Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. is an American ticket sales and distribution company based in Beverly Hills, California with operations in many countries around the world. In 2010 it merged with Live Nation under the name Live Nation Entertainment (NYSELYV).[1]

The company's ticket sales are fulfilled digitally or at its two main fulfillment centers located in Charleston, West Virginia, and Pharr, Texas for both primary and secondary markets. Ticketmaster's clients include venues, artists and promoters. Clients control their events and set ticket prices, and Ticketmaster sells tickets that the clients make available to them.

Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc.
IndustryLive Entertainment
Arizona, U.S.
FoundersAlbert Leffler
Peter Gadwa
Jerry Nelson
Area served
Key people
Michael Rapino (CEO)
Jared Smith (President of Ticketmaster North America)
Mark Yovich (President of Ticketmaster International)
ProductsTicketing technology
Ticket sales
Ticket resales
Distribution of event tickets and information
Support of venue renovation
RevenueSold 142 million+ tickets valued at $8 billion in 2007
Number of employees
ParentLive Nation Entertainment


Ticketmaster was founded in Phoenix, Arizona in 1976[2] by Peter Gadwa, a computer programmer, Albert Leffler, a box office specialist, as well as Gordon Gunn III, Thomas Hart Jr., Dan Reeter and Jerry Nelson.[3][4] The company originally licensed computer programs and sold hardware for ticketing systems before switching to computerized ticketing in 1982. Its first ticketed concert was Electric Light Orchestra, held at the University of New Mexico.[5][4]

InterActiveCorp years

In 1998, USA Networks Inc., later named InterActiveCorp (IAC), purchased a majority stake in Ticketmaster.[6] That same year, the company merged with CitySearch and was renamed Ticketmaster Online-CitySearch.[7] In May 2000, Ticketmaster Online-CitySearch acquired TicketWeb Inc., a ticket vendor that sold tickets online and over the phone.[8] In 2003, IAC repurchased the remaining Ticketmaster stock that it had previously sold off.[9]

In September 2006, Ticketmaster President Sean Moriarty told NPR that Ticketmaster had lobbied several states to enact laws that would limit the ticket resale market to authorized companies. Economists worried these laws would harm competition, but Moriarty expressed the need to reduce corrupt scalpers and counterfeit tickets.[10]

In January 2008, Ticketmaster acquired Paciolan Inc., a developer of ticketing system applications and hosted ticketing systems, after litigation over the potential breach of antitrust laws.[11] Also in January, Ticketmaster acquired the UK-based secondary ticket marketplace, Getmein.com.[12]

IAC spun off Ticketmaster as its own company in the summer of 2008.[13] Later in 2008, Ticketmaster acquired Front Line Management, an artist management firm that worked with artists such as Aerosmith, Christina Aguilera and Jimmy Buffett.[14] Front Line CEO Irving Azoff became CEO of the new company, which was renamed Ticketmaster Entertainment.[15]

Live Nation merger

In February 2009, Ticketmaster entered into an agreement to merge with event promoter Live Nation to form Live Nation Entertainment.[16] The deal was cleared by the U.S. Justice Department in January 2010 under the condition that the company sell Paciolan to Comcast Spectacor or another firm, and license its software to Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), its biggest competitor.[17] The new company, which would be called Live Nation Entertainment, would also be subject to provisions for 10 years that prevented it from retaliating against venues that partnered with competing ticketing firms.[17] In 2018, the United States Department of Justice began reviewing complaints by AEG that claimed the company had engaged in anti-competitive practices. As of April 2018, the Department of Justice hadn’t released comments on its investigation.[18]

Growth and acquisitions

In 2015, Ticketmaster acquired Front Gate Tickets, a music festival ticketing service that provided services for festivals including Lollapalooza and Austin City Limits.[19] The same year, the company acquired Universe, a DIY ticketing platform.[19] In 2017, TicketWeb, Ticketmaster's self-service ticketing platform, acquired Strobe Labs, a marketing platform that allows users to market to fans through social media.[20]

Products and services

Ticketmaster sells tickets that its clients make available to them.[21] In 2009, Ticketmaster released a digital ticketing system that required customers to prove their identity prior to purchase. The company believed this would help circumvent brokers and scalpers.[22]


The face value of Ticketmaster tickets is determined by the artist or client.[23] In addition to the face value price, venues and Ticketmaster add fees to pay for their services.[24]

Typically, fees added to a ticket’s face value have included:[25][26]

  • Service charge – Ticketmaster’s charge for its service.
  • Facility charge – Charge added by the venue.
  • Shipping, convenience and processing charges – Charges added dependent on the ticket delivery method and credit card processing fees.

