Tidore (Indonesian: Kota Tidore Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera. In the pre-colonial era, the Sultanate of Tidore was a major regional political and economic power, and a fierce rival of nearby Ternate, just to the north.
Kota Tidore Kepulauan
Tidore Island, as seen from Ternate Island.
Location within Maluku Islands
|• Mayor||Ali Ibrahim|
|• Vice Mayor||Muhammad Senin|
|• Total||1,550.37 km2 (598.60 sq mi)|
|• Density||31/km2 (81/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)|
|Area code||(+62) 921|
Tidore Island consists of a large stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor to an elevation of 1,730 m (5,676 ft) above sea level at the conical Mount Kie Matubu on the south end of the island. The northern side of the island contains a caldera, Sabale, with two smaller volcanic cones within it.
Soasio is Tidore's capital. It has its own port, Goto, and it lies on the eastern edge of the island. It has a mini bus terminal and a market. The sultan's palace was rebuilt with completion in 2010.
The sultans of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of New Guinea. Tidore established an alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain had several forts on the island. There was mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards but for the Tidorese the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting the incursions of the Ternateans and their ally, the Dutch, who had a fort on Ternate. For the Spanish, backing the Tidore state helped check the expansion of Dutch power that threatened their nearby Asia-Pacific interests, provided a useful base right next to the centre of Dutch power in the region and was a source of spices for trade.
Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore and Ternate in 1663, the Tidore sultanate, although nominally part of the Spanish East Indies, established itself as one of the strongest and most independent states in the region. After the Spanish withdrawal it continued to resist direct control by the Dutch East India Company (the VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (r. 1657–1689), the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional peripheral territories. As a result, he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on foreign military help for governing the kingdom, unlike Ternate which frequently relied upon Dutch military assistance.
Tidore long remained an independent state, albeit with growing Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpatie) to proceed in its territories. This program, intended to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery.
In 1781 Prince Nuku left Tidore and declared himself Sultan of the Papuan Islands. This was the beginning of a guerilla war which lasted for many years. The Papuans sided with the rebellious Prince Nuku. The British had sponsored Nuku as part of their campaign against the Dutch in the Moluccas. Captain Thomas Forrest was intimately connected with Nuku and represented the British as ambassador.
The island constitutes a municipality (kotamadya) within the province of North Maluku. The municipality covers an area of 1,645.73 square kilometres (635.42 sq mi) and had a Census population of 90,055 in 2010, the mainland part (Oba) became the city of Sofifi, the new provincial capital. This leaves 53,836 as the population covering 127 km2 of land.
The municipality includes the island of Tidore, together with two small islands (Maitara and Mare), and the Oba section of Halmahera Island. It is divided into eight districts (kecamatan), of which four constitute the island of Tidore (including the two small islands) and the other four constitute the Oba area on the 'mainland' of Halmahera. These are tabulated below with their areas (in sq km) and their populations at the 2010 Census.
|Name||English name||Area in
|Tidore Selatan||South Tidore||30.1||13,129|
|Tidore Utara||North Tidore||42.1||14,573|
|Tidore Timur||East Tidore||30.4||7,657|
|(totals on Tidore Island)||127.0||53,836|
|Oba Utara||North Oba||332.4||13,331|
|Oba Tengah||Central Oba||620.2||7,659|
|Oba Selatan||South Oba||173.7||4,892|
|(totals on Halmahera Island)||1,557.0||36,219|
The province of North Maluku in Indonesia is divided into regencies which is turn are divided administratively into districts, known as Kecamantan.
