Tianjin ([tʰjɛ́n.tɕín] (listen)), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up (or metro) area, made up of 12 central districts (all but Baodi, Jizhou, Jinghai and Ninghe), was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration (between Chengdu and Rio de Janeiro) and 11th-most populous city proper.
It is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.
In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China. The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of the Bohai Gulf. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan.
The origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn..." (朝发轫于天津兮, zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī). Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor.
The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point. The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center.
During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou (州) in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731. Later it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu (府) before becoming a relay station (驻地) under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.
In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas.
The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Church Our Lady's Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.
In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy(天津武備學堂) for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms. The move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan.:267 The academy was to serve Anhui Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers.:267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenagers as new army officers.:268 Mathematics, practical and technical subjects, sciences, foreign languages, Chinese Classics and history were taught at the school. Exams were administered to students. The instruction for Tianjin Military Academy was copied at the Weihaiwei and Shanhaiguan military schools.:268 The 'maritime defense fund' supplied the budget for the Tianjin Military Academy, which was shared with the Tianjin Naval Academy.:268 The Tianjin Military Academy in 1886 adopted as part of its curriculum the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Among its alumni were Wang Yingkai and 段祺瑞 Duan Qirui. Among its staff was Yinchang.
In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.
In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.
Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tianjin from the Philippines.
Because of the rapid development of industry, commerce and finance, Tientsin was established as a municipality of China in 1927. From 1930 to 1935, Tientsin was the provincial capital of Hopeh, after that re-established as a municipality.
Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.
On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.
On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei's Japan-controlled puppet state. Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.
In the Pingjin Campaign of the Chinese Civil War, the city was captured after 29 hours of fighting. Finally the Communists took over Tianjin on 15 January 1949.
From 1949 to February 1958, Tianjin was a municipality directly under the Central Government. In October 1952, Tanggu New Port officially opened its doors, and the first 10,000-tonne ferry arrived at Newport Pier. In February 1958, due to the "Great Leap Forward" and Tianjin's good industrial foundation, Tianjin was incorporated into Hebei Province and Hebei Province was relocated to Tianjin for eight years. During the period, under the coordination of the State Council, the city of Tianjin implemented a separate policy for central planning, which was independent of Hebei Province. However, a large number of factories and colleges in Tianjin moved to Hebei, adversely affecting Tianjin’s economic development. In January 1967, due to "preparation, preparation for disasters," and concerns that Tianjin would become a battlefield, Hebei Province repatriated the provincial capital to Baoding, and the CPC Central Committee decided that Tianjin should be restored to the central municipality and remain so far. In April 1970, in the event that the Central Government had applied for funding for the construction of the subway, the Tianjin Municipal Government decided to raise funds on its own to establish the project on the basis of the name of the channel, and build it on the basis of the old walled river. In July 1973, five counties including Jixian, Baodi, Wuqing, Jinghai, and Ninghe were formally placed under the jurisdiction of Tianjin.
On July 28, 1976, in the 7.8-strong earthquake that occurred in Tangshan, Tianjin was affected by the earthquake waves and suffered heavy losses. In the city, 24,345 people died and 21,497 were seriously injured. Sixty percent of the city’s buildings were destroyed by the earthquake. Nearly 700,000 people were left homeless. More than 30% of the enterprises and Peking Port Reservoir and Yuqiao Reservoir were seriously damaged. On October 10 of the same year, the Tianjin Underground Railway was opened to traffic. In 1981, Miyun Reservoir, built on the upper reaches of the Haihe River for the use of water for the use of water from Tianjin, used water for the purpose of protecting Beijing and stopped supplying water to Tianjin, resulting in difficulty in the use of water in Tianjin. In the same year, the State Council of the People's Republic of China decided to initiate the project to attract talents to Tianjin to solve the problem of water use in Tianjin.