Fee amounts vary between events and are dependent on the venue, available delivery methods, and preferences of the artist.[23] Some economists and activist groups have claimed that high ticket prices are due to a lack of competition within the music industry.[24][27]

A class action lawsuit was filed against Ticketmaster in 2003, alleging that it did not fully disclose UPS and order processing fees added to tickets sold online. The case settlement was approved in 2015 and Ticketmaster issued vouchers and discount codes to fans who purchased tickets online between 1999 and 2013.[28][29] In a related case, Ticketmaster filed suit against its liability insurance carrier, Illinois Union Insurance Company, a subsidiary of ACE Limited (NYSEACE), in 2010 for failing to aid in its defense in the 2003 suit.[30]

Resale market

In January 2008, Ticketmaster acquired TicketsNow, a ticket reseller in the United States, for $265 million.[31]

In a 2009 article by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), Ticketmaster argued that legislation was needed in Ontario to protect fans from scalpers and unauthorized ticket brokers saying, "You and I both know there is a thriving ticket-broker industry ... so the law is really a fiction ... We very strongly feel the law needs to be modernized to reflect the reality of internet commerce. By keeping a price cap in place, you're really just driving the [resale] business into the shadows.” [32] That same year, musician Bruce Springsteen complained of a conflict of interest between Ticketmaster and TicketsNow after fans were directed to TicketsNow once tickets to his concert sold out on Ticketmaster.com. Irving Azoff, Ticketmaster CEO at the time, released an apology and stated that the TicketsNow link would no longer be shown for Springsteen’s concerts.[33][34]

In September 2018, the Toronto Star reported that Ticketmaster was not enforcing ticket limit rules on its resale platform, TradeDesk.[35] Ticketmaster denied the allegations, saying it would examine its resale policies on TradeDesk, and that it “never allows ticket scalpers to buy tickets ahead of fans.”[36] One month later, a group of customers filed a class action lawsuit against Ticketmaster.[37]


Ticketmaster has partnerships with venues, professional sports leagues, musical acts and theatre tours [38][39][40] in the United States and internationally.[41] Ticketmaster has partnered with musical acts such as Taylor Swift,[42] and the Trans-Siberian Orchestra,[43] and theatre productions such as Hamilton and Harry Potter and the Cursed Child.[38][44]

Ticketmaster has been the ticketing provider for the National Hockey League (NHL) and the National Basketball Association (NBA).[45][46] In 2008, Ticketmaster entered into an agreement with the National Football League (NFL) to manage its resale market on NFL TicketExchange.[47]

In 2017, Ticketmaster announced it would open the TicketExchange platform to allow the sale and validation of tickets on third-party websites, including StubHub.[47]


Issues and hearings regarding anti-competitive practices

In 1994-1995 LA Times reporter Chuck Philips broke a series of stories [48] that helped trigger a federal anti-trust investigation.[49] In 1994 Ticketmaster's tickets often had surcharges as large as 25% of the base ticket price. Moreover, an unwanted and unnecessary “tying” of services (such as parking and “conveniences”) to the cost of the concert placed an unfair burden on customers and constituted an anti-competitive practice according to a legal analysis [50] of investigative pieces by Philips.[51][52][53][54][55][50][56]

The grunge band Pearl Jam petitioned the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice, complaining that Ticketmaster adopted monopolistic practices and refused to lower service fees for the band's tickets [49] Pearl Jam wanted to keep ticket prices under $20.00,[2] with service charges no greater than $1.80. Fred Rosen of Ticketmaster refused and because Ticketmaster had exclusive contracts with many of the large venues in the United States they threatened to take legal action if those contracts were broken. Pearl Jam was forced to create from scratch its own outdoor stadiums in rural areas to perform. Pearl Jam's efforts to organize a tour without the ticket giant collapsed which Pearl Jam said was further evidence of Ticketmaster's monopoly. An analysis of Philips' investigative series [52][53][54][55][56][57] in well known legal monograph [50] concluded that it was hard to imagine a legitimate reason for their exclusive contracts with venues and contracts which covered such a lengthy period of time. The authors said, “The pervasiveness of Ticketmaster's exclusive agreements, coupled with their excessive duration and the manner in which they are procured, supported a finding that Ticketmaster had engaged in anticompetitive conduct under section 2 of the Sherman Act.” Members of Pearl Jam testified on Capitol Hill on June 30 of 1994. Pearl Jam alleged that Ticketmaster used anti-competitive and monopolistic practices to gouge fans. Congressman Dingell (D-Mich.) after Pearl Jam's testimony before congress wrote a bill requiring full disclosure to prevent Ticketmaster from burying escalating service fees. Pearl Jam's manager said he was gratified that Congress saw the problem as a national issue.[58]