The districts of North Maluku, with the regency each falls into, are as follows:
Bacan Selatan, Halmahera Selatan
Bacan Timur, Halmahera Selatan
Bacan, Halmahera Selatan
Galela, Halmahera Utara
Gane Barat, Halmahera Selatan
Gane Timur, Halmahera Selatan
Gebe, Halmahera Tengah
Ibu Selatan, Halmahera Barat
Ibu Utara, Halmahera Barat
Ibu, Halmahera Barat
Jailolo Selatan, Halmahera Barat
Jailolo Timur, Halmahera Barat
Jailolo, Halmahera Barat
Kao, Halmahera Utara
Kayoa, Halmahera Selatan
Loloda Utara, Halmahera Utara
Loloda, Halmahera Barat
Maba Selatan, Halmahera Timur
Maba, Halmahera Timur
Malifut, Halmahera Utara
Mangoli Barat, Kepulauan Sula
Mangoli Timur, Kepulauan Sula
Morotai Jaya, Pulau Morotai
Morotai Selatan Barat, Pulau Morotai
Morotai Selatan, Pulau Morotai
Morotai Timur, Pulau Morotai
Morotai Utara, Pulau Morotai
Nggele, Kepulauan Sula
Oba Utara, Tidore Kepulauan
Oba, Tidore Kepulauan
Obi Selatan, Halmahera Selatan
Obi, Halmahera Selatan
Patani Utara, Halmahera Tengah
Patani, Halmahera Tengah
Pulau Makian, Halmahera Selatan
Pulau Ternate, Ternate
Sahu Timur, Halmahera Barat
Sahu, Halmahera Barat
Sanana, Kepulauan Sula
Sula Besi Barat, Kepulauan Sula
Taliabu Barat, Kepulauan Sula
Taliabu Timur, Kepulauan Sula
Ternate Selatan, Ternate
Ternate Utara, Ternate
Tidore Selatan, Tidore Kepulauan
Tidore Utara, Tidore Kepulauan
Tidore, Tidore Kepulauan
Tobelo Selatan, Halmahera Utara
Tobelo, Halmahera Utara
Wasile Selatan, Halmahera Timur
Wasile, Halmahera Timur
Weda Selatan, Halmahera Tengah
Weda Utara, Halmahera Tengah
Weda, Halmahera TengahHMAS Tamworth (J181)
HMAS Tamworth (J181/B250/A124), named for the city of Tamworth, New South Wales, was one of 60 Bathurst-class corvettes constructed during World War II and one of 20 built on Admiralty order but manned by personnel of and later commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Tamworth later saw service in the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) and in the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL).Halmahera
Halmahera, formerly known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku province of Indonesia and Sofifi, the capital of the province, is located on the west coast of the island.
Halmahera has a land area of 17,780 km2 (6,860 sq mi); it is the largest island of Indonesia outside the five main islands. It has a population in 1995 of 162,728; it has increased to 449,938 for the island itself (excluding the tip which is considered part of the Joronga Islands, but including Gebe and Ju islands) and 667,161 for the island group (including all of South Halmahera and Tidore, but not Ternate). Approximately half of the island's inhabitants are Muslim and half are Christian.Hermit Islands
The Hermit Islands are a group of 17 islands within the Western Islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Their coordinates are 1°30′S 145°4′E.The first sighting by Europeans of Hermit islands was by the Spanish navigator Iñigo Órtiz de Retes on 29 July 1545 when on board of the carrack San Juan tried to return from Tidore to New Spain. He charted them as La Caimana (a female caiman in Spanish). When passing by, Ortiz de Retes reported that some negroes got near the ship who flung arrows by hand without bows, that were made of flint suitable for striking fire. These islands belong to Micronesian outliers.North Halmahera languages
The North Halmahera languages are the Papuan languages spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the island of Halmahera and some neighboring islands in Indonesia. The southwestern part of the island is occupied by the unrelated South Halmahera languages, which are a subgroup of Austronesian.
The best known North Halmaheran language is Ternate (50 000 native speakers), which is a regional lingua franca and which, along with Tidore, were the languages of the rival medieval Ternate and Tidore sultanates, famous for their role in the spice trade.North Maluku
North Maluku (Indonesian: Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands. The provincial capital is Sofifi, on Halmahera, and the largest population center is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 at the 2010 Census making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia; at the latest estimate (January 2014) the population had risen to 1,141,561. The movement of the regional economy in North Maluku is largely derived from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector, fisheries and other types of marine products. The main commodities that support economic pulse in North Maluku include copra, nutmeg, cloves, fisheries, gold and nickel. North Maluku's natural products include rice, corn, roasted sweet potatoes, beans, coconut, potatoes, nutmeg, sago, and eucalyptus. The regional economy mostly comes from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector, fisheries and other types of marine products.
