes is assassinated
  • 364 Orchmenus leaves the Boeotian League and is subsequently sieged by Thebes
  • 363 Orchmenus is impressed into the Boeotian League
  • 363 Pydna is impressed into the Delian League
  • 362 Themison dies and is succeeded by Plutarch
  • 361 Potidaea and Torone are impressed into the Delian League and become Athenian Cluerchies
  • 360 Tauromenion overthrows the mercenaries and falls under the tyranny of Andromache
  • 360 Illios is overthrown by Charidemos
  • 360 Abydos is overthrown by Iphiades
  • 359 Charidemos is overthrown by Illios
  • 359 Dardania annexes Lake Ohrid and Upper Macedonia
  • 359 Archelaus annexes Methone, Aegae and Pydna
  • 358 Archelaus is annexed by Makedonia
  • 358 Macedonia reannexes Lake Ohrid, Lynkestis and Upper Macedonia from Dardania
  • 358 Makedonia annexes Paeonia
  • 357 Social War Starts
  • 357 Kos, Khios, Rodos and Byzantium leave the Delian League
  • 357 Makedonia annexes Pydna and Amphipolis
  • 357 Dionysius II is overthrown by Dion
  • 356 Phocis annexes Delphi
  • 356 Locris is annexed by Dionysius II
  • 356 Lemnos, Samos and Imbros is occupied by Chios and leave the Delian League
  • 356 Makedonia annexes Crenides, renames it Philippi and settles it with Makedonians
  • 356 Makedonian border set on Nestus river
  • 356 Potidaea and Anthemus are annexed by Chalcidian League
  • 356 Makedonia sieges Methone
  • 356 Lokros is overthrown by Dionysius II
  • 355 Social War Ends
  • 355 Argolas is sieged by Phocis
  • 355 Dion is overthrown by Callipus
  • 354 Methone and Abdera are annexed by Makedonia
  • 354 Phocis abandons the Siege of Argolas
  • 354 Thessaly is vassalized by Phocis
  • 353 Catania is annexed by Callipus
  • 353 Makedonia occupied Pagasae
  • 353 Thessaly is vassalized by Makedonia
  • 352 Callipus is overthrown by Hipparinos (Callipus keeps Catania)
  • 352 Nicodemus overthrows Centuripe
  • 352 Orchmenus and Chaeronea are occupied by Phocis
  • 351 Rhegion is annexed by Callipus
  • 350 Akanthus is annexed by Makedonia
  • 350 Nice (Nicaea) is founded by the Greeks of Massalia (Marseille), and was given the name of Nikaia (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; Nike (Νίκη) was the Greek goddess of victory.
  • 350 Hipparinos is overthrown by Aretaeus
  • 350 Mamercus ousts Callippus from Catania
  • 349 Plutarch is expelled from Eretria
  • 349 Aretaeus is overthrown by Nysaios
  • 348 Stagira is annexed by Makedonia
  • 348 Callipus is overthrown by Leptines
  • 347 Leontini is overthrown by Hicetas
  • 347 Plato, Greek philosopher, founder of Academy, dies.
  • 347 Methymna is overthrown by Kleommis
  • 346 Phocis withdraws from Boeotia
  • 346 Dionysius II leaves Locris and overthrows Nysaios
  • 346 Lyttos is sieged by Knossos
  • 346 Makedonia occupies Thermopylae and Antikyra, Nicaea is occupied by Thessaly
  • 345 Makedonia withdraws from Thermopylae and Antikyra
  • 345 Grabaei becomes a vassal of Macedonia
  • 345 Hicetas sieges Syracuse and seizes Syracuse's territory
  • 345 The Pro-Makedonian Tyrant Hipparchus overthrows Eretria
  • 345 Mainland Syracuse (City) is occupied by Hicetas leaving only the citadel in Dionysius' control
  • 344 Macedonia occupies Illios and annexes Tenedos
  • 344 Siege of Lyttos lifted by Knossos
  • 344 Knossos sieges Kydonia
  • 344 Hicetas is repulsed by Timoleon from Syracuse
  • 344 Timoleon takes control of all Syracusan forces outside the citadel
  • 343 Messene is rebuilt by Timoelon, Adranon is freed from mercenary control, Nicodemus is overthrown by Centuripe with help of Timoleon