Later in the year the Justice Department opened an investigation into anti-competitive practices in the ticket industry. It continued for close to a year until July 6 of 1995 when the Justice Department abruptly closed its antitrust probe in a two-sentence press release.[59] Chuck Philips was told by sources close to the case that the investigation was closed due to a combination of shortage of resources and the case being difficult and having uncertain prospects.[59] A spokesman for Pearl Jam told the LA Times Chuck Philips, “Unfortunately, those who will be most hurt by the Justice Department’s cave-in are the consumers of live entertainment…The consumers are the ones who ultimately pay for the lack of choice in the marketplace.”

Prominent lawsuits

On April 28, 1997, Ticketmaster sued Microsoft over its Sidewalk service for allegedly deep linking into Ticketmaster's site. The suit was settled after a two-year legal battle in which Ticketmaster claimed that linking to specific pages on an Internet site without permission was an unfair practice.

In 2003, the jam band The String Cheese Incident and its associated booking group, SCI Ticketing, sued Ticketmaster arguing that Ticketmaster's exclusive use contracts at most US venues was a breach of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. This lawsuit was settled in 2004 with no publicity of the settlement terms.[60]

Ticketmaster Data Breach

On June 27, 2018 it was reported that up to 40,000 British customers may have had their credit card data stolen in a security breach of Ticketmaster systems.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67]

Ticketmaster eventually confirmed hacking of their systems affected UK transactions between February 2018 and 23 June 2018, and 'International Customers' who purchased/attempted to purchase tickets between September 2017 and 23 June 2018[68] via a web skimming attack.[69]

