Time Person of the Year

Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999)[1] is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse... has done the most to influence the events of the year".[2]

Background

The tradition of selecting a "Man of the Year" began in 1927, with Time editors contemplating the news makers of the years. The idea was also an attempt to remedy the editorial embarrassment earlier that year of not having aviator Charles Lindbergh on its cover following his historic trans-Atlantic flight. By the end of the year, it was decided that a cover story featuring Lindbergh as the Man of the Year would serve both purposes.[3]

Selection

U.S. Presidents

Since the list began, every serving President of the United States has been a Man or Person of the Year at least once with the exceptions of Calvin Coolidge (in office at time of the first issue), Herbert Hoover (the subsequent U.S. President), and Gerald Ford. Most were named Man or Person of the Year either the year they were elected or while they were in office; the only one to be given the title before being elected is Dwight D. Eisenhower, in 1944 as Supreme Commander of the Allied Invasion Force, eight years before his election. He subsequently received the title again in 1959, while in office. Franklin D. Roosevelt is the only person to have received the title three times, first as president-elect (1932) and later as the incumbent president (1934 and 1941).

Women

In 1999, the title was changed to Person of the Year.[4] Women who have been selected for recognition after the renaming include "The Whistleblowers" (Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley, and Sherron Watkins in 2002), Melinda Gates (jointly with Bill Gates and Bono, in 2005), Angela Merkel in 2015 and "The Silence Breakers" in 2017. Prior to 1999, four women were granted the title as individuals: three as "Woman of the Year"—Wallis Simpson (1936), Queen Elizabeth II (1952), and Corazon Aquino (1986)—and one as half of the "Man and Wife of the Year", Soong Mei-ling (1937).[5] "American Women" were recognized as a group in 1975. Other classes of people recognized comprise both men and women, such as "Hungarian Freedom Fighters" (1956), "U.S. Scientists" (1960), "The Inheritors" (1966), "The Middle Americans" (1969), "The American Soldier" (2003), "You" (2006), "The Protester" (2011) represented on the cover by a woman, and "Ebola fighters" (2014). Although the title on the magazine remained "Man of The Year" for both the 1956 "Hungarian Freedom Fighter" and the 1966 "Twenty-five and Under" editions which both featured a woman standing behind a man, and "Men of the Year" on the 1960 "U.S. Scientists" edition which exclusively featured men on its cover. It was not until the 1969 edition on "The Middle Americans" did the title embrace "Man and Woman of the Year".

Groups and non-humans

Despite the name, the title is not just granted to individuals. Pairs of people such as married couples and political opponents, classes of people, and inanimate objects have all been selected for the special year-end issue.

Multiple named people
Classes of unnamed people
  • The American fighting-man (1950)
  • The Hungarian freedom fighter (1956)
  • U.S. Scientists (1960)
  • The Inheritor (1966)
  • Middle Americans (1969)
  • American women (1975)
  • The American soldier (2003)
  • You (2006)
  • The Protester (2011)
  • Ebola fighters (2014)
  • The Silence Breakers (2017)
  • The Guardians (2018)
Inanimate objects
  • The Computer (Machine of the Year, 1982)
  • The Endangered Earth (Planet of the Year, 1988)

Special awards

In 1949, Winston Churchill was named "Man of the Half-Century", and the last issue of 1989 named Mikhail Gorbachev as "Man of the Decade". The December 31, 1999 issue of Time named Albert Einstein the "Person of the Century". Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mahatma Gandhi were chosen as runners-up.[6]

Controversial choices

Despite the magazine's frequent statements to the contrary, the designation is often regarded as an honor, and spoken of as an award or prize, simply based on many previous selections of admirable people.[7] However, Time magazine points out that controversial figures such as Adolf Hitler (1938), Joseph Stalin (1939 and 1942), Nikita Khrushchev (1957) and Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) have also been granted the title for their impacts.[8]

As a result of the public backlash it received from the United States for naming Khomeini as Man of the Year in 1979, Time has since shied away from using figures who are controversial in the United States for commercial reasons, fearing reductions in sales or advertising revenue.[9]

Time's Person of the Year 2001, immediately following the September 11, 2001 attacks, was New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani.[10] The stated rules of selection, the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest effect on the year's news, made Osama bin Laden the more likely choice that year. The issue that declared Giuliani the Person of the Year included an article that mentioned Time's earlier decision to select the Ayatollah Khomeini and the 1999 rejection of Hitler as "Person of the Century". The article seemed to imply that Osama bin Laden was a stronger candidate than Giuliani, as Adolf Hitler was a stronger candidate than Albert Einstein. The selections were ultimately based on what the magazine describes as who they believed had a stronger influence on history and who represented either the year or the century the most. According to Time, Rudolph Giuliani was selected for symbolizing the American response to the September 11th attacks, and Albert Einstein selected for representing a century of scientific exploration and wonder.

Another controversial choice was the 2006 selection of "You", representing most if not all people for advancing the information age by using the Internet (via e.g. blogs, MySpace, YouTube, and Wikipedia).[11]

Withdrawn selections

In 1941, the fictional elephant Dumbo from the Disney movie of the same name was selected to be "Mammal of the Year", and a cover was created showing Dumbo in a formal portrait style. However, the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 pre-empted the cover. The U.S. president Franklin Delano Roosevelt was named Man of the Year for a record third time, although Dumbo's Mammal of the Year profile still appeared on the inside pages of the magazine.[12]

