Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time (DST) for approximately the spring, summer, and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and highly precise timekeeping services (clocks) are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (an agency of the Department of Commerce); and its military counterpart, the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations.
It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U.S. location at any moment.
Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time. Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were barely noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph.
The use of local solar time became increasingly awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s. Each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train (sometimes hundreds of miles in a day), according to the Library of Congress. Every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads.  Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities.
In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom (UK). The conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian.
In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which became the new international civil time standard. UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time.
For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several closely related successors to GMT.
Standard time zones in the United States are currently defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260. The federal law also establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is ultimately the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time. As of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich (GMT).
Only the full-time zone names listed below are official; abbreviations are by common use conventions, and duplicated elsewhere in the world for different time zones. View the standard time zone boundaries here.
The United States uses nine standard time zones. As defined by US law they are:
|Atlantic||(not observed)||UTC−04:00||Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands|
|Eastern||UTC−04:00||UTC−05:00||Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia; Partially: Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Tennessee; No DST observed, not defined by 15 U.S.C. §260: Navassa Island, Bajo Nuevo Bank, Serranilla Bank|
|Central||UTC−05:00||UTC−06:00||Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Wisconsin; Partially: Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas|
|Mountain||UTC−06:00||UTC−07:00||Arizona (no DST outside of Navajo Nation), Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; Partially: Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas|
|Pacific||UTC−07:00||UTC−08:00||California, Washington; Partially: Idaho, Nevada, Oregon|
|Hawaii‑Aleutian||UTC−09:00||UTC−10:00||Hawaii (no DST observed in Hawaii); Partially: Alaska; No DST observed, not defined by 15 U.S.C. §260: Johnston Atoll|
|Samoa||(not observed)||UTC−11:00||American Samoa; Not defined by 15 U.S.C. §260: Jarvis Island, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Reef|
|(not observed)||UTC−12:00||Not defined by 15 U.S.C. §260: Baker Island, Howland Island|
|(not observed)||UTC+12:00||Not defined by 15 U.S.C. §260: Wake Island|
|Chamorro||(not observed)||UTC+10:00||Guam, Northern Mariana Islands|
From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are:
Some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.S.C. §260 and exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may simply use Zulu time (UTC±00:00) when on these islands. Baker Island and Howland Island are in UTC−12, while Wake Island is in UTC+12:00. Because they exist on opposite sides of the International Date Line, it can, for example, be noon Thursday on Baker and Howland islands while simultaneously being noon Friday on Wake Island. Other outlying islands include Jarvis Island, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, and Kingman Reef (UTC−11:00); Johnston Atoll (UTC−10:00); and Navassa Island, Bajo Nuevo Bank, and Serranilla Bank (UTC−05:00).
In Antarctica, the US research facility Palmer Station is in UTC−03:00, while McMurdo Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station use UTC+12:00 in order to coordinate with their main supply base in New Zealand.
(Described from north to south along each boundary.)
Daylight saving time (DST) begins on the second Sunday of March and ends on the first Sunday of November.
Clocks will be set ahead one hour at 2:00 AM on the following start dates and set back one hour at 2:00 AM on these ending dates:
|2019||Mar 10||Nov 3|
|2020||Mar 8||Nov 1|
In response to the Uniform Time Act of 1966, each state of the US has officially chosen to apply one of two rules over its entire territory:
Previous DST change dates include:
|2006||Apr 2||Oct 29|
|2007||Mar 11||Nov 4|
|2008||Mar 9||Nov 2|
|2009||Mar 8||Nov 1|
|2010||Mar 14||Nov 7|
|2011||Mar 13||Nov 6|
|2012||Mar 11||Nov 4|
|2013||Mar 10||Nov 3|
|2014||Mar 9||Nov 2|
|2015||Mar 8||Nov 1|
|2016||Mar 13||Nov 6|
|2017||Mar 12||Nov 5|
|2018||Mar 11||Nov 4|
The 476th Fighter Group is an Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the United States Air Force. It is part of the Tenth Air Force of Air Force Reserve Command, stationed at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia. If mobilized, the Wing is gained by the Air Combat Command.