See also


  1. ^ Pelofsky, Jeremy; Adegoke, Yinka (25 January 2010). "Live Nation, Ticketmaster merge; agree to U.S. terms". Reuters.
  2. ^ a b "The Ticketmaster Racket". Stuff They Dont Want You to Know. 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  3. ^ Lewis, Christina S. N. (2007-11-23). "Ticket Master's Place". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  4. ^ a b "Rival to Ticketron : Ticketmaster Emerging as Force in L.A." Los Angeles Times. 1985-01-31. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  5. ^ Tribune, Chicago. "Ticketmaster". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  6. ^ Reuters; Reuters (1998-03-24). "USA picks up Ticketmaster". Variety. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  7. ^ Bicknell, Craig (1998-08-13). "CitySearch Joins Ticketmaster". Wired. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  8. ^ Journal, Bruce OrwallStaff Reporter of The Wall Street. "Ticketmaster Buys TicketWeb In Bid to Diversify Offerings". WSJ. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  9. ^ Hansell, Saul (2003-05-06). "TECHNOLOGY; USA Interactive Is Acquiring LendingTree in Stock Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  10. ^ "Ticketmaster Targets Secondary Market". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  11. ^ Yahoo! Business Form 10-Q for Ticketmaster Archived December 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ White, Dominic (29 January 2008). "Ticketmaster moves into UK concert resales". Telegraph.co.uk.
  13. ^ "IAC to spin off ticket seller". 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  14. ^ Buskirk (2008-10-23). "Ticketmaster Acquires Majority of Front Line Management". Wired. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  15. ^ "Ticketmaster takes stake in Front Line". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  16. ^ Live Nation and Ticketmaster Agree to Merge New York Times. 10 February 2009.
  17. ^ a b Sisario (2010-01-25). "Justice Dept. Clears Ticketmaster-Live Nation Merger". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  18. ^ Sisario, Ben; Bowley, Graham (1 April 2018). "Live Nation Rules Music Ticketing, Some Say With Threats" – via NYTimes.com.
  19. ^ a b "Ticketmaster Acquires Festival Ticketer Front Gate". Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  20. ^ Ellisngson, Annlee. "Ticketmaster buys marketing platform to help clubs engage with fans".
  21. ^ "How To Avoid Online Ticket Sale Fees". 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  22. ^ "Ticketmaster tries to cut out scalpers again – Business – Retail – NBCNews.com". 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  23. ^ a b Roberts, Randall (2009-03-04). "Ticketmaster and Servants: Bands Get Cut of Service Fee". Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  24. ^ a b Conaway, Laura (2009-09-02). "The Economics Of Ticketmaster : Planet Money". NPR. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  25. ^ "Ticketmaster's new blog: 'We get it -- you don't like service fees'". 2010-08-23. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  26. ^ Sisario (2012-05-15). "String Cheese Incident Takes On Ticketmaster". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  27. ^ Randall. "Angry About Tickets? Here's Who To Blame".
  28. ^ Karp, Hannah (2014-06-03). "Ticketmaster Agrees to Tentative Settlement".
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ "Ticketmaster LLC Locks Horns with ACE Group Company Over Errors and Omissions Coverage". 13 January 2011.
  31. ^ Smith, Ethan (2008-01-15). "Ticketmaster Buys Major Reseller". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  32. ^ CBC News Archived March 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Knapton, Sarah (2009-02-05). "Bruce Springsteen 'furious' at Ticketmaster". Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  34. ^ "Bruce Springsteen "Furious" At Ticketmaster, Rails Against Live Nation Merger". Rolling Stone. February 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
  35. ^ "Ticketmaster Has Its Own Secret 'Scalping Program,' Canadian Journalists Report". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  36. ^ "Ticketmaster Responds to Senate Letter Investigating Resale Controversy: Exclusive". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  37. ^ Wang, Amy (2018-10-01). "Ticketmaster Faces Class-Action Lawsuit After Scalping Report". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  38. ^ a b Maddaus, Gene (2017-10-02). "Ticketmaster Says Bot Army Bought 30,000 'Hamilton' Tickets". Variety. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  39. ^ "Ticketmaster To Use Next-Generation Venue Software For The NFL". 2017-10-18.
  40. ^ "Scottish Comic Beats Taylor Swift, Ed Sheeran in Ticketmaster UK Fan Vote For 'Ticket of the Year'". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  41. ^ "Ticketmaster Will Once Again Be the Official Ticketing Partner of SMG's UK Venues". Amplify. 2018-04-30.
  42. ^ "Taylor Swift announces massive 2018 'Reputation' tour". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  43. ^ "Exclusive: Trans-Siberian Orchestra announces 20th-anniversary winter tour". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  44. ^ Fierberg, Ruthie. "How to Buy Tickets to Broadway's Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Parts One and Two".
  45. ^ "Guarding The Gates: NHL Signs Multiyear Extension Of Deal With Ticketmaster". Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  46. ^ "NBA Renews Ticketmaster Deal for Two Years". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  47. ^ a b "StubHub Inks NFL Deal for Digital Tickets, Ticketmaster Integration". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  48. ^ Budnick; Baron, Dean; Josh (June 1, 2011). Ticket Masters: The Rise of the Concert Industry and How the Public Got Scalped. Toronto; Ontario; Canada: ECW Press. p.,353,354,355,356. ISBN 978-1-55022-949-3.
  49. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (June 8, 1994). "Pearl Jam vs. Ticketmaster: Choosing Sides : Legal file: The pop music world is divided over the Seattle band's allegations, which led to a Justice Department investigation into possible anti-competitive practices in the ticket distribution industry". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  50. ^ Philips, Chuck (May 17, 1991). "Ticket Flap: What Price Convenience?: Entertainment: A host of service fees, surcharges and taxes is riling concert-goers--and lawmakers". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  51. ^ a b Philips, chuck (February 7, 1995). "Congress May Get Tickets Measure : Pop music: Spurred by Pearl Jam's crusade, the bill would require ticket vendors to disclose fees". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  52. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (June 30, 1994). "Pearl Jam, Ticketmaster and Now Congress: America's biggest band sent shock waves through the music business when it filed a complaint with the Justice Department about Ticketmaster. Now, Congress is holding a hearing. How'd it all get so far?". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  53. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (June 8, 1994). "Pearl Jam vs. Ticketmaster: Choosing Sides : Legal file: The pop music world is divided over the Seattle band's allegations, which led to a Justice Department investigation into possible anti-competitive practices in the ticket distribution industry". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  54. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (June 17, 1995). "COLUMN ONE : The Ticket King's Path to Power : As Pearl Jam just learned, Ticketmaster's Fred Rosen gets what he wants. His tactics have earned him some foes, but even critics admit he has transformed the industry. Now he's eyeing new realms". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  55. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (9 June 1992). "A Tangle Over Tickets : Ticketmaster, Target of Lawsuits, Says It Offers Broad Service". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  56. ^ Philips, Chuck (May 17, 1991). "Ticket Flap: What Price Convenience? : Entertainment: A host of service fees, surcharges and taxes is riling concert-goers--and lawmakers". LA Times. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  57. ^ Philips, Chuck (August 12, 1994). "Company Town: Bill Would Require Ticket Fee Disclosures : Legislation: Rep. Dingell takes aim at concerns over prices customers pay to get into concerts and sporting events". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  58. ^ a b Philips, Chuck (July 6, 1995). "Pearl Jam "U.S. Drops Ticketmaster Antitrust Probe : Entertainment: Abrupt closure of investigation lifts cloud of uncertainty over firm, catches others in industry off guard". Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  59. ^ "News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
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  68. ^ Priday, Richard (28 June 2018). "The Ticketmaster hack is a perfect storm of bad IT and bad comms". Retrieved 9 December 2018.