Film-maker Michael Moore claims that director Mel Gibson cost him the opportunity to be Person of the Year alongside Gibson in 2004. Moore's controversial political documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 became the highest-grossing documentary of all time the same year Gibson's The Passion of the Christ became a box-office success and also caused significant controversy. Moore said in an interview "I got a call right after the '04 election from an editor from Time Magazine. He said,' Time Magazine has picked you and Mel Gibson to be Time's Person of the Year to put on the cover, Right and Left, Mel and Mike. The only thing you have to do is pose for a picture with each other. And do an interview together.' I said 'OK.' They call Mel up, he agrees. They set the date and time in LA. I'm to fly there. He's flying from Australia. Something happens when he gets home... Next thing, Mel calls up and says, 'I'm not doing it. I've thought it over and it is not the right thing to do.' So they put Bush on the cover."[13]

On November 24, 2017, U.S. president Donald Trump posted on the social media network Twitter that Time editors had told him he would "probably" be named Person of the Year for a second time, conditional on an interview and photo shoot which he had refused. Time denied that they had made any such promises or conditions to Trump, who was named a runner-up.[14]

Online poll

Time magazine also holds an online poll for the readers to vote for who they believe to be the Person of the Year. While many mistakenly believe the winner of the poll to be the Person of the Year, the title, as mentioned above, is decided by the editors of Time. In the first online poll held in 1998, wrestler and activist Mick Foley won with over 50% of the votes.[15][16] Foley was removed from the poll, and the title was given to Bill Clinton and Ken Starr, which led to outrage from the fans of Foley who mistakenly believed the winner of the poll would be the winner of the title. In 2006, the poll winner by a wide margin was Hugo Chávez, with 35% of the votes. The president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, came in second. Time again ignored those results, not mentioning them in the announcement of the Person of the Year.[17] Time continues to annually run an online poll for the "People's Choice", but stresses the decision on whom the magazine recognizes is not made by the poll, but by the magazine's editors.[18]