The group was active twice during World War II for brief periods, the first time in China as part of Fourteenth Air Force and the second time in the United States as a training unit.
In the late 1950s the group was activated to open Glasgow Air Force Base, Montana, but the role of Glasgow shifted to the support of Strategic Air Command (SAC)'s nuclear strike force and the group was inactivated in April 1960 and its assets transferred to SAC.
The group was most recently activated as a reserve associate unit in 2009.Anupam Kher
Anupam Kher (born 7 March 1955) is an Indian actor and the former Chairman of Film and Television Institute of India. He is the recipient of two National Film Awards and eight Filmfare Awards. He has appeared in over 500 films in several languages and many plays. He won the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for his performance in Saaransh (1984). He holds the record for winning the Filmfare Award for Best Comedian five times in total for: Ram Lakhan (1989), Lamhe (1991), Khel (1992), Darr (1993) and Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995). He won the National Film Award for Special Mention twice for his performances in Daddy (1989) and Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (2005). For his performance in the film Vijay (1988), he won the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor.
Besides working in Hindi films, he has also appeared in many acclaimed international films such as the Golden Globe nominated Bend It Like Beckham (2002), Ang Lee's Golden Lion–winning Lust, Caution (2007), and David O. Russell's Oscar-winning Silver Linings Playbook (2012). He received a BAFTA nomination for his supporting role in the British television sitcom The Boy with the Topknot (2018).He has held the post of chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification and the National School of Drama in India. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 2004 and the Padma Bhushan in 2016 for his contribution in the field of cinema and arts.
On 31 October 2018, he resigned as the chairman of the FTII, citing his work on the American television show New Amsterdam, which required him to spend more time in the United States.Chain letter
A chain letter is a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to a certain number of recipients (either a predefined number or as many as possible). The "chain" is actually an exponentially growing pyramid (a tree graph) that cannot be sustained indefinitely. Common methods used in chain letters include emotionally manipulative stories, get-rich-quick pyramid schemes, and the exploitation of superstition to threaten the recipient with bad luck or even physical violence or death if he or she "breaks the chain" and refuses to adhere to the conditions set out in the letter. Originally, chain letters were letters one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are often sent via email messages, postings on social network sites, and text messages.
There are two main types of chain letters:
Hoaxes – Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to spread the letter to other people for a specific reason, or send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this.
Urban legends – Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time.In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value and promise a substantial return to the participants (such as the infamous Make Money Fast scheme) are illegal.Some colleges and military bases have passed regulations stating that in the private mail of college students and military personnel, respectively, chain letters are not authorized and will be thrown out. However, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence.Eastern Time Zone
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing part or all of 22 states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
Places that use Eastern Standard Time (EST) when observing standard time (autumn/winter) are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00).
Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), when observing daylight saving time DST (spring/summer) is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−04:00).
In the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2:00 a.m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3:00 a.m. EDT leaving a one-hour "gap". On the first Sunday in November, at 2:00 a.m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1:00 a.m. EST, thus "duplicating" one hour. Southern parts of the zone (Panama and the Caribbean) do not observe daylight saving time.Energy Policy Act of 2005
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub.L. 109–58) is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The act, described by proponents as an attempt to combat growing energy problems, changed US energy policy by providing tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types.
The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed, effective February 2006, by the passing of this act.Enhanced Fujita scale
The Enhanced Fujita scale (EF-Scale) rates the intensity of tornadoes in some countries, including the United States and Canada, based on the damage they cause.
Implemented in place of the Fujita scale introduced in 1971 by Tetsuya Theodore Fujita, it began operational use in the United States on February 1, 2007, followed by Canada on April 1, 2013. It has also been proposed for use in France. The scale has the same basic design as the original Fujita scale—six categories from zero to five, representing increasing degrees of damage. It was revised to reflect better examinations of tornado damage surveys, so as to align wind speeds more closely with associated storm damage. Better standardizing and elucidating what was previously subjective and ambiguous, it also adds more types of structures and vegetation, expands degrees of damage, and better accounts for variables such as differences in construction quality.