External links

AXS (company)

AXS is a digital marketing platform for purchasing tickets for sports and entertainment events in the US, and overseas. It was developed and is operated by Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG) in partnership with Outbox Technologies.


Amatitán is the head of a municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco, and is home to one of the world's largest tequila distilleries.

It is the location of “La Hacienda de San José del Refugio”, a distillery which makes “Tequila Herradura” and “Tequila Jimador” and is the main source of employment for the residents of the town and surrounding communities.

The Town of Amatitán is the administrative center for the "Municipio de Amatitán" which also includes the surrounding communities of Santiaguito, Villa de Cuerámbaro, Chome, La Mata, La Conchilla, El Amarrilo, Agua Fría, Santa Rosa and several other smaller settlements.

Amatitán can be visited from Guadalajara by taking the Tequila Express, a train which runs on Saturdays from Guadalajara to Amatitán, there tourists are offered tours of the local distilleries and the nearby city of Tequila, located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) north of Amatitán, (tickets are 850 pesos, available through the local Chamber of Commerce and TicketMaster locations). Amatitán can also be reached from Guadalajara by car driving north on Mexican Federal Highway 15, it is a drive of about 45 minutes and the road is kept in fairly good shape.

The economy of the municipality of Amatitán, like that of the surrounding areas, relies heavily in the production of tequila beverage. Its agriculture is dominated by the cultivation of the agave plant, which is used to produce the tequila. The climate in Amatitán is hot and dry which suits the agave plant well. There is usually one rainy period during the year that lasts from June through September, when most of the residents grow their other dominant crop, corn, which requires significantly more water. There is virtually no artificial irrigation in the area and most farmers still depend on rainwater for the irrigation of their fields. Some residents also raise cattle and other livestock, mainly for regional consumption. The lifestyle of its inhabitants is mostly of a rural nature and the residents are mostly Catholic. Some commute daily or weekly to Guadalajara for employment. The area is also a source of immigrants to the United States, most of whom settle in California.

Chuck Philips

Charles Alan "Chuck" Philips (born October 15, 1952) is an American writer and investigative journalist. From 1995 to 2008 he worked for the Los Angeles Times, after first freelancing for the newspaper.


Citysearch is an online city guide that provides information about businesses in the categories of dining, entertainment, retail, travel, and professional services in cities throughout the United States. Visitors to each of Citysearch's local city guides will find contact information, maps, driving directions, editorial, and user reviews for the businesses listed. Citysearch is headquartered in West Hollywood, California and is an owned and operated web site of CityGrid Media, which is an operating business of IAC (NASDAQ: IACI). The original office was in Pasadena, California.Citysearch was founded in September 1995 by Jeffrey Brewer, Caskey Dickson, Brad Haaugard, Taylor Wescoatt, and Tamar Halpern. Charles R. Conn was then recruited to lead the new company. The idea, initiative, and seed capital came initially from Bill Gross.In August 1998, Citysearch merged with Ticketmaster Online. In July 1999, Citysearch acquired the competing Sidewalk.com website from Microsoft, and merged the two sites together. In December 1999, Ticketmaster-CitySearch received a $40 million investment from USA Networks, Inc., then controlled by Barry Diller. In 2007, another competitor, Insider Pages was acquired.In June 2010, Citysearch LLC rebranded as CityGrid Media. The flagship product of CityGrid Media is CityGrid, a content and ad network for local. CityGrid Media also owns and operates leading local consumer properties which include Citysearch, Insider Pages, and Urbanspoon.While many local search sites mushroomed in the 21st century, Citysearch's biggest competition comes from the fast-growing Yelp, Inc. In the late 2000s, Yelp was growing at 80% while Citysearch growth remained flat. Local search engines from Bing, Google and Yahoo are also widely used alternatives to finding local businesses on the internet.