Persons of the Year

Year Image Choice Lifetime Notes Runners-up
1927 Charles Lindbergh Time cover 1928 Charles Lindbergh 1902–1974 In 1927, Lindbergh became the first person to fly a plane solo non-stop across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris.
1928 Walter P. Chrysler at White House (cropped) Walter Chrysler 1875–1940 In 1928, Chrysler oversaw a merger of his Chrysler Corporation with Dodge before beginning work on the Chrysler Building.
1929 Owen D. Young Owen D. Young 1874–1962 Young chaired a committee which authored 1929's Young Plan, a program for settlement of German reparations after World War I.
1930 Gandhi Time cover 1931 Mahatma Gandhi 1869–1948 Gandhi was the leader of the India's independence movement. In 1930, he led the Salt Satyagraha, a 240-mile march to protest the imposition of taxes on salt by the British Raj.
1931 Pierre Laval-TIME-1932 Pierre Laval 1883–1945 Laval was first elected Prime Minister of France in 1931. Laval was popular in the American press at the time for opposing the Hoover Moratorium, a temporary freeze on World War I debt payments that was disliked in both France and the US.[19]
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt TIME Man of the Year 1933 color photo Franklin D. Roosevelt 1882–1945 Roosevelt won the 1932 US Presidential election by a landslide, defeating the incumbent, Herbert Hoover.
1933 Hugh S. Johnson Hugh S. Johnson 1882–1942 In 1933, Johnson was appointed director of the National Recovery Administration, tasked by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to bring industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.
1934 Franklin D. Roosevelt Time cover 1935 Franklin D. Roosevelt (2) 1882–1945 Roosevelt was President of the United States from 1933 to 1945. In 1934, Roosevelt's New Deal reforms were beginning to bear fruit.
1935 Haile Selassie Time cover 1936 Haile Selassie 1892–1975 Selassie was Emperor of Ethiopia in 1935, when Italian forces invaded Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1936 Wallis Simpson -1936 Wallis Simpson 1896–1986 In 1936, Simpson's relationship with King Edward VIII led the king to abdicate his throne in order to marry her.
1937 Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正) Chiang Kai-shek 1887–1975 Chiang was Premier of the Republic of China at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.
Soong May-ling wearing China Air Force pin Soong Mei-ling 1898–2003 Soong was wife of Chiang Kai-shek from 1927 until his death in 1975. Addressed as Madame Chiang Kai-Shek by the magazine, she was recognized together with her husband as "Man & Wife of the Year".[5]
1938 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H1216-0500-002, Adolf Hitler (cropped) Adolf Hitler 1889–1945 As German Chancellor, Hitler oversaw the unification of Germany with Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938, after the Anschluss and Munich Agreement respectively.
1939 CroppedStalin1943 Joseph Stalin 1878–1953 In 1939, Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He oversaw the signing of a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany before invading eastern Poland.
1940 Churchill portrait NYP 45063 Winston Churchill 1874–1965 Churchill was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1940 Dunkirk evacuation and the Battle of Britain.
1941 Franklin Roosevelt signing declaration of war against Japan Franklin D. Roosevelt (3) 1882–1945 Roosevelt was President of the United States in 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor, declaration of war against Japan and resulting entry of the United States into World War II. The editors had already chosen Dumbo as their "Mammal of the Year" before the Pearl Harbor attack, but quickly changed it to Roosevelt.[12]
1942 JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 Joseph Stalin (2) 1878–1953 By 1942, Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier of the Soviet Union, overseeing the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943).
1943 George C. Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped) George Marshall 1880–1959 As United States Army Chief of Staff in 1943, General Marshall was instrumental in organizing US actions in World War II.
1944 General Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890–1969 General Eisenhower was Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during 1944's Operation Overlord.
1945 Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman 1884–1972 Truman became President of the United States after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945, authorizing the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1946 James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232 James F. Byrnes 1879–1972 In 1946, Byrnes was United States Secretary of State during the Iran crisis of 1946, taking an increasingly hardline position in opposition to Stalin. His speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", set the tone of future US policy, repudiating the Morgenthau Plan economic policies and giving Germans hope for the future.
1947 George C. Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped) George Marshall (2) 1880–1959 Appointed United States Secretary of State in 1947, Marshall was the architect of the Marshall Plan.
1948 Truman initiating Korean involvement Harry S. Truman (2) 1884–1972 Truman was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1948, considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history.[20][21][22]
1949 Sir Winston S Churchill Winston Churchill (2) 1874–1965 Proclaimed as the "Man of the half-century", Churchill had led Britain and the Allies to victory in WWII. In 1949, Churchill was Leader of the Opposition.
1950 Man-of-the-Year-TIME-1951 The American fighting-man Representing U.S. troops involved in the Korean War (1950–1953).
1951 Mossadeghmohammad Mohammad Mossadegh 1882–1967 In 1951, Mossadegh was elected as Prime Minister of Iran and expelled western oil companies, starting the Abadan Crisis.
1952 Queen Elizabeth II-TIME-1953 Elizabeth II Born in 1926 In 1952, Elizabeth acceded to the throne of the United Kingdom[a] upon the death of her father, King George VI
1953 Konrad-Adenauer-TIME-1954 Konrad Adenauer 1876–1967 In 1953, Adenauer was re-elected as Chancellor of West Germany.
1954 Senator John Foster Dulles (R-NY) (cropped) John Foster Dulles 1888–1959 As United States Secretary of State in 1954, Dulles was architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
1955 Mr. Harlow H. Curtice, General Manager. Buick Motor Division Harlow Curtice 1893–1962 Curtice was President of General Motors (GM) from 1953 to 1958. In 1955, GM sold five million vehicles and became the first corporation to earn US$1 billion in a single year.[23]
1956 Szétlőtt harckocsi a Móricz Zsigmond körtéren The Hungarian freedom fighter Representing Hungarian revolutionaries involved in the failed 1956 uprising.
1957 Nikita-Khrushchev-TIME-1958 Nikita Khrushchev 1894–1971 In 1957, Khrushchev consolidated his leadership of the Soviet Union, surviving a plot to dismiss him by members of the Presidium, and leading the Soviet Union into the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1.
1958 Charles-DeGaulle-TIME-1959 Charles de Gaulle 1890–1970 De Gaulle was appointed Prime Minister of France in May 1958 and, following the collapse of the Fourth Republic and establishment of the Fifth Republic, was then elected President of France in December.
1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower (2) 1890–1969 Eisenhower was President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
1960 Conical flask teal U.S. Scientists Represented by George Beadle, Charles Draper, John Enders, Donald A. Glaser, Joshua Lederberg, Willard Libby, Linus Pauling, Edward Purcell, Isidor Rabi, Emilio Segrè, William Shockley, Edward Teller, Charles Townes, James Van Allen, and Robert Woodward.
1961 John F. Kennedy, White House photo portrait, looking up John F. Kennedy 1917–1963 Kennedy was inaugurated as President of the United States in 1961, ordering the failed invasion of Cuba by U.S.-trained Cuban exiles.
1962 Pope John XXIII - Time Magazine Cover - January 4, 1963 Pope John XXIII 1881–1963 John XXIII was head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1958 to 1963. In 1962, he volunteered as a mediator in the Cuban Missile Crisis, gaining praise from both sides. He also initiated the Second Vatican Council that same year.
1963 Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. 1929–1968 A leader of the Civil Rights Movement, King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech in 1963.
1964 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4 Lyndon B. Johnson 1908–1973 Johnson was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1964, before securing the passage of the Civil Rights Act, declaring a War on Poverty and escalating U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
1965 Gen William C Westmoreland William Westmoreland 1914–2005 General Westmoreland was commander of U.S. forces in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
1966 US Birth Rates The Inheritor Representing a generation of American men and women, aged 25 and under.
1967 LBJ3 Lyndon B. Johnson (2) 1908–1973 Johnson was President of the United States from 1963 to 1969.
1968 Apollo 8 Crewmembers - GPN-2000-001125 The Apollo 8 astronauts In 1968, the crew of Apollo 8 (William Anders, Frank Borman and Jim Lovell) became the first humans to travel beyond low Earth orbit, orbiting the Moon and paving the way for the first manned Moon landings in 1969.
1969 US map-Central The Middle Americans Also referred to as the silent majority.[24]