This area was originally the former region of the four largest Islamic kingdoms in the eastern part of the archipelago known as the Moloku Kie Raha (Four Mountain Sultanate in Maluku). They are the Bacan Sultanate, Jailolo Sultanate, Tidore Sultanate and the Ternate Sultanate respectively. Europeans began arriving in the region at the beginning of the 16th century. North Maluku became the site of competition between the Portuguese, Spanish and the Dutch to control the trade in the region. In the end, the Dutch emerged victorious, beginning the three-century Dutch rule in the region. The Japanese invaded the region during World War II, ousting the Dutch from the region. In the era of Japanese occupation (1942–1945), Ternate became the center of the Japanese ruler's position for the Pacific region. The Japanese surrendered in 1945, briefly returning the area to Dutch control, before being handed over to the Republic of Indonesia after a war between the Dutch and the Indonesians.
The North Maluku province was created by the division of Maluku Province which officially separated on October 12, 1999. As one of the youngest provinces in 34 provinces in Indonesia, North Maluku was officially formed on October 4, 1999, through Republic of Indonesia Law Number 46 of 1999 and Republic of Indonesia Law Number 6 of 2003. Before officially becoming a province, North Maluku was part of Maluku Province, namely North Maluku Regency. At the beginning of its establishment, North Maluku, whose capital was Ternate, was located at the foot of Mount Gamalama, for 11 years. Precisely until August 4, 2010, after 11 years of transition and infrastructure preparation, the capital of North Maluku Province was moved to Sofifi, located on Halmahera Island, which is the largest island.Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin
Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin (1738–1805), also known as Prince Nuku or Sultan Nuku, was a sultan of Tidore. He is also a National Hero of Indonesia.Persikota Tidore
Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Kota Tidore is an Indonesian football club based in Tidore. Their home stadium is Gelora Nuku.Sae Island
Sae Island is the northernmost island within the Western Islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. It is located just north-west of the Kaniet Islands, under which it is often subsumed, although the two are distinct. Another name for the Kaniet(-Sae) Islands is "Anchorite Islands".The first sighting by Europeans of Sae Island was by the Spanish navigator Iñigo Órtiz de Retes on 21 August 1545 when on board of the carrack San Juan tried to return from Tidore to New Spain.Schouten Islands (Papua New Guinea)
The Schouten Islands are a group of six small volcanic islands in the province of East Sepik in Papua New Guinea, north of the island of New Guinea. The group is also called Eastern Schouten Islands or Le Maire Islands to separate it from unrelated Schouten Islands in Indonesia. The combined land area is approximately 50 km2 (19 sq mi).
The Schouten Islands includes the following islands:
Bam, also known as Biem Island - active volcano – last eruption 1960. The most recent eruption occurred 14 January, 2018.
Blup Blup, volcano.
Kadovar, volcano – possible but unconfirmed eruption c. 1700, and a confirmed one in 2018
Wei, also known as Vial IslandThe first recorded sighting by Europeans of the Eastern Schouten Islands was by the Spanish navigator Iñigo Órtiz de Retes on 21 July 1545 when on board of the carrack San Juan tried to return from Tidore to New Spain. The group is named after Willem Schouten, who visited the island group in 1616, before visiting and giving the same name to the Schouten Islands off the northwest coast of New Guinea, in what is now Indonesia.Seram Island
Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island of Maluku province of Indonesia, despite Ambon Island's historical importance. It is located just north of smaller Ambon Island and a few other surrounding islands, such as Haruku, Geser, Nusalaut, Banda and Saparua.Sultanate of Ternate
The Sultanate of Ternate is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia, established by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257. It reached its Golden Age during the reign of Sultan Baabullah (1570–1583) and encompassed most of the eastern part of Indonesia and a part of southern Philippines. Ternate was a major producer of cloves and a regional power from the 15th to 17th centuries.