In 1984, at the beginning of reform and opening up, Tianjin was listed as one of the 14 coastal open cities by the State Council and the economy began to develop rapidly, especially as a symbol of Tianjin Development Zone. However, the overall development speed of Tianjin is still slower than that of special economic zones and other southeast coastal areas. In 1994, Tianjin began its strategic industrial shift to the east and developed the Binhai New Area with the development zone and Tianjin Port as the core. In October 2005, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee was convened. The meeting decided to incorporate the development and opening up of the Binhai New Area into the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” and the national development strategy. In March 2006, the State Council executive meeting positioned Tianjin as an “international port city, a northern economic center, and an ecological city”. Since then, the dispute between the Beijing-Tianjin economic center at the policy level has come to an end. In May of the same year, the State Council approved the Binhai New Area as a national integrated reform pilot area. In June of the same year, the “State Council’s Opinions on Promoting the Development and Opening of the Tianjin Binhai New Area” was announced and clearly stated: “In financial enterprises, financial services, financial markets, and finance Major reforms such as opening up can, in principle, be scheduled to precede the Tianjin Binhai New Area.
In August 2008, China’s first high-speed railway, the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway, with a speed of 350 kilometers per hour was opened. In the same year, as the co-host city of the 29th Olympic Games, Tianjin hosted some football events. In the same year, the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum (also called Summer Davos) began to be established in Tianjin and held every two years. In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin. In 2012, the Tianjin Metro Lines 2, 3, and 9 were completed and open to traffic, and Tianjin Rail Transit was formally networked.
In October 2013, Tianjin hosted the East Asian Games, which was the first time Tianjin hosted an international comprehensive event. In 2014, the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei was officially incorporated into the national strategy. Tianjin was positioned as “National Advanced Manufacturing R&D Base, Northern International Shipping Core Area, Financial Innovation Operation Demonstration Area, and Reform and Opening-up Preceding Area”. In the same year, the first phase of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project passed water, and the water use in Tianjin improved. On February 26, 2015, the Tianjin National Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone was formally established. On April 21, the China (Tianjin) Free Trade Pilot Zone was formally established. On April 27, Tianjin Jincheng Bank, the first private bank in northern China, officially opened its doors. On August 12, a major fire and explosion accident occurred in a dangerous chemical warehouse in Tianjin Port, causing serious casualties and property losses.
Tianjin is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, looking out to the provinces Shandong and Liaoning across those waters, bordered by Beijing 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by Hebei. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 square kilometres (4,579.41 square miles). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 kilometres (706.80 miles) of land border. It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).
The Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Tianjin features a four-season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia (Köppen BSk bordering on Dwa), with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.90 °C (55.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 511 millimetres (20.1 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the semi-arid zone, with parts of the municipality being humid continental (Köppen BSk/Dwa, respectively).
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).
In May 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities.
Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste".
|Administrative divisions of Tianjin|
|Division code||Division||Area in km2||Total population 2010||Urban area
|Subdistricts||Towns||Townships||Ethnic townships||Residential communities||Villages|
In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district. At the end of 2017, the total population of Tianjin is 15.57 million.
The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.
The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".
Tianjin's GDP reached 1.572 trillion yuan in 2014, an increase of 10.0 percent over 2013. The city of Tianjin recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $17,126, followed by Beijing with $16,278 and Shanghai with $15,847.
|Skyscrapers in Tianjin||Meters||Feet|
|Goldin Finance 117||597.00||1,958.66|
|Tianjin World Financial Center||336.9||1,105.32|
|Yujiapu Administrative Services Center||299.45||982.45|
|Bohai Bank Tower||270||885.83|
|5th Taian Dao||253.40||831.36|
Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking. EADS Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ￥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB￥62,403.
As one of the first state-level economic and technological development zones, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) was founded on December 6, 1984, with the approval of the State Council. It enjoys relevant state preferential policies with the major task of attracting domestic and foreign investment to develop high and new technology oriented modern industries. As an affiliated organ of the Tianjin Municipal Government, the Administrative Commission of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area exercises unified administration of TEDA on behalf of the Tianjin Municipal Government and enjoys provincial-level administrative and economic management rights.
Tianjin Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1 m2. A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone.
Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China.
Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone is the largest free trade zone in northern China as well as the only free trade zone in northern China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km (19 mi) from Tianjin city proper, less than 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the wharf and only 38 km (24 mi) away from Tianjin Binhai International Airport.
Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information.
A world-level heavy and chemical industry base and harbor; an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a world-class demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).
Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast.
Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.
Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing-Tianjin City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.
|Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.|
At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural. Tianjin has recently shifted to rapid population growth, its population has reached 14.72 million as of 2013 end.
|Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census|
Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million. Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts on nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.
Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin, Tianjin Plus and Business Tianjin, mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.
The first German newspaper in northern China, Tageblatt für Nordchina, was published in Tianjin.
In 1912 Tianjin had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tianjin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin published in Tianjin included China Critic, Peking and Tientsin Times, The China Times, Tageblatt für Nordchina, L'Echo de Tientsin, China Tribune, Ta Kung Pao (L'Impartial), Min Hsing Pao, and Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao (Tsientsin Daily News). Newspapers from Beijing published in Tianjin included Pei Ching Jih Pao, Peking Daily News, and Le Journal de Peking.
More and more, China's leading Internet information providers (usually located in Beijing), including social network Sina Weibo, Douban and the online video website Sohu, tend to relocate their censorship departments to Tianjin, where labor costs are cheaper than Beijing, as censorship is a kind of labour-intensive work. In fact, Tianjin has become the censorship capital of Chinese Internet.
The city has many sights; its streetscapes – an assemblage of historic nineteenth - and early twentieth-century European architecture, juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China – are its most engrossing attraction. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection, and the shopping opportunities, especially for antiques, just about justify a day-trip from the capital, an hour away by train.
In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of a British ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River, were self-contained European fantasy worlds: the French built elegant châteaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, after which the foreigners levelled the walls around the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.
The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. Unmistakable are the châteaux of the French concession, which now make up the downtown district just south of the river, and the haughty mansions the British built east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of stern German constructions.
Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA:
People from Tianjin speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua or Standard Chinese.
Tianjin is famous for its stand up comedy and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng, a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng. Tianjin's patented brand of stand-up also includes the use of rhythmic bamboo clappers "Kuaiban".
Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurines which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites, which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.
On September 28, 2015, the Juilliard School in Manhattan, New York City announced a major expansion into Tianjin during a visit by China's first lady, Peng Liyuan, the institution's first such full-scale foray outside the United States, with plans to offer a master's degree program.
Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (Chinese: 粗; pinyin: cū), smooth (simplified Chinese: 细; traditional Chinese: 細; pinyin: xì), and high (Chinese: 高; pinyin: gāo). Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (Chinese: 八大碗; pinyin: Bādà wǎn), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes, and the Four Great Stews (Chinese: 四大扒; pinyin: sì dà bā), actually referring to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.
The four delicacies of Tianjin include Goubuli baozi, Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua (Chinese: 十八街麻花; pinyin: shíbā jiē máhuā), Erduoyan Zhagao (Chinese: 耳朵眼炸糕; pinyin: erduoyǎn zhà gāo) and Maobuwen Jiaozi (Chinese: 猫不闻饺子; pinyin: māo bù wén jiǎozi). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Subao of Shitoumenkan and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin in the aspect of cuisine.
Tianjin Binhai International Airport is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing, currently under construction and to be completed by late 2019.
Tianjin Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin Binhai International Airport has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin Binhai International Airport.
Tianjin port is the world's top-level and China's largest artificial deep water harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks fifth in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing.
Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China & Asia. Constructed in 2006, this marked a return of the tram to Tianjin, which once had an extensive standard steel-wheeled tramway network. The original Tianjin tram network was constructed by a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first citywide tramway system in China. It closed in 1972.
The Tianjin Metro is formerly operated by two companies, Tianjin Metro General Corporation and Tianjin Binhai Mass Transit Development Company. However, in 2017, the two companies merged as Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation. They are currently under heavy expansion from five to nine lines. Six lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area. As of April 2019, the entire network of Tianjin Metro has 155 stations and 6 lines.
Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track was 7.4 kilometres (5 miles). The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. The original line is now part of Line 1 of the new metro system. It was re-opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 km (16.272 mi) and there are a total of 22 stations. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 was completed in 2012 and the two lines are now in operation. Several new metro lines are planned.
There was two rapid transit operators in Tianjin. In 2017, the two companies merged as Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation.
There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (simplified Chinese: 旺道庄; traditional Chinese: 旺道莊; pinyin: Wàngdàozhuāng). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (simplified Chinese: 老龙头; traditional Chinese: 老龍頭; pinyin: Lǎolóngtóu) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.
Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and Binhai Railway Station and Binhai North Railway Station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.
The following rail lines go through Tianjin:
The inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001～C2298:
The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.
There were over 900 bus lines in the city as of 2005.
Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China era (1912-1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four cardinal directions.
Tianjin has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.
Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (Chinese: 道; literally: 'avenue'), xian (simplified Chinese: 线; traditional Chinese: 線; literally: 'line'). These are most often used for highways and through routes. The terms lu (Chinese: 路; literally: 'road'). Jie (Chinese: 街; literally: 'street') are rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (simplified Chinese: 经; traditional Chinese: 經; literally: 'avenue') roads and wei (simplified Chinese: 纬; traditional Chinese: 緯; literally: 'avenue') roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.
The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:
The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:
Residents of Tianjin participate in indigenous religions, such as the veneration of the goddess Mazu. In addition, Tianjin has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion, a Catholic St. Joseph's Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church). A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists. According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 1.51% of the city's population. Tianjin has been described as a historically "strong center" of Islam in China. Northwestern Tianjin is traditionally the location of the Muslim quarter of the city, where they have lived for centuries near the city's huge Great Mosque, Qingzhen si, founded in 1703. Other mosques include the Dahuoxiang Mosque.
Sports teams based in Tianjin include: Chinese Super League
China Women Volleyball League
The 1995 World Table Tennis Championships were played in town.
Together with Beijing, Tianjin had been for many centuries considered a center for traditional Chinese martial arts. Many past and present masters of arts such as Bajiquan, Pigua Zhang, Xing Yi Quan, Bagua Zhang and others lived or are living in the city. The districts most famous for martial arts in the city are Hong Qiao and Nankai, and martial artists abound in public green spaces such as Xigu Park and the Tianjin Water Park.
Under the National Ministry of Education:
Under the municipal government:
Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:
Under the government of Hebei Province:
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
The 1995 World Table Tennis Championships were held in Tianjin from May 1 to May 14, 1995.2015 Tianjin explosions
On 12 August 2015, a series of explosions killed 173 people and injured hundreds of others at a container storage station at the Port of Tianjin. The first two explosions occurred within 30 seconds of each other at the facility, which is located in the Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China. The second explosion was far larger and involved the detonation of about 800 tonnes of ammonium nitrate (336 tons TNT equivalent). Fires caused by the initial explosions continued to burn uncontrolled throughout the weekend, resulting in eight additional explosions on August 15.
The cause of the explosions was not immediately known, but an investigation concluded in February 2016 that an overheated container of dry nitrocellulose was the cause of the initial explosion.The final casualty report was 165 deaths, 8 missing, and 798 non-fatal injuries.Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway
The Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway (simplified Chinese: 京津城际铁路; traditional Chinese: 京津城際鐵路; pinyin: Jīng-Jīn chéngjì tiělù) is a passenger-only high-speed rail that runs 117 km line (72.7 statute miles) between Beijing and Tianjin. The Chinese government built the line to accommodate trains traveling at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (217 mph), and currently carries CRH high-speed trains running speeds up to 330 km/h (205 mph).