The newer scale was publicly unveiled by the National Weather Service at a conference of the American Meteorological Society in Atlanta on February 2, 2006. It was developed from 2000 to 2004 by the Fujita Scale Enhancement Project of the Wind Science and Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University, which brought together dozens of expert meteorologists and civil engineers in addition to its own resources.
As with the Fujita scale, the Enhanced Fujita scale remains a damage scale and only a proxy for actual wind speeds. While the wind speeds associated with the damage listed have not undergone empirical analysis (such as detailed physical or any numerical modeling) owing to excessive cost, the wind speeds were obtained through a process of expert elicitation based on various engineering studies since the 1970s as well as from field experience of meteorologists and engineers. In addition to damage to structures and vegetation, radar data, photogrammetry, and cycloidal marks (ground swirl patterns) may be utilized when available.
The scale was used for the first time in the United States a year after its public announcement when parts of central Florida were struck by multiple tornadoes, the strongest of which were rated at EF3 on the new scale. It was used for the first time in Canada shortly after its implementation there when a tornado developed near the town on Shelburne, Ontario on April 18, 2013, causing up to EF1 damage.History of time in the United States
The history of standard time in the United States began November 18, 1883, when United States and Canadian railroads instituted standard time in time zones. Before then, time of day was a local matter, and most cities and towns used some form of local solar time, maintained by some well-known clock (for example, on a church steeple or in a jeweler's window). The new standard time system was not immediately embraced by all.
Use of standard time gradually increased because of its obvious practical advantages for communication and travel. Standard time in time zones was not established in U.S. law until the Standard Time Act of 1918 of March 19, 1918, also known as the Calder Act (15 USC 260). The act also established daylight saving time, itself a contentious idea.
Daylight saving time was repealed in 1919, but standard time in time zones remained in law, with the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) having the authority over time zone boundaries. Daylight time became a local matter. It was re-established nationally early in World War II, and was continuously observed until the end of the war.
After the war its use varied among states and localities. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 provided standardization in the dates of beginning and end of daylight time in the U.S. but allowed for local exemptions from its observance. The act also continued the authority of the ICC over time zone boundaries. In subsequent years, the United States Congress transferred the authority over time zones to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), modified (several times) the beginning date of daylight time, and renamed the three westernmost time zones.
Time zone boundaries have changed greatly since their original introduction and changes still occasionally occur. DOT issues press releases when these changes are made. Generally, time zone boundaries have tended to shift westward. Places on the eastern edge of a time zone can effectively move sunset an hour later (by the clock) by shifting to the time zone immediately to their east.
If they do so, the boundary of that zone is locally shifted to the west; the accumulation of such changes results in the long-term westward trend. The process is not inexorable, however, since the late sunrises experienced by such places during the winter may be regarded as too undesirable. Furthermore, under the law, the principal standard for deciding on a time zone change is the "convenience of commerce". Proposed time zone changes have been both approved and rejected based on this criterion, although most such proposals have been accepted.Home Alone
Home Alone is a 1990 American Christmas comedy film written and produced by John Hughes and directed by Chris Columbus. The film stars Macaulay Culkin as Kevin McCallister, an 8-year-old boy who is mistakenly left behind when his family flies to Paris for their Christmas vacation. Kevin initially relishes being home alone, but soon has to contend with two burglars, played by Joe Pesci and Daniel Stern. The film also features John Heard and Catherine O'Hara as Kevin's parents.
Culkin was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Musical or Comedy, and the film was nominated for two Academy Awards: Best Original Score, which was written by John Williams, and Best Original Song for "Somewhere in My Memory". After its release, Home Alone became the highest-grossing live action comedy film of all time in the United States, and also held the record worldwide until it was overtaken by The Hangover Part II in 2011. For nearly three decades, the film was also the highest-grossing Christmas film of all time until it was surpassed by The Grinch in 2018. Despite the mixed critical reception upon its initial release, Home Alone has been hailed as a holiday classic among audiences, and is often ranked as one of the best Christmas films of all time.Home Alone spawned a successful film franchise with four sequels, including the 1992 film Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, which is the only Home Alone sequel to have the original cast reprising their roles.Hootie
"Hootie" is a nickname for the following people:
Hootie Ingram (born 1933), former Clemson University head football coach
William "Hootie" Johnson (born 1931), former chairman of Augusta National Golf Club
Jay McShann (1916-2006), American jazz pianist and bandleader
Darius Rucker (born 1966), lead vocalist of Hootie & the BlowfishList of time offsets by U.S. state and territory
This is a list of the time offsets by U.S. states, federal district, and territories. For more about the time zones of the U.S. see time in the United States.