1970 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt Willy Brandt 1913–1992 As Chancellor of West Germany, Brandt was acknowledged for "seeking to bring about a fresh relationship between East and West" through his "bold approach to the Soviet Union and the East Bloc".[25]
1971 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679 Richard Nixon 1913–1994 Nixon was President of the United States from 1969 to 1974.
1972 Richard M. Nixon 30-0316M original (cropped) Richard Nixon (2) 1913–1994 As President of the United States, Nixon visited China in 1972, the first U.S. President to do so. Nixon later secured the SALT I pact with the Soviet Union before being re-elected in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history.
Henry Kissinger Henry Kissinger Born in 1923 Kissinger, as Nixon's National Security Advisor, traveled with the President to China in 1972.
1973 WatergateFromAir John Sirica 1904–1992 In 1973, as Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over Watergate-related recordings of White House conversations.
1974 King Faisal of Saudi Arabia on on arrival ceremony welcoming 05-27-1971 (cropped) King Faisal 1906–1975 Faisal, King of Saudi Arabia, was acknowledged in the wake of the oil crisis of 1973–1974, caused by Saudi Arabia withdrawing its oil from world markets in protest at Western support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
1975 MarilynMonroe - YankArmyWeekly American women Represented by Susan Brownmiller, Kathleen Byerly, Alison Cheek, Jill Conway, Betty Ford, Ella Grasso, Carla Hills, Barbara Jordan, Billie Jean King, Carol Sutton, Susie Sharp, and Addie Wyatt.
1976 JimmyCarterPortrait2 Jimmy Carter Born in 1924 In 1976, Carter was elected President of the United States, defeating incumbent President Gerald Ford.
1977 Anwar Sadat cropped Anwar Sadat 1918–1981 Sadat, as President of Egypt, traveled to Israel in 1977—the first Arab leader to do so—to discuss normalization of Egypt-Israel relations.
1978 Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping 1904–1997 China's Vice Premier. Deng overthrew Hua Guofeng to assume de facto control over China in 1978, as Paramount Leader.
1979 عکسی از خمینی Ruhollah Khomeini 1902–1989 Khomeini led the 1979 Iranian Revolution, establishing himself as Supreme Leader.
1980 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981 Ronald Reagan 1911–2004 Reagan was elected President of the United States in 1980, defeating incumbent President Jimmy Carter.
1981 Strajk sierpniowy w Stoczni Gdańskiej im. Lenina 22 Lech Wałęsa Born in 1943 Leader of the Polish Solidarity trade union and architect of the Gdańsk Agreement until his arrest and the imposition of martial law in December 1981.
1982 Sanco 8001 The Computer Denoted "Machine of the Year" to herald the dawn of the Information Age.
1983 Ronald Reagan presidential portrait crop Ronald Reagan (2) 1911–2004 In 1983, as President of the United States, Reagan ordered the invasion of Grenada and championed the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Yuri Andropov - Soviet Life, August 1983 Yuri Andropov 1914–1984 Andropov, as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was a strong critic of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Andropov was hospitalized in August 1983 and subsequently died in 1984.
1984 Peter Ueberroth Peter Ueberroth Born in 1937 Ueberroth orchestrated the organization of the 1984 Summer Olympics, which involved a Soviet-led boycott.
1985 Deng Xiaoping and Jimmy Carter at the arrival ceremony for the Vice Premier of China. - NARA - 183157-restored(cropped) Deng Xiaoping (2) 1904–1997 As Paramount Leader of China, Deng was acknowledged for "sweeping economic reforms that have challenged Marxist orthodoxies".[26]
1986 Corazon Aquino 1986 Corazon Aquino 1933–2009 Aquino was a prominent figure in 1986's People Power Revolution, being elected President of the Philippines.
1987 Gorbachev (cropped) Mikhail Gorbachev Born in 1931 As General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and leader of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev oversaw Perestroika political reforms in 1987.
1988 Earth Eastern Hemisphere The Endangered Earth Planet of the Year, involving an aspect of Mother Nature.
1989 RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (crop) Mikhail Gorbachev (2) Born in 1931 Acknowledged as "Man of the Decade". Gorbachev, as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Soviet leader), oversaw 1989's first free Soviet elections before the fragmentation of the Eastern Bloc.
1990 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped) George H. W. Bush 1924–2018 As President of the United States, Bush oversaw U.S. involvement in the Gulf War (1990–1991).
1991 Ted Turner LF Ted Turner Born in 1938 Founder of CNN. The piece particularly highlighted CNN's coverage of Operation Desert Storm and the Gulf War, proclaiming it "History as it happens".
1992 Bill Clinton Bill Clinton Born in 1946 Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992, defeating incumbent President George H. W. Bush.
1993 Peace sign The Peacemakers Represented by Yasser Arafat, F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, and Yitzhak Rabin.
De Klerk, as State President of South Africa, oversaw Mandela's release from prison in 1990. The pair worked together to end the Apartheid system.
Arafat, as President of the Palestinian National Authority, and Rabin, as Prime Minister of Israel, signed the 1993 Oslo Accord, the first face-to-face agreement between Palestinian and Israeli authorities.
1994 JohannesPaul2-portrait Pope John Paul II 1920–2005 Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1978 to 2005.
1995 NewtGingrich Newt Gingrich Born in 1943 Leader of the "Republican Revolution", a Republican party election landslide, which led to Gingrich being elected Speaker of the House.
1996 David Ho portrait David Ho Born in 1952 Ho, a scientist, pioneered much AIDS research.
1997 Andrew Grove Andrew Grove 1936–2016 In 1997, Grove was Chairman and CEO of Intel, recognized as a pioneer in the semiconductor industry.
1998 William J. Clinton - NCI Visuals Online (cropped) Bill Clinton (2) Born in 1946 As President of the United States, Clinton was impeached in 1998 following the Lewinsky scandal. The Senate acquitted him of the charges.
Starr-large (1) Ken Starr Born in 1946 Starr, a lawyer investigating various figures within the Clinton administration, published his Starr Report in 1998, opening the door for the impeachment of Bill Clinton.
1999 Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh Jeff Bezos Born in 1964 Bezos is founder and CEO of Amazon.com.
2000 GeorgeWBush George W. Bush Born in 1946 In 2000, Bush was elected President of the United States, defeating incumbent Vice President Al Gore.
2001 Rudy Giuliani Rudy Giuliani Born in 1944 Giuliani was Mayor of New York City at the time of the September 11 attacks in 2001, was selected as a symbol of America's response to the attacks.
2002 Whistle icon The Whistleblowers Represented by Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley and Sherron Watkins.
In 2001, Watkins uncovered accounting irregularities in the financial reports of Enron, testifying before Congressional committees the following year. In 2002, Cooper exposed a $3.8 billion fraud at WorldCom. At the time, this was the largest incident of accounting fraud in U.S. history. In 2002, Rowley, an FBI agent, gave testimony about the FBI's mishandling of information related to the September 11 attacks of 2001.
2003 2ID Recon Baghdad The American soldier (2) Representing U.S. forces around the world, especially in the Iraq War (2003–2011).
2004 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush (2) Born in 1946 In 2004, Bush was re-elected President of the United States, overseeing U.S. involvement in the Iraq War.
2005 Bill og Melinda Gates 2009-06-03 (bilde 01)
Bono WEF 2008
The Good Samaritans Represented by Bono, Bill Gates, and Melinda Gates.
Bono, philanthropist and member of the rock band U2, helped to organise the 2005 Live 8 concerts. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft and richest person in the world, and his wife Melinda, founded the philanthropic Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
2006 Time youcover01 You[11] Representing individual content creators on the World Wide Web.
2007 Vladimir Putin official portrait Vladimir Putin[28] Born in 1952 In 2007, Putin was ending his second term as President of Russia and preparing to become Prime Minister.
2008 Obama portrait crop Barack Obama[30] Born in 1961 In 2008, Obama was elected President of the United States, defeating John McCain.
2009 Ben Bernanke official portrait Ben Bernanke[32] Born in 1953 Chairman of the Federal Reserve during the financial crisis of 2007–08.
2010 Mark Zuckerberg at the 37th G8 Summit in Deauville 037 Mark Zuckerberg[34] Born in 1984 Founder of social-networking website Facebook.
2011 Greek student protestor during 2009 G20 London summit protests The Protester[36] Representing many global protest movements — for example, the Arab Spring, the Indignants Movement, the Occupy Movement, and the Tea Party movement — as well as protests in Chile, Greece, India, and Russia among others.
2012 President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop Barack Obama (2)[38] Born in 1961 In 2012, Obama was re-elected President of the United States, defeating Mitt Romney.
2013 Pope Francis Philadelphia 2015 (cropped) Pope Francis[40] Born in 1936 Elected head of the Roman Catholic Church in 2013, following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.
2014 PPE Training (2) Ebola fighters[42] "Ebola fighters" refers to health care workers who helped stop the spread of Ebola virus disease during the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, including not only doctors and nurses, but also ambulance attendants, burial parties and others.[43]