  • 343 Timoleon annexes the citadel
  • 343 Siege of Kydonia is lifted by Knossos
  • 342 Rhegion is freed by Timoleon
  • 342 Aristotle, Greek philosopher, begins teaching Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon.
  • 341 Hipparchus is overthrown by Athenian forces and impressed into the Delian league
  • 341 Samothrace is annexed by Makedonia
  • 340 Antipolis (modern day Antibes) is founded by Phocaean Greeks from Massilia.[13][14]
  • 340 Skyros is annexed by Makedonia
  • 340 Entella is freed by Timoleon
  • 339 Elateia is occupied by Makedonia
  • 339 Agyris and Aetna are freed by Timoleon
  • 339 Nicaea is occupied by Boeotia
  • 338 Amphissa is annexed by Delphi
  • 338 Thyrea is annexed by Argos
  • 338 Mamercus dies
  • 338 Cumae is annexed by Rome
  • 338 Leontini is freed by Timoleon
  • 338 Nafpaktos joins the Aetolian League
  • 338 King Philip II of Macedon defeats Athens and Thebes at Battle of Chaeronea August 2 and establishes League of Corinth during winter of 338 BC/337 BC.
  • 337 Amfissa declares independence from Delphi
  • 336 Timoleon dies
  • 336 Lesbos is annexed by Makedonia
  • 336 Alexander succeeds father Philip II, who was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis.
  • 334 Andromache dies and his city is annexed by Syracuse
  • 334 Battle of the Granicus
  • 333 Saminum is occupied by Epirus
  • 333 Alexander defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, but Darius III escapes.
  • 332 Epirus occupies Heraclea, Metapontium, Southern Lucania, Daunia, Paestum, Terina and Sipontum
  • 332 Siege of Tyre
  • 332 Siege of Gaza
  • 332 Alexander conquers Egypt.
  • 332 Alexandria is founded by Alexander the Great
  • 331 Epirus occupies Cosentia
  • 331 Battle of Pandosia
  • 331 Gerasa (Jordan) is founded by Makedonian veterans
  • 331 at Battle of Gaugamela October 1, Alexander ends Achaemenid Dynasty and conquers Persian Empire.
  • 331 Alexander the Great enters in Babylon
  • 331 Tauromenion is freed by Carthage
  • 331 Battle of the Uxian Defile (East of Susa, Iran)
  • 330 Sparta joins the League of Corinth
  • 330 Battle of the Persian Gate, destruction of Persepolis (modern Iran)
  • 330-325 Pytheas makes the earliest Greek voyage to Great Britain and the Arctic Circle for which there is a record.
  • 329 Siege of Cyropolis
  • 329 Battle of Jaxartes
  • 329 Alexander conquers Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  • 329 Alexander the Great founds Alexandria Eschate in modern Tajikistan
  • 329-160 Dayuan Kingdom.[15]
  • 328 Sybaris on the Traeis is annexed by Bruttian League
  • 327 Oenidae is impressed into the Aetolian League
  • 327 Under the command of Alexander the Great the forces of the Hellenic League captures the fortress of the Sogdian Rock. Sogdiana and the Kabul region came under Hellenic control
  • 327 Alexander invades northern India, but his army is despondent and refuses to march further eastwards.
  • 326 Battle of the Hydaspes
  • 326 Samos joins the Delian League
  • 326 Alexandria Bucephalous (located on the Hydaspes river, Pakistan) is founded by Alexander the Great in memory of his beloved horse Bucephalus
  • 325 Nearchus serving under Alexander the Great discovers Tylos (the name used by the Greeks to refer to Bahrain).[16]
  • 324 Kroton is overthrown by Menedemus
  • 324 Charax Spasinu, one of Alexander's last cities before his death, is established at the head of the Persian Gulf (modern Iraq) replacing a small Persian settlement, Durine.[17]