The dynasty founded by Baab Mashur Malamo continues to the present, as does the Sultanate itself, although it no longer holds any political power.Sultanate of Tidore
Sultanate of Tidore (Indonesian: Kesultanan Tidore, sometimes Kerajaan Tidore) was a sultanate in Southeast Asia, centered on the Spice Islands of Tidore, a rival of Sultanate of Ternate for control of the spice trade.
The Sultanate of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of New Guinea. In 1605 war broke out with neighbouring Ternate. Tidore had established a loose alliance with the Portuguese in the seventeenth century who had several forts on the island. Ternate had allied with Dutch traders.Tidore established a loose alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain had several forts on the island. While there was much mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards, for Tidore the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting incursions by their Dutch enemy on Ternate, as well as their Dutch ally, that had a fort on that island.
Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore and Ternate in 1663, Tidore became one of the most independent kingdoms in the region, resisting direct control by Dutch East India Company (VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (r. 1657–1689), the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional periphery. As a result, he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on the Dutch for military help in governing the kingdom, as Ternate frequently did.
Tidore remained an independent kingdom, albeit with frequent Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpatie) to proceed in its territories. This program, intended to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery.Tambora language
Tambora is the poorly attested non-Austronesian (Papuan) language of the Tambora culture of central Sumbawa, in what is now Indonesia, that was wiped out by the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. It was the westernmost known Papuan language, and was relatively unusual among such languages in being the language of a maritime trading state, though contemporary Papuan trading states were also found off Halmahera in Ternate and Tidore.Ternate
Ternate is the largest city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was the capital of the former Sultanate of Ternate and de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before being moved to Sofifi in 2010. It is off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The city has a population of just under 200,000 on some 111.39 km2.Like its neighbouring island, Tidore, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shape. The two are ancient Islamic sultanates (Ternate's Sultanate and Tidore's) with a long history of bitter rivalry. The islands were once the world's single major producer of cloves, a commodity that allowed their sultans to become amongst the wealthiest and most powerful of all sultans in the Indonesian region. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the "Spice Islands" of Maluku.
The "Ternate Essay" was a pioneering account of evolution by natural selection written on the island by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 and famously sent to Charles Darwin. Darwin at once responded by publishing Wallace's essay alongside his own accounts of the theory.Ternate language
Ternate or Ternatese (bahasa Ternate, bahasa Tarnate) is a North Halmahera language of Indonesia. It is spoken on the island of Ternate, and some neighboring areas in North Maluku, including Halmahera, Hiri, Kayoa and the Bacan Islands. Historically, it served as the primary language of the Sultanate of Ternate, famous for its role in the spice trade.
This language should not be confused with Ternate Malay, a local Malay-based creole which it has heavily influenced. Ternate serves as the first language of many indigenous Ternateans, while Ternate Malay is employed as a means of interethnic and trade communication.The Island Princess
The Island Princess is a late Jacobean tragicomedy by John Fletcher, initially published in the first Beaumont and Fletcher folio of 1647.Tidore language
Tidore is a North Halmahera language of Indonesia. The language is centered on the island of Tidore, but it is also spoken in some areas of the neighbouring Halmahera. A Papuan language, it is unlike most languages in Indonesia which belong to the Austronesian language family. It, and the similar Ternate language, are reported to be related to languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula, West Papua.It is closely related to Ternate, of which it is sometimes considered a dialect.West Papuan languages
The West Papuan languages are a proposed language family of about two dozen Papuan languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula (Vogelkop or Doberai Peninsula) of far western New Guinea, the island of Halmahera and its vicinity, spoken by about 220,000 people in all.
The best known West Papuan language is Ternate (50,000 native speakers) of the island of the same name, which is a regional lingua franca and which, along with neighboring Tidore, were the languages of the rival medieval Ternate and Tidore sultanates, famous for their role in the spice trade.
Regencies and cities of North Maluku
|North Maluku province|