Represented on the covers by Dr. Jerry Brown, the medical director at the Eternal Love Winning Africa Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia,[44][45] Dr. Kent Brantly, a physician with Samaritan's Purse and the first American to be infected in the 2014 outbreak,[45][46] Ella Watson-Stryker, a health promoter for Doctors Without Borders who is originally from the United States,[45][47] Foday Gallah, an ambulance supervisor and Ebola survivor from Monrovia, Liberia,[45][48] and Salome Karwah, a trainee nurse and counselor from Liberia whose parents died of Ebola,[45][49] as well as others mentioned in the article itself, such as Dr. Pardis Sabeti from the Broad Institute.

2015 Angela Merkel Juli 2010 - 3zu4 Angela Merkel Born in 1954 Chancellor of Germany since 2005, recognized for leadership in the Greek debt crisis and European migrant crisis.[50]
2016 Donald Trump official portrait Donald Trump Born in 1946 In 2016, Trump was elected President of the United States, defeating Hillary Clinton.
2017 Silence Breakers The Silence Breakers The people who spoke out against sexual abuse and harassment, including the figureheads of the Me Too movement. Represented on the cover by strawberry picker Isabel Pascual (pseudonym), lobbyist Adama Iwu, actress Ashley Judd, software engineer Susan Fowler, singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, and a sixth woman, a hospital worker who wished to remain anonymous and whose face cannot be seen. The feature also specifically spotlights, in order, actress Alyssa Milano, activist Tarana Burke, actress Selma Blair, the seven plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the Plaza Hotel, politician Sara Gelser, entrepreneur Lindsay Meyer, dishwasher Sandra Pezqueda, actress Rose McGowan, psychotherapist and writer Wendy Walsh, blogger Lindsey Reynolds, housekeeper Juana Melara, journalist Sandra Muller, actor Terry Crews, University of Rochester professors Celeste Kidd and Jessica Cantlon, journalist Megyn Kelly, journalist Jane Merrick, producer Zelda Perkins, European Parliament member Terry Reintke, charity worker Bex Bailey, art curator Amanda Schmitt, filmmaker Blaise Godbe Lipman, and an anonymous former office assistant.[62][63]
2018 Time Magazine Cover Images Person of the Year 2018 The Guardians

Journalists who faced persecution, arrest or murder for their reporting. Those highlighted on four different covers were: Jamal Khashoggi, Washington Post columnist murdered for his criticism of the Saudi crown prince; Maria Ressa, editor of the Philippine news website Rappler, who was indicted for her critical coverage of its president’s controversially violent policies; Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo, Reuters journalists captured in Myanmar while investigating a massacre of Rohingya Muslims; and the staff of The Capital, a Maryland newspaper whose office was targeted by a gunman who killed five of its employees in a mass shooting.[71] The accompanying feature also specifically spotlights the following journalists, in order: Shahidul Alam of Bangladesh, Nguyễn Ngọc Như Quỳnh of Vietnam, Dulcina Parra of Mexico, Luz Mely Reyes of Venezuela, Can Dündar of Turkey, Tatyana Felgenhauer of Russia, Amal Habani of Sudan and Arkady Babchenko of Russia.[72]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Elizabeth also acceded to the thrones of Australia, Canada, Ceylon, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa
  2. ^ Trump claimed that he had been offered a photoshoot for Person of the Year and turned it down, which Time's editors disputed and denied.[64]