Most states are entirely contained within one time zone. However, some states are in two time zones, due to geographical, socio-political or economic reasons.PSA World Series
The PSA World Series (formerly known as the PSA Super Series) were a series of men's and women's squash tournaments which are part of the Professional Squash Association (PSA) World Tour for the squash season. The PSA World Series tournaments are some of the most prestigious events on the men's tour. The best-performing players in the World Series events qualify for the annual PSA World Series Finals tournament.
Each year, several tournaments on the tour are designated World Series events. These include major events such as the World Championship, the British Open, the Hong Kong Open or the Tournament of Champions. Then, early the next year, the eight best-performing players from the Super Series events are invited to compete in the PSA World Series Finals (a similar event to the ATP World Tour Finals).
The World Series Squash Finals were first staged in Vitis Club in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1993 and 1994. The event was then moved to England. It was held at the Galleria shopping complex in Hatfield from 1996-98. From 1999-2006, it was held in the Broadgate Arena in London. In 2007, the event was moved to the National Squash Centre in Manchester. In 2009, the tournament was shortened to a four-day format and played at the Queen's Club in London. And in 2014, the event was held for the first time in the United States in the Westwood Club in Richmond, Virginia.
From January 2015, it also includes World Series tournaments for women's after merger between PSA and WSA in November 2014.
After 2017–18 PSA World Series is replaced by new PSA World Tour and PSA World Tour finals.Sleeping porch
A sleeping porch is a deck or balcony, sometimes screened or otherwise enclosed with screened windows, and furnished for sleeping in the warmer months. Sleeping porches can be on ground level or on a higher storey and in either the front or back of a home. The idea of a sleeping porch dates back nearly a hundred years when people would sleep on a screened-in porch to get the coolness of the night air during summer without being bothered by bugs. Before the advent of air conditioning, families often created sleeping areas on outdoor porches, where children would sleep during the warmer months.
Sleeping porches first gained popularity at the turn of the 20th century. Many people believed that fresh air helped sufferers of tuberculosis, a respiratory-system illness which was the leading cause of death at that time in the United States. Health experts then also touted the benefits of fresh air for avoiding other illnesses.V.S.O.P. Live Under the Sky
V.S.O.P : Live Under the Sky is a 1979 live album by the V.S.O.P. Quintet, a record of a performance at the 1979 Live Under the Sky Festival as it was performed live in Japan over two days. The first day, which took place during a furious rainstorm, was broadcast live on national television. The original release featured the first day, while the 2004 re-master/re-release (fully for the first time in the United States) also featured the second concert. This, the fourth VSOP release, once again featured Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter, Tony Williams, Ron Carter, and Freddie Hubbard.WWVH
WWVH is the callsign of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's shortwave radio time signal station in Kekaha, on the island of Kauai in the state of Hawaii.
WWVH is the Pacific sister station to WWV, and has a similar broadcast format. Like WWV, WWVH's main function is the dissemination of official U.S. Government time, through exactly the same methods as found on WWV's signal.
To minimize interference with the WWV broadcasts on the same frequencies, WWVH's broadcasts on 5, 10 and 15 MHz are directional, pointed primarily west. Despite this strategy, in certain places, particularly on the west coast of North America; and at certain times, due to ionospheric conditions, the listener can actually hear both WWV and WWVH on the same frequency at the same time. The information modulated on the carrier is modified to reduce confusion if both are received simultaneously. In particular, voice announcements on one correspond to silent periods on the other. WWVH uses a female voice to distinguish itself from WWV, which uses a male voice. WWVH time signals can also be accessed by telephone.
Time in the Americas
Time in the United States