Eyes Open Tour

The Eyes Open Tour was a concert tour by the Scottish/Northern Irish alternative rock band Snow Patrol. It was launched in support of the group's 2006 album Eyes Open. The band visited numerous international venues from 2006 through 2007. The tour is the collective name of many smaller tours and festivals Snow Patrol has played in support of their album. The tour officially commenced on 14 February 2006 with a "secret gig" called SG#3.

The tour saw the band visit continents like Europe, North America, Australia and Asia. The band headlined on almost all dates, and various acts supported them throughout. The tour was however marred by cancellations, mainly because of vocalist Gary Lightbody's throat problems and bassist Paul Wilson's shoulder injury. Additionally, other events happened with all other band members but no dates were affected. Drummer Jonny Quinn broke his arm, but no shows were cancelled as friend Graham Hopkins pitched in to take up drumming duties. Keyboardist Tom Simpson was arrested for drug charges, but was released in time for the next concert. Guitarist Nathan Connolly sprained his ankle and foot, but sat through shows till the injury healed. The band visited countries like New Zealand and Mexico for the first time and played their first concert in Southeast Asia during the course of the tour. The Eyes Open Tour also introduced the Tour Reporter feature, where fans were given the chance of covering their local concert.

Snow Patrol finished the tour, which went on for a year and a half, in September 2007 in Australia. The full tour spanned 214 dates and had 37 cancellations.

Grupo CIE

Grupo CIE (Corporacion Interamericana de Entretenimiento. Spanish for: Interamerican Entertainment Corporation) is a Mexican entertainment and media company. It is leader of Latin American entertainment sector, focusing especially on the markets of Hispanic and Portuguese language, including the Latin market of the United States. Grupo CIE is a Latin American amalgam of Live Nation. The company operates various main venues, auditoriums and theme parks in all Latin countries; also it is in charge of promote a great variety of live events, commercial fairs and exhibitions, access the advertising ticket commercialization (including Ticketmaster Mexico and Ticketmaster Brazil), sponsorships, foods, promotional drinks and articles for events and entertainment. Also, the Group participates in the film industry, through the production and distribution of films.

IAC (company)

IAC (InterActiveCorp) is an American holding company, that owns over 150 brands across 100 countries, mostly in media and Internet headquartered in New York City. Joey Levin, who previously led the company's Search & Applications segment, has been the company's Chief Executive Officer since June 2015.

Irving Azoff

Irving Azoff (; born December 12, 1947) is an American entertainment executive and chairman of Full Stop Management, which represents recording artists.

Since September 2013, he has been chairman and CEO of Azoff MSG Entertainment, a venture with The Madison Square Garden Company. Prior to this he served as chairman and CEO of Ticketmaster Entertainment and was executive chairman of Live Nation Entertainment and CEO of Front Line Management. He is also on the board of Starz Inc. and IMG.In 2012, he topped Billboard's Power 100 and was named the most powerful person in the music industry.


LiveDaily was a music and entertainment site owned by Ticketmaster, created in 1998 and seen in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. It provided news updates, tour announcements, and ticketing information relative to Ticketmaster. Its news reports were used by media entities such as MTV News and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. It also provided artist interviews, record and show reviews, and a music fan Internet forum. As of October 2008, livedaily.com claimed to have nearly one million visitors per month.It also included LiveDaily Sessions, a video showcase for touring acts that especially emphasizes upcoming artists.On May 18, 2010, LiveDaily closed their forums, a long-standing staple of the site for undisclosed business reasons. On May 21, 2010, LiveDaily ceased publication, with a message on their website reading, "LiveDaily takes its final bow".On May 24, 2010, LiveDaily's editorial team announced the launch of SoundSpike.com, a publication promising to provide similar content to LiveDaily. The forums from LiveDaily also re-opened at a new domain, AfterLD.com.