References

  1. ^ Eliza Gray. "Person of the Year – TIME". TIME.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  2. ^ Person of the Year: 75th Anniversary Celebration (Special Collector's ed.). New York: Time Books. 2002. OCLC 52817840.
  3. ^ Time (2002), Person of the Year: 75th Anniversary Celebration, p. 1.
  4. ^ The first "Person" of the Year (rather than "Man / Woman " of the Year) was Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com.
  5. ^ a b Joan Levenstein. "Mme Chiang Kai-Shek: 1937". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  6. ^ Golden, Frederic (January 3, 2000). "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein". Time. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  7. ^ Time (2002), Person of the Year: 75th Anniversary Celebration, pp. 2, 79.
  8. ^ "Person of the Year: A Photo History – Notorious Leaders: Controversial Choices". Time. December 16, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  9. ^ Time (2002), Person of the Year: 75th Anniversary Celebration, p. 79.
  10. ^ "Giuliani named Time's Person of Year". CNN. December 26, 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  11. ^ a b Lev Grossman (December 13, 2006). "You — Yes, You — Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  12. ^ a b "The Timely "Dumbo": Almost a Cover Boy". Walt Disney Family Museum. May 16, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  13. ^ "Michael Moore Defends Cruise, Slags Gibson". Infectious Greed. September 16, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  14. ^ Ball, Molly (December 6, 2017). "Donald Trump: TIME Person of the Year Runner Up". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  15. ^ "Mick Foley Cactus Jack Pro Wrestling Legend". Media Man International. 2012.
  16. ^ Buechner, M (December 21, 1998). "TIME Man of the Year Poll Roils Internet". time.com. TIME Digital. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  17. ^ "Chavez wins "Person of the Year" poll ... Time magazine ignores result". Hands Off Venezuela. December 18, 2006. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  18. ^ Stacey Leasca (December 19, 2012). "Time's 'Person of the Year' is Barack Obama". Global Post. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
  19. ^ Original Time article
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External links

Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (, German: [aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛɐ̯kl̩]; née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union, the most powerful woman in the world, and by many commentators as the leader of the Free World.Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany and moved to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg. She obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been reelected ever since. As the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, and became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994. After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.

Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag. After the 2017 federal election the CDU was again the largest party, and she was reelected to her fourth term on 14 March 2018.In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more recently her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is currently the senior G7 leader. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of the CDU at the party convention in December 2018 and as Chancellor in 2021.

Beyoncé

Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter (; born September 4, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter and actress. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, Beyoncé performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child. She rose to fame in the late 1990s as lead singer of the R&B girl-group Destiny's Child. Managed by her father, Mathew Knowles, the group became one of the best-selling girl groups in history. Their hiatus saw Beyoncé's theatrical film debut in Austin Powers in Goldmember (2002) and the release of her first solo album, Dangerously in Love (2003). The album established her as a solo artist worldwide, debuting at number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and earning her five Grammy Awards. The album also featured the Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles "Crazy in Love" and "Baby Boy".

Following the break-up of Destiny's Child in 2006, she released her second solo album, B'Day, which contained her fourth solo number-one hit, "Irreplaceable", as well as the other top ten singles "Déjà Vu" and "Beautiful Liar". Beyoncé also continued her acting career with starring roles in The Pink Panther (2006), Dreamgirls (2006), and Obsessed (2009). Her marriage to rapper Jay-Z and her portrayal of Etta James in Cadillac Records (2008) influenced her third album, I Am... Sasha Fierce (2008), which saw the introduction of her alter-ego, Sasha Fierce, and earned a record-setting six Grammy Awards in 2010, including Song of the Year for "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)". Beyoncé took a hiatus from music in 2010 and took over management of her career; her fourth album, 4 (2011), was subsequently mellower in tone, exploring 1970s funk, 1980s pop, and 1990s soul. Her critically acclaimed eponymous album, released in 2013 with no prior announcement, was distinguished from previous releases by its experimental production and exploration of darker themes. Her sixth album, Lemonade (2016), also received widespread critical acclaim, with many referring to it as her most personal and political work to date, and subsequently became the best-selling album of 2016. In 2018, she released Everything Is Love, a collaborative album with her husband, Jay-Z, as The Carters.

Throughout her career, Beyoncé has sold over 100 million records worldwide as a solo artist and a further 60 million records with Destiny's Child, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. She is acclaimed for her vocals, music videos, and live concert shows. The Recording Industry Association of America recognized Beyoncé as the Top Certified Artist in America during the 2000s decade. In 2009, Billboard named her the Top Radio Songs Artist of the Decade and the Top Female Artist of the 2000s decade. Among numerous awards and accolades, Beyoncé has won 23 Grammy Awards and is the most nominated woman in the award's history. She is the most awarded artist at the MTV Video Music Awards, with 24 wins, including the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award. Beyoncé has also been honored with the Legend Award at the World Music Awards, the Billboard Millennium Award, and the Fashion Icon Award at the CFDA Awards. In 2014, she became the highest-paid black musician in history and was listed among Time's 100 most influential people in the world for a second year in a row. Forbes ranked her as the most powerful female in entertainment on their 2015 and 2017 lists, and in 2016, she occupied the sixth place for Time's Person of the Year. With the release of Lemonade, Beyoncé became the first and only musical act in Billboard chart history to debut at number one with their first six solo studio albums.

Conspiracy of silence (expression)

A conspiracy of silence, or culture of silence, describes the behavior of a group of people of some size, as large as an entire national group or profession or as small as a group of colleagues, that by unspoken consensus does not mention, discuss, or acknowledge a given subject. The practice may be motivated by positive interest in group solidarity or by such negative impulses as fear of political repercussion or social ostracism. It differs from avoiding a taboo subject in that the term is applied to more limited social and political contexts rather than to an entire culture. As a descriptor, conspiracy of silence implies dishonesty, sometimes cowardice, sometimes privileging loyalty to one social group over another. As a social practice, it is rather more extensive than the use of euphemisms to avoid addressing a topic directly.

Some instances of such a practice are sufficiently well-known or enduring to become known by their own specific terms, including Code of silence for the refusal of law enforcement officers to speak out against crimes committed by fellow officers and omertà, cultural code of organized crime in Sicily.

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping (, also UK: ; courtesy name Xixian; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng led China through far-reaching market-economy reforms. However, he is widely criticised for his authoritarian actions during the Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989, where he cracked down on dissidents.