When the line opened on August 1, 2008, it set the record for the fastest conventional train service in the world by top speed, and reduced travel time between the two largest cities in northern China from 70 to 30 minutes. A second phase of construction extended this line from Tianjin to Yujiapu railway station in the Binhai New Area was opened on September 20, 2015.The line is projected to approach operating capacity in the first half of 2016. Anticipating this, a second parallel line, Beijing–Binhai intercity railway, commenced construction on December 29, 2015. This new railway will run from Beijing Sub-administrative Center railway station to Binhai railway station via Baodi and Tianjin Binhai International Airport, along a new route to the northeast of the Beijing–Tianjin ICR. (This line use the same track as Beijing-Tangshan intercity railway between Beijing Sub-administrative Center railway station and Baodi)FAW Group
FAW Group Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changchun, Jilin, China. Its principal products are automobiles; buses; light, medium, and heavy-duty trucks; and auto parts. FAW became China's first automobile manufacturer when it unveiled the nation's first domestically produced passenger car, the Hong Qi, in 1958.FAW is one of the "Big Four" Chinese automakers alongside Changan Automobile, Dongfeng Motor, and SAIC Motor. In 2014, the company ranked third in terms of output making 2.7 million whole vehicles.The company has three publicly traded subsidiaries: FAW Car Co., Ltd. (SZSE: 000800), Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co., Ltd. (SZSE: 000927), and Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co., Ltd. (SSE: 600742).Goldin Finance 117
Goldin Finance 117, also known as China 117 Tower, (Chinese: 中国117大厦) is a skyscraper under construction in Tianjin, China. The tower is expected to be 597 m (1,959 ft) with 117 stories. Construction began in 2008, and the building was scheduled to be completed in 2014, becoming the second tallest building in China, surpassing the Shanghai World Financial Center. Construction was suspended in January 2010, but resumed in 2011, with completion estimated in 2020. The building was topped out on September 8, 2015, yet it is still currently under construction.Port of Tianjin
The Port of Tianjin (Tianjin Gang, Chinese: 天津港; pinyin: tiānjīn gǎng), formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang" (Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; literally: 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.Tianjin Port handled 500 million tonnes of cargo and 13 million TEU of containers in 2013, making it the world's fourth largest port by throughput tonnage and the ninth in container throughput. The port trades with more than 600 ports in 180 countries and territories around the world. It is served by over 115 regular container lines. run by 60 liner companies, including all the top 20 liners. Expansion in the last two decades has been enormous, going from 30 million tonnes of cargo and 490,000 TEU in 1993 to well beyond 400 million tonnes and 10 million TEU in 2012. Capacity is still increasing at a high rate, with 550–600 Mt of throughput capacity expected by 2015.
The port is part of the Binhai New Area district of Tianjin Municipality, the main special economic zone of northern China, and it lies directly east of the TEDA. The Port of Tianjin is at the core of the ambitious development program of the BNA and, as part of that plan, the port aims to become the primary logistics and shipping hub of North China.
On 12 August 2015, at least two explosions within 30 seconds of each other occurred at a container storage station at the Port of Tianjin in the Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China. The cause of the explosions was not immediately known, but initial reports pointed to an industrial accident. Chinese state media said that at least the initial blast was from unknown hazardous materials in shipping containers at a plant warehouse owned by Ruihai Logistics, a firm specializing in handling hazardous materials.Tianjin Airlines
See Grand China Air for the holding company of Hainan Airlines.Tianjin Airlines (Chinese: 天津航空; pinyin: Tiānjīn Hángkōng —formerly Grand China Express Air) is an airline headquartered in Tianjin Binhai International Airport passenger terminal building, Dongli District, Tianjin, China, operating domestic scheduled passenger and cargo flights out of Tianjin Binhai International Airport.Tianjin Binhai International Airport
Tianjin Binhai International Airport (IATA: TSN, ICAO: ZBTJ) is an airport located in Dongli District, Tianjin. It is one of the major air cargo centers in the People's Republic of China.
It is the hub airport for Tianjin Airlines, established in 2004, and privately owned Okay Airways, as well as a focus city for Air China.
In 2017, Tianjin Binhai International Airport handled 21,005,001 passengers, a growth of 24.5% over 2016, making it the 19th busiest airport in China.
The airport is also the site of the Airbus A320 final assembly line which started operations in 2008, and Airbus A330 Completion and Delivery Center which was completed by the end of 2017.