Live Nation (events promoter)

Live Nation is an American events promoter and venue operator based in Beverly Hills, California. Formed in 1996 by Robert F. X. Sillerman as SFX Entertainment, the company's business was built around consolidating concert promoters into a national company. In 2000, the company was sold to Clear Channel Communications for $4.4 billion, and operated as Clear Channel Entertainment until 2005, when it was spun off as Live Nation.

In 2010, Live Nation merged with the ticketing company Ticketmaster, forming the larger conglomerate Live Nation Entertainment.

In 2017, Live Nation reported $30 billion in gross transaction value from primary and secondary ticketing. Live Nation Entertainment produces over 29,500 events in 40 countries each year. In 2017, Live Nation hosted over 86 million on-site consumers at its events and also invested $5.6 billion to put on its events that year.

Live Nation Entertainment

Live Nation Entertainment is an American global entertainment company, formed from the merger of Live Nation and Ticketmaster in 2010. It owns, leases, operates, has booking rights for and/or equity interests in a large number of U.S. entertainment venues.

Live Nation UK

Live Nation UK is the United Kingdom subsidiary of Live Nation, formerly the entertainment division of Clear Channel, a major US media conglomerate but now a separate and independent corporation worldwide.

As Clear Channel UK, Live Nation UK acquired the Mean Fiddler organisation and owns 51% of Academy Music Group, giving it a stake in most major music festivals and medium-sized London music venues. It has since merged with ticket sales and distribution company, Ticketmaster to become Live Nation Entertainment.

Pearl Jam

Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in 1990 in Seattle, Washington. Since its inception, the band's line-up has included Eddie Vedder (lead vocals), Mike McCready (lead guitar), Stone Gossard (rhythm guitar), and Jeff Ament (bass guitar). Since 1998, the band has also included drummer Matt Cameron (also of Soundgarden). Boom Gaspar (keyboards) has also been a session/touring member with the band since 2002. Drummers Jack Irons, Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, and Dave Abbruzzese are former members of the band.

Formed after the demise of Gossard and Ament's previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. One of the key bands in the grunge movement of the early 1990s, its members often shunned popular music industry practices such as making music videos or giving interviews. The band also sued Ticketmaster, claiming it had monopolized the concert-ticket market. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame."The band had sold nearly 32 million albums in the United States by 2012, and by 2018, they had sold more than 85 million albums worldwide. Pearl Jam outsold many of its contemporary alternative rock bands from the early 1990s, and is considered one of the most influential bands of the decade. AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine referred to Pearl Jam as "the most popular American rock & roll band of the '90s". Pearl Jam was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017, in its first year of eligibility. They were ranked at number 8 in a reader poll by Rolling Stone magazine in its Top ten live acts of all time issue.

The Great Escape Festival

The Great Escape Festival is a three-day music festival held in Brighton and Hove, England every year in May. It is operated by MAMA Festivals and showcases new music from a variety of genres. The festival was founded in 2006 and roughly hosts 300 bands across 30 venues throughout the city. It has been likened to South by Southwest.There is also a music industry convention section to the event, which is attended by over 3000 delegates. The 2011-2014 conferences have been programmed by the team from music industry publication CMU. Speakers have included Michael Eavis, DJ Shadow, Paul Epworth, and representatives of companies such as Beggars Group, Ticketmaster, PRS for Music, Universal Music Group and Topspin.

The headliner in 2015 was Alabama Shakes. [1]

In addition to the main festival, there is also The Alternative Escape, a further strand of 'unofficial' shows.

Ticket resale

Ticket resale (also known as ticket scalping or ticket touting) is the act of reselling tickets for admission to events. Tickets are bought from licensed sellers and are then sold for a price determined by the individual or company in possession of the tickets. Tickets sold through secondary sources may be sold for less or more than their face value depending on demand, which tends to vary as the event date approaches. When the supply of tickets for a given event available through authorized ticket sellers is depleted, the event is considered "sold out", generally increasing the market value for any tickets on offer through secondary sellers. Ticket resale is common in both sporting and musical events.

Ticket resale is a form of arbitrage that arises when the number demanded at the sale price exceeds the number supplied (that is, when event organizers charge less than the equilibrium prices for the tickets).

During the 19th century, the term scalper was applied to railroad ticket brokers who sold tickets for lower rates.

Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com, Inc.