Born into a peasant background in Guang'an, Sichuan province, Deng studied and worked in France in the 1920s, where he became a follower of Marxism–Leninism. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1923. Upon his return to China, he joined the party organization in Shanghai, then was a political commissar for the Red Army in rural regions and by the late 1930s was considered a "revolutionary veteran" because he participated in the Long March. Following the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, Deng worked in Tibet and the southwest region to consolidate Communist control.

As the party's Secretary General in the 1950s, Deng presided over Anti-Rightist Campaigns and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward of 1957–1960. However, his economic policies caused him to fall out of favor with Mao Zedong and was purged twice during the Cultural Revolution.

Following Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng in December 1978. Inheriting a country beset with social conflict, disenchantment with the Communist Party and institutional disorder resulting from the chaotic policies of the Mao era, Deng became the paramount figure of the "second generation" of party leadership.

While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (leader of the Communist Party), some called him "the architect" of a new brand of thinking that combined socialist ideology with free enterprise whose slogan was "socialism with Chinese characteristics". Deng opened China to foreign investment and the global market, policies that are credited with developing China into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for several generations and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions.Deng was the Time Person of the Year in 1978 and 1985, the third Chinese leader (after Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling) and the fourth communist leader (after Joseph Stalin, picked twice; and Nikita Khrushchev) to be selected. He was criticized for ordering the crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, but praised for his reaffirmation of the reform program in his Southern Tour of 1992 and the reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese control in 1997. Deng died in February 1997, aged 92.

Jennifer Doudna

Jennifer Anne Doudna (born February 19, 1964) is an American biochemist. She is a Li Ka Shing Chancellor Chair Professor in the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Doudna has been an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) since 1997, and since 2018 holds the position of senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes as well as that of professor at the University of California, San Francisco.Doudna has been a leading figure in what is referred to as the "CRISPR revolution" for her fundamental work and leadership in developing CRISPR-mediated genome editing. In 2012, Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier were the first to propose that CRISPR/Cas9 (enzymes from bacteria that control microbial immunity) could be used for programmable editing of genomes, which is now considered one of the most significant discoveries in the history of biology.Doudna has made fundamental contributions in biochemistry and genetics and received many prestigious awards and fellowships including the 2000 Alan T. Waterman Award for her research on the structure as determined by X-ray crystallography of a ribozyme, and the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology (with Charpentier). She has been a co-recipient of the Gruber Prize in Genetics (2015), the Canada Gairdner International Award (2016) and the Japan Prize (2017). Outside the scientific community, she has been named one of the Time 100 most influential people in 2015 (with Charpentier) and was listed as a runner-up for Time Person of the Year in 2016 alongside other CRISPR researchers.

Kathleen Byerly

Kathleen M. Byerly (born ca. 1944) is known for being one of the 12 women named by Time magazine Time Person of the Year in 1975, representing American women (at the height of the feminist movement). In May 1975, she became the first female officer in the United States Navy to serve as the flag secretary to an admiral commanding an operational staff.Byerly graduated from Chestnut Hill College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1966. Following graduation, she joined the U.S. Navy. In 1975 she held the rank of Lieutenant Commander and was a Navy executive and aide to Rear Admiral Allen Hill.

Kent Brantly

Kent Brantly is an American doctor with the medical mission group Samaritan's Purse. While treating Ebola patients in Liberia, he contracted the virus. He became the first American to return to the United States to be treated for the disease.

Luz Mely Reyes

Luz Mely Reyes (born 1967 or 1968) is a Venezuelan journalist, writer, and analyst. She is known as the director and co-founder of the digital media franchise Efecto Cocuyo. She has received multiple honors for her work.

Maria Ressa

Maria Ressa is a Filipino-American journalist and author. She is best known for co-founding Rappler as its chief executive officer. She previously spent nearly two decades working as a lead investigative reporter in Southeast Asia for CNN.

Ressa was included in Time's Person of the Year 2018 as one of a collection of journalists from around the world combating fake news. She was arrested for "cyber libel" amid accusations of various instances of falsified news and corporate tax evasion on February 13, 2019. Ressa has since posted bail while the lawsuits are now pending in regional court. As an outspoken critic of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte, her arrest was seen by the international community as a politically motivated act by the government.

Miley Cyrus

Miley Ray Hemsworth (née Cyrus, born Destiny Hope Cyrus; November 23, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. After playing minor roles in the television series Doc and the film Big Fish as a child, she became a teen idol in 2006, starring in the Disney Channel television series Hannah Montana as the character Miley Stewart. Her father, musician Billy Ray Cyrus, also starred in the series, which aired for four seasons until 2011.

Cyrus has earned three number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with Meet Miley Cyrus (2007), Breakout (2008), and Bangerz (2013). Her releases The Time of Our Lives (2009), Can't Be Tamed (2010), Younger Now (2017), and She Is Coming (2019) debuted in the top-five in the United States, while her album Miley Cyrus & Her Dead Petz (2015) was released for free online streaming on SoundCloud. Her upcoming seventh studio album She Is Miley Cyrus is expected to be released in 2019. Further, Cyrus has attained an additional two number-one and three top-ten soundtracks credited as Hannah Montana. She has also earned nine top-ten entries on the US Billboard Hot 100: "See You Again", "7 Things", "The Climb", "He Could Be the One" (as Hannah Montana), "Party in the U.S.A.", "Can't Be Tamed", "We Can't Stop", "Malibu" and the chart-topping "Wrecking Ball".

Cyrus launched her film career as a voice actress in the animated film Bolt (2008). She starred in the feature films Hannah Montana: The Movie (2009) and The Last Song (2010). On television, she was the host of the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards and has hosted Saturday Night Live three times since 2011. Cyrus has been featured as a coach on the singing competition television series The Voice; she has appeared in two seasons of the show since her debut in 2016.