In 2018, Hainan Airlines started operating flights to Vancouver, making it the first ever route from Tianjin to a destination outside of Asia. The route ended in January 2019.Tianjin CTF Finance Centre
Tianjin CTF Finance Centre is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Tianjin, China. Construction started in 2013 and it is expected to be completed in 2018. When completed, the tower will become the second tallest building in Tianjin after Goldin Finance 117. It is located in the outer district of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area.Tianjin Health Industry Park
The Tianjin Health Industry Park is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is currently part of the International Tennis Federation (ITF) Women's Circuit. It was previously part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour in 2014. It has been held annually in Tianjin, China since 2014.Tianjin Massacre
The Tientsin Massacre (Chinese: 天津教案; pinyin: Tiānjīn Jiào'àn; literally: 'Tianjin Religion Case'), one of the most important "missionary incidents" of the late Qing dynasty, involved attacks on French Catholic priests and nuns, violent belligerence from French diplomats, and armed foreign intervention in Tianjin (Tientsin) in 1870. The incident marked an end to relative cooperation between foreign powers and the Tongzhi court, and adversely affected the ongoing renegotiation of the Treaties of Tientsin, first signed in 1858.Tianjin Metro
The Tianjin Metro or Tianjin Rail Transit is the rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, which was the second city, after Beijing, in mainland China to operate a subway system. Opened in 1984, the system has 5 operating lines and 113 stations spanning 162.8 km (101.2 mi), but is currently expanding the system. The lines are jointly operated by two rapid transit companies, namely the Tianjin Metro Group Co. Ltd and the Binhai Mass Transit Development Co. Ltd. The former mainly operates lines in the downtown, while the latter operates lines that serve the Binhai New Area and Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA). The two companies merged and regrouped as the Tianjin Rail Transit Group Co. (TRT) in 2017.Tianjin Olympic Center
The Tianjin Olympic Center (simplified Chinese: 天津奥林匹克中心; traditional Chinese: 天津奧林匹克中心; pinyin: Tiānjīn Àolínpǐkè Zhōngxīn), often colloquially referred to as the Water Drop (Chinese: 水滴; pinyin: Shuǐdī), is a sports complex with a multi-use stadium in Tianjin, China. Construction started in August 2003 and was completed in August 2007. Association football clubs Tianjin TEDA F.C. and Tianjin Quanjian F.C. are the tenants of the Tianjin Olympic Centre Stadium.
The stadium hosted games for the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup and Football preliminaries at the 2008 Summer Olympics. It covers 78,000 square meters and has a capacity of 54,696 seats. It as a length of 380 metres (1,250 ft), a width of 270 metres (890 ft), and a height of 53 meters. The stadium is nicknamed "The Water Drop" because the outside of the venue was designed to resemble a drop of water. The stadium cost nearly 1.5 billion Yuan. The architects were AXS Satow.In 2011, the venue hosted a football match between Tianjin TEDA F.C. and the Spanish side Real Madrid.The stadium houses sports facilities, exhibition halls, conference rooms and gyms. It also has the capacity for entertainment and shopping complexes. American singer and recording artist Mariah Carey performed The Elusive Chanteuse Show in the stadium on 17 October 2014 and thus making her as the only international artist to have visited Tianjin.Tianjin TEDA F.C.
Tianjin TEDA Football Club (simplified Chinese: 天津泰达; traditional Chinese: 天津泰達; pinyin: Tiānjīn Tàidá) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Tianjin and their home stadium is the Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium that has a seating capacity of 54,696. Their owners are the TEDA Holding (The name is derived from the initials of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area) a state-owned conglomerate of the People's Republic of China.The club's predecessor was called Tianjin Football Club and they predominantly played in the top tier, where they won several domestic league and cup titles. In 1993, the club was reorganized to become a completely professional football Club. Since then, they have won the 2011 Chinese FA Cup and came runners-up within the 2010 Chinese Super League season. The club is one of the only four clubs that has stayed in the top tier for all fifteen seasons since the establishment of Chinese Super League, the other three being Shandong Luneng, Beijing Guoan and Shanghai Shenhua.
According to Forbes, Tianjin are the 8th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $84 million, and an estimated revenue of $15 million in 2015.Tianjin Tianhai F.C.
Tianjin Tianhai F.C. (Chinese: 天津天海足球俱乐部; pinyin: Tiānjīn Tiānhǎi Zúqiú Jùlèbù; Mandarin pronunciation: [tʰjɛ́n.tɕín.tʰjɛ́n.xài];) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Tianjin and their home stadium is the Tianjin Olympic Center that has a seating capacity of 54,696. The club was formerly owned by Quanjian Nature Medicine. It is currently under the temporary management of the Tianjin Football Association.Tianjin University
Tianjin University (TJU, simplified Chinese: 天津大学; traditional Chinese: 天津大學; pinyin: Tiānjīn Dàxúe) is the first modern higher education institution in China, and now a national university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.