Ticketmaster Corp., et al. v. Tickets.Com, Inc. was a 2000 case by the United States District Court for the Central District of California finding that deep linking did not violate the Copyright Act of 1976 because it did not involve direct copying. The decision permitted Tickets.com to place deep links to Ticketmaster.Deep linking, hyperlinking to another website's interior pages, was the subject of considerable controversy in the late 1990s and early 2000s because it allowed consumers to bypass a website's advertising-rich homepage. This could lead to significant financial losses in advertising revenue based on page impressions. In early 1997, Ticketmaster filed a lawsuit against Microsoft for unauthorized deep linking to Ticketmaster in its Sidewalk.com website. In February 1999, the case was settled out of court in a non-disclosure agreement that led to Microsoft no longer having deep links to Ticketmaster. In July 1999, Ticketmaster filed a lawsuit against Tickets.com with ten causes of action, including charges that Tickets.com had violated federal copyright laws and violated Ticketmaster's terms and conditions.

In March 2000, ruling on Tickets.com's motion to dismiss U.S. District Judge Harry Lindley Hupp found that deep linking was not prohibited by the Copyright Act because no direct copying had occurred. In August 2000, Hupp denied Ticketmaster's motion for a preliminary injunction against Tickets.com's linking and web crawling. For linking, he wrote that uniform resource locators (URLs) were not copyrightable because they contained only factual and function features, and for web crawling, he wrote that it passed legal muster under the fair use doctrine and did not pose an undue burden on Ticketmaster's servers. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed in a one-paragraph unpublished opinion.


TicketsNow, established in 1999 and based in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, is a marketplace for event tickets.

TicketsNow was named in 2004 and 2006 to the Inc. 500, which includes the top 10% of the published Inc. 5000 index of the fastest-growing privately held companies in the U.S. TicketsNow is a founding member of the National Association of Ticket Brokers (NATB), which promotes ethics in the secondary ticketing marketplace.In February 2008, TicketsNow was acquired by Ticketmaster for $265 million and currently operates as a wholly owned, independently-operated subsidiary.

TicketsNow has a few major competitors. These competitors include Stubhub, TicketNetwork, Seatgeek, Vivid Seats.

Tour promoter

Tour promoters (also known as concert promoters or talent buyers) are the individuals or companies responsible for organizing a live concert tour or special event performance. The tour promoter makes an offer of employment to a particular artist, usually through the artist’s agent or music manager. The promoter and agent then negotiate the live performance contract. The majority of live performance contracts are drawn up using the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) standard contract format known as the AFM Performance Agreement.

Working on a Dream Tour

The Working on a Dream Tour was a concert tour by Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, which began in April 2009 and ended in November 2009. It followed the late January 2009 release of the album Working on a Dream. This was the first full E Street Band tour without founding member Danny Federici, who died during the previous tour in 2008, and the final tour for founding member Clarence Clemons, who died in 2011.

The tour was shorter than a typical Springsteen outing, but for the first time in his career, it placed an emphasis on performing at music festivals, especially in Europe. Even more unlike all his previous tours, the Working on a Dream Tour featured little of his new album. Instead, several trends from the latter stages of the previous year's Magic Tour were carried forward: a focus on topical content, this time the late-2000s recession; a repetition of some of the stage raps and antics; and most visibly, continuation of a 'signs' segment, in which audience members would hold up signs requesting rare Springsteen songs or decades-past oldies and the band would stage (sometimes impromptu) performances of them. The final leg of the tour often featured another first as Springsteen played one of his classic 1970s or 1980s albums all the way through. Critical reaction to the tour's shows was generally positive, although the absence of the new material was noted.

Max Weinberg was not available for parts of the tour due to his bandleader obligations to The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, which was just commencing. His 18-year-old son, Jay Weinberg, became his replacement for parts or all of a number of shows, to a mostly positive reception from the rest of the band, the audience, and critics. The tour also gave Springsteen a chance to bid farewell to two famous venues he had played many shows at – the Philadelphia Spectrum and New Jersey's Giants Stadium.

The tour was a commercial success, grossing over $156 million, being seen by over 1.7 million ticket holders, and finishing as the third-highest-grossing tour in the world for 2009 even though the tour faced some logistical issues. Ticket sales were botched by Ticketmaster, a situation further exacerbated by revelations of their holding seats back for their secondary market TicketsNow. Before long, legislatures and attorneys general of several states, as well as members of the U.S. Congress and federal regulatory agencies, were weighing in on the matter, with various lawsuits, settlements, and proposed laws as the result.

House of Blues
clubs and theatres
(owned venues in italics)
Other venues
(owned venues in italics)
Companies and
Sectors and
Live shows

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