Cyrus has earned numerous awards and nominations. She was recognized as "Artist of the Year" by MTV in 2013 and was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in both 2008 and 2014. Cyrus is the first female to enter the Billboard charts under three different names: as herself, Hannah Montana, and her Black Mirror character Ashley O. Her image has been the subject of significant media commentary and public controversy, shifting from wholesomeness to highly-sexual behavior in the 2010s. Cyrus is an outspoken animal rights advocate, and adopted a vegan lifestyle in 2014. That year, she founded the non-profit Happy Hippie Foundation, which focuses on youth homelessness and the LGBT community.

Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi (Gujarati pronunciation: [ˈnəɾendrə dɑmodəɾˈdɑs ˈmodiː]; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, and is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. He is the first prime minister outside of the Indian National Congress to win two consecutive terms with a full majority, and the second one to complete five years in office after Atal Bihari Vajpayee.Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child, and has said he later ran his own stall. He was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to an arranged marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal, which he abandoned, and publicly acknowledged only many decades later. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding. The RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary.

Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patel's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after. His administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally. His policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. His administration has been criticised for failing to significantly improve health, poverty, and education indices in the state.Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984. Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, and reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy; he has centralised power by abolishing the Planning Commission. He began a high-profile sanitation campaign, and weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetisation of high-denomination banknotes. Described as engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, Modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda.

Patty Jenkins

Patricia Lea Jenkins (born July 24, 1971) is an American film and television director and screenwriter. She directed the films Monster (2003), Wonder Woman (2017), and the upcoming Wonder Woman 1984 (2020). For her work on the pilot episode of The Killing, she received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series and won the Directors Guild of America award for Outstanding Directing in Dramatic Series.

Reuters

Reuters () is an international news organization. It is a division of Thomson Reuters and has nearly 200 locations around the world. Until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, which was also a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Urdu, Arabic, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese. It was established in 1851.

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and film actor who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

Reagan was raised in a poor family in the small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he won the nomination and then defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have been elected to a first-term, until Donald Trump (aged 70 years, 220 days) in 2017. Reagan is still, however, the oldest president elected, at 73 years, 349 days of age at his second inauguration. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, and defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U.S. president, 525, or 97.6% of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U.S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5% or 523 of the (then-total) 531 electoral votes.Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, and increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, and the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union collapsed.

When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68%, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era. He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, and he is an icon among conservatives. Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.

Rudy Giuliani

Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (, Italian: [dʒuˈljaːni]; born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, businessman, and public speaker who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. He currently acts as an attorney to President Donald Trump. Politically a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served as United States Associate Attorney General from 1981 to 1983. That year he became the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, holding the position until 1989. He prosecuted cases against the American Mafia and against corrupt corporate financiers.

When Giuliani took office as Mayor of New York City, he appointed a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city; to prevent major crime, the theory holds, the police should enforce seemingly minor "quality-of-life" laws such as those outlawing public drinking, littering, and jay-walking. Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for making major improvements in the city's quality of life and lowering the rate of violent crimes. While Giuliani was still Mayor, he ran for the United States Senate in 2000; however, he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer diagnosis. Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II for his leadership in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.

In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain. Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012. Giuliani declined all races, and instead remained in the business sector. In April 2018, Giuliani became one of President Trump's personal lawyers. Since then, he has appeared in the media in defense of President Trump.

Rudy Giuliani during the September 11 attacks

As Mayor of New York City during the September 11 attacks in 2001, Rudy Giuliani played a visible role in the response to the terrorist attack against the World Trade Center towers in New York City. For this he earned great praise at the time.

Tarana Burke

Tarana Burke (born September 12, 1973) is a civil rights activist from The Bronx, New York who founded the Me Too movement. In 2006, Burke began using the phrase "Me Too" to raise awareness of the pervasiveness of sexual abuse and assault in society, and the phrase developed into a broader movement, following the 2017 use of #MeToo as a hashtag after the Harvey Weinstein sexual abuse allegations. Time named Burke, among a group of other prominent activists dubbed "the silence breakers", as the Time Person of the Year for 2017. Burke attends public speaking events across the country and is currently Senior Director at Girls for Gender Equity in Brooklyn.

Terry Crews

Terry Alan Crews (born July 30, 1968) is an American actor, comedian, activist, artist, and former American football player. Crews played Julius Rock on the UPN/CW sitcom Everybody Hates Chris. He previously hosted the US version of the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire and starred in the BET reality series The Family Crews. He appeared in films such as Friday After Next (2002), White Chicks (2004), Idiocracy (2006), and the Expendables series. Since 2013, he has played NYPD Sergeant Terry Jeffords in the sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine. He is currently hosting America's Got Talent in 2019, following his involvement in the same role for the program's spin-off series America's Got Talent: The Champions from January 2019.

Crews played as a defensive end and linebacker in the National Football League (NFL) for the Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers, and Washington Redskins, as well as in the World League of American Football with Rhein Fire, and college football at Western Michigan University.

Crews, a public advocate for women's rights and activist against sexism, has shared stories of the abuse his family endured at the hands of his violent father. He was included among the group of people named as Time Magazine's Person of the Year in 2017 for going public with stories of sexual assault.

You (Time Person of the Year)

"You" were chosen in 2006 as Time magazine's Person of the Year. The magazine set out to recognize the millions of people who anonymously contribute user-generated content to wikis and other websites such as Wikipedia, YouTube, MySpace, Facebook, and the multitudes of other websites featuring user contribution.While the status had been given before to inanimate objects, with the personal computer being the "Machine of the Year" for 1982, as well as collections of people or an abstract representative of a movement, the choice of "You" attracted criticism from commentators in publications such as The Atlantic for being too much of a pop culture gimmick. A 2014 New York Daily News article named the 2006 award as one of the ten most controversial "Person of the Year" moments in the history of Time. However, the news-magazine experienced generally successful sales.

Time Persons of the Year
1927–1950
1951–1975
1976–2000
2001–present

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