It was established in 1895 as Tientsin University/Imperial Tientsin University (Chinese: 天津北洋西學學堂/天津北洋西学学堂) and later Peiyang University (Beiyang University) (Chinese: 北洋大學堂/北洋大学堂; pinyin: Běiyáng Dàxúetáng). In 1951, after restructuring, it was renamed Tianjin University, and became one of the largest multidisciplinary engineering universities in China. The university was one of the first 16 universities accredited by the nation in 1959. It is also among the first group of institutions of higher learning in the national "211-Project" to which priority is given in construction. In order to carry out the "21st Century Education Revitalizing Action Plan", in late 2000 the Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipality signed an agreement which aims to build Tianjin University into a 1st-class university in the world in the 21st century.Tianjin World Financial Center
The Tianjin Tower, or Jin Tower (Chinese: 津塔; pinyin: Jīntǎ), or Tianjin World Financial Center (Chinese: 天津环球金融中心; pinyin: Tiānjīn Huánqiú Jīnróng Zhōngxīn) is a modern supertall skyscraper located in the Heping District of Tianjin, China, on the banks of the Hai River. The mixed-use tower is 336.9 metres (1,105 ft) tall and contains 74 floors above ground and 4 below, with an observation deck at 305.2 metres (1,001 ft). The area of the glass unitized curtain wall, manufactured by Jangho Group, is 215,000m². It is notable as the first office building in Tianjin to be equipped with double decker elevators.The skyscraper was topped-out on January 14, 2010 and opened in 2011.
The building is owned by Financial Street Holding, with Jones Lang LaSalle as joint sales and leasing agents.Treaty of Tientsin
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858. They ended the first phase of the Second Opium War, which had begun in 1856. The Qing, Russian, and Second French Empires, the United Kingdom, and the United States were the parties involved. These treaties, counted by the Chinese among the so-called unequal treaties, opened more Chinese ports to foreign trade, permitted foreign legations in the Chinese capital Beijing, allowed Christian missionary activity, and effectively legalized the import of opium.
They were ratified by the Emperor of China in the Convention of Peking in 1860, after the end of the war.Xia Baolong
Xia Baolong (Chinese: 夏宝龙; born December 1952) is a Chinese politician. Originally from Tianjin, Xia began his political career in the Communist Youth League. He served as the vice mayor of Tianjin, governor and Communist Party Secretary of Zhejiang province. Since 2018, he has served as a vice chairman of the 13th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and secretary general. He has a doctoral degree in Economics.
/tʰiɛn˨˩ tɕin˨˩/ (locally)
|Yale Romanization||Tìnjèun or Tīnjēun|
|IPA||[tʰíːn.tsɵ̂n] or [tʰíːn.tsɵ́n]|
|Average max. and min. temperatures in °F|
|Precipitation totals in inches|
|Climate data for Tianjin (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.3
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−18.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.6||2.0||3.1||4.5||5.9||7.8||11.1||9.4||6.0||4.7||2.9||2.0||61|
|Average relative humidity (%)||57||54||51||50||55||64||75||76||69||64||61||59||61|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||170.1||170.2||202.4||223.8||249.0||226.9||206.4||204.4||205.3||196.1||163.0||157.6||2,375.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||59||59||56||58||60||57||48||53||60||61||57||57||57|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
|Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Tianjin Municipality||天津市||Tiānjīn Shì|
|Heping District||和平区||Hépíng Qū|
|Hedong District||河东区||Hédōng Qū|
|Hexi District||河西区||Héxī Qū|
|Nankai District||南开区||Nánkāi Qū|
|Hebei District||河北区||Héběi Qū|
|Hongqiao District||红桥区||Hōngqiáo Qū|
|Dongli District||东丽区||Dōnglì Qū|
|Xiqing District||西青区||Xīqīng Qū|
|Jinnan District||津南区||Jīnnán Qū|
|Beichen District||北辰区||Běichén Qū|
|Wuqing District||武清区||Wǔqīng Qū|
|Baodi District||宝坻区||Bǎodǐ Qū|
|Binhai New Area||滨海新区||Bīnhǎi Xīnqū|
|Ninghe District||宁河区||Nínghé Qū|
|Jinghai District||静海区||Jìnghǎi Qū|
|Jizhou District||蓟州区||Jìzhōu Qū|
Places adjacent to Tianjin