Hellenistic Greece

Hellenistic period (323 BC – 146 BC).

See also


  1. Wasson, Ruck, Hofmann, The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978. ISBN 0-15-177872-8.


  1. ^ James 2003, p. 258.
  2. ^ Leon E. Seltzer, ed. (1952), Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 1157, OL 6112221M
  3. ^ P. Christiaan Klieger (29 November 2012). The Microstates of Europe: Designer Nations in a Post-Modern World. Lexington Books. pp. 165–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7427-2.
  4. ^ Kalinin, Igor. "Одесские достопримечательности — раскопки греческого поселения". odessaguide.net.
  5. ^ M.J. Traister and T.V. Shelov-Kovedyayev, “An inscribed conical clay object from Hermonassa”
  6. ^ "Wadi Caam: The Greeks in Tripolitania!". Temehu. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  7. ^ Spann, P., R. Warner, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 265880 (Dianium/Hemeroskopeion)". Pleiades. Retrieved July 31, 2012.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Strabo, Geography, translated by H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A., Ed. (1903) Strab. 3.4.6
  9. ^ Greek text: Strabo. ed. A. Meineke, Geographica. Leipzig: Teubner. (1877) Strab. 3.4.6
  10. ^ Smith, William (1852). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (Abacaenum – Hytanis). 1. Boston: Little, Brown. p. 773.
  11. ^ Hind, John. "The Bosporan Kingdom". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, J.; Hornblower, S.; Ostwald, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History. VI - The 4th Century BC. Cambridge: CUP. pp. 476–511.
  12. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 114,"... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ..."
  13. ^ EB (1878).
  14. ^ Freely, John, The western shores of Turkey: discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, p. 91
  15. ^ It is mentioned in the accounts of the famous Chinese explorer Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the numerous embassies that followed him into Central Asia. The country of Dayuan is generally accepted as city state relating to the Ferghana Valley, and its Greek city Alexandria Eschate (modern Khujand, Tajikistan)
  16. ^ Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society By Curtis E. Larsen p. 50
  17. ^ Jona Lendering, Charax at Livius.org
  18. ^ The Greek historian Strabo too writes that: "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres (Chinese) and the Phryni". (Strabo, XI.XI.I)
  19. ^ "The advance of the Greek to Pataliputra is recorded from the Indian side in the Yuga-purana", Tarn, p.145
  20. ^ "The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians ... Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates." Arr. Ind. 10. "Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians.", quoting Megasthenes Text Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "The text of the Yuga Purana, as we have shown, gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra in which the Indo-Greeks took part, for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa and destroyed Pataliputra", Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p. 112.

Aspasia (; Greek: Ἀσπασία /as.pa.sí.aː/; c. 470–c. 400 BC) was an influential immigrant to Classical-era Athens who was the lover and partner of the statesman Pericles. The couple had a son, Pericles the Younger, but the full details of the couple's marital status are unknown. According to Plutarch, her house became an intellectual centre in Athens, attracting the most prominent writers and thinkers, including the philosopher Socrates. There are also suggestions in ancient sources that the teachings of Aspasia influenced Socrates. Aspasia is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, and others.

Though she spent most of her adult life in Greece, few details of her life are fully known. Many scholars have credited ancient comic depictions of Aspasia as a brothel keeper and a prostitute despite their inherent implausibility. Aspasia's role in history provides crucial insight to the understanding of the women of ancient Greece. Very little is known about women from her time period. One scholar stated that, "To ask questions about Aspasia's life is to ask questions about half of humanity."

Battle of Marathon

The Battle of Marathon (Ancient Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, romanized: Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars.

The first Persian invasion was a response to Athenian involvement in the Ionian Revolt, when Athens and Eretria had sent a force to support the cities of Ionia in their attempt to overthrow Persian rule. The Athenians and Eretrians had succeeded in capturing and burning Sardis, but they were then forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn down Athens and Eretria. According to Herodotus, Darius had his bow brought to him and then shot an arrow "upwards towards heaven", saying as he did so: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!". Herodotus further writes that Darius charged one of his servants to say "Master, remember the Athenians" three times before dinner each day.At the time of the battle, Sparta and Athens were the two largest city-states in Greece. Once the Ionian revolt was finally crushed by the Persian victory at the Battle of Lade in 494 BC, Darius began plans to subjugate Greece. In 490 BC, he sent a naval task force under Datis and Artaphernes across the Aegean, to subjugate the Cyclades, and then to make punitive attacks on Athens and Eretria. Reaching Euboea in mid-summer after a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians proceeded to besiege and capture Eretria. The Persian force then sailed for Attica, landing in the bay near the town of Marathon. The Athenians, joined by a small force from Plataea, marched to Marathon, and succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of Marathon. The Athenians also sent a message asking for support to the Spartans. When the messenger arrived in Sparta, the Spartans were involved in a religious festival and gave this as a reason for not coming to aid of the Athenians.

The Athenians and their allies chose a location for the battle, with marshes and mountainous terrain, that prevented the Persian cavalry from joining the Persian infantry. Miltiades, the Athenian general, ordered a general attack against the Persian forces, composed primarily of missile troops. He reinforced his flanks, luring the Persians' best fighters into his centre. The inward wheeling flanks enveloped the Persians, routing them. The Persian army broke in panic towards their ships, and large numbers were slaughtered. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece, and the Persian force retreated to Asia. Darius then began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition. After Darius died, his son Xerxes I restarted the preparations for a second invasion of Greece, which finally began in 480 BC.

The Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten; the eventual Greek triumph in these wars can be seen to have begun at Marathon. The battle also showed the Greeks that they were able to win battles without the Spartans, as they had heavily relied on Sparta previously. This victory was largely due to the Athenians, and Marathon raised Greek esteem of them. The following two hundred years saw the rise of the Classical Greek civilization, which has been enduringly influential in western society and so the Battle of Marathon is often seen as a pivotal moment in Mediterranean and European history.

Chronicon (Jerome)

The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber, The Book of Times) was a universal chronicle, one of Jerome's earliest attempts at history. It was composed c. 380 in Constantinople; this is a translation into Latin of the chronological tables which compose the second part of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a supplement covering the period from 325 to 379. Despite numerous errors taken from Eusebius, and some of his own, Jerome produced a valuable work of universal history, if only for the example which it gave to such later chroniclers as Prosper of Aquitaine, Cassiodorus, and Victor of Tunnuna to continue his annals. In conformity with the Chronicon of Eusebius (early 4th century), Jerome dated Creation to 5201 BC.The Chronicle includes a chronology of the events of Greek mythology, based on the work of Hellenistic scholars such as Apollodorus, Diodorus Siculus, and Eusebius. While the earlier parts are obviously unhistorical, there may be scattered remnants of historical events of late Mycenean Greece from entries of the 12th century BC. (See the historicity of the Iliad. Notably, Jerome's date for the capture of Troy of 1183 BC corresponds remarkably well with the destruction layer of Troy VIIa, the main candidate for the historical inspiration of legendary Troy, dated to c. 1190 BC.) Homer himself is dated to 940 BC, while modern scholarship usually dates him after 800 BC.

Eponymous archon

In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn). Archon (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord", frequently used as the title of a specific public office, while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.

In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon, the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler"), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler"). The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.

History by period

This history by period summarizes significant eras in the history of the world, from the ancient world to the present day.

History of Greece

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is similarly elastic in what it includes. Generally, the history of Greece is divided into the following periods:

Neolithic Greece covering a period beginning with the establishment of agricultural societies in 7000 BC and ending in 3200/3100 BC,

Helladic (Minoan or Bronze Age) chronology covering a period beginning with the transition to a metal-based economy in 3200/3100 BC to the rise and fall of the Mycenaean Greek palaces spanning roughly five centuries (1600–1100 BC),

Ancient Greece covering a period from the fall of the Mycenaean civilization in 1100 BC to 146 BC spanning multiple sub-periods including the Greek Dark Ages (or Iron Age, Homeric Age), Archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period,

Roman Greece covering a period from the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC to 324 AD,

Byzantine Greece covering a period from the establishment of the capital city of Byzantium, Constantinople, in 324 AD until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD,

Ottoman Greece covering a period from 1453 up until the Greek Revolution of 1821,

Modern Greece covering a period from 1821 to the present.At its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Egypt all the way to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since then, Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories (e.g. Turkey, Albania, Italy, Libya, Levant, Armenia, Georgia) and Greek emigrants have assimilated into differing societies across the globe (e.g. North America, Australia, Northern Europe, South Africa). Nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece (independent since 1821) and Cyprus.

List of time periods

The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization. This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (time periods in the origin and mass evolution of the universe), geological (time periods in the origin and evolution of the Earth), anthropological (time periods in the origin and evolution of humans) and historical (time periods in the origin and evolution of human civilization)..

List of timelines

This is a list of timelines currently on Wikipedia.


Pericles (; Attic Greek: Περικλῆς Periklēs, pronounced [pe.ri.klɛ̂ːs] in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age – specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, a contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens". Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire, and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles", though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars, or as late as the next century.

Pericles promoted the arts and literature; it is principally through his efforts that Athens acquired the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon). This project beautified and protected the city, exhibited its glory, and gave work to the people. Pericles also fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist. He, along with several members of his family, succumbed to the Plague of Athens in 429 BC, which weakened the city-state during a protracted conflict with Sparta.

Timeline of classical antiquity

Timeline of Classical Antiquity


Timeline of ancient Greece

Timeline of Roman history

Timeline of modern Greek history

This is a timeline of modern Greek history.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.