Thynias (Ancient Greek: Θυνίας) was a town of ancient Thrace on the coast of the Pontus Euxinus on a promontory of the same name (modern İğneada Burnu),[1] mentioned by numerous ancient authors.[2][3][4][5][6] It was located north of Salmydessus, which was probably at one time in the territories of the Thyni, although Strabo speaks of the district as belonging to the people of Apollonia.[7] According to Pliny the Elder, the town was placed a little to the south of the promontory.[3]

Its site is located near İğneada in European Turkey.[8][9]


  1. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  2. ^ Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 2.2.5.
  3. ^ a b Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 4.11.18.
  4. ^ Strabo. Geographica. vii. p.319, xii. p. 541. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  5. ^ Scymn. 727; Arrian, Periplus Ponti Euxini, p 24; Anon. Per. P. Eux. p. 15; Ptolemy. The Geography. 3.11.4.
  6. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v.
  7. ^ Strabo. Geographica. vii. p. 319. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  8. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 52, and directory notes accompanying.
  9. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Thynias". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 41°53′23″N 28°01′39″E / 41.889787°N 28.027453°E


The Argonautica (Greek: Ἀργοναυτικά, romanized: Argonautika) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from remote Colchis. Their heroic adventures and Jason's relationship with the dangerous Colchian princess/sorceress Medea were already well known to Hellenistic audiences, which enabled Apollonius to go beyond a simple narrative, giving it a scholarly emphasis suitable to the times. It was the age of the great Library of Alexandria, and his epic incorporates his researches in geography, ethnography, comparative religion, and Homeric literature. However, his main contribution to the epic tradition lies in his development of the love between hero and heroine – he seems to have been the first narrative poet to study "the pathology of love". His Argonautica had a profound impact on Latin poetry: it was translated by Varro Atacinus and imitated by Valerius Flaccus; it influenced Catullus and Ovid; and it provided Virgil with a model for his Roman epic, the Aeneid.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Chelae (Bithynia)

Chelae or Chelai (Ancient Greek: Χῆλαι) was a coastal town of ancient Bithynia located on the Pontus Euxinus. It appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana, and in the Periplus Ponti Euxini written by Arrian, who places it 20 stadia east of Thynias and 180 west of the mouth of the Sangarius River.

Its site is located near Cebice in Asiatic Turkey.


Cidyessus (Κιδύησσος) was a city of some importance, west of Ammonia in west-central Phrygia, in the territory of the Setchanli Ova, or Mouse Plain; this large and fertile valley projects far into Phrygia Salutaris, but the city was in Phrygia Pacatiana.Its site has been determined by an inscription to be modern Küçükhüyük in Turkey, west of Afyonkarahisar. The old native name may have been Kydessos, though it is Kidyessos on its coins.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.


Ilybius is a large genus of predatory aquatic beetles in the family Dytiscidae. The genus is native to the Palearctic (including Europe), the Near East, the Nearctic, and North Africa. 70 species has been described from this genus:

Ilybius aenescens Thomson, 1870

Ilybius albarracinensis (Fery, 1986)

Ilybius angustior (Gyllenhal, 1808)

Ilybius anjarum Nilsson, 1999

Ilybius apicalis Sharp, 1873

Ilybius ater (De Geer, 1774)

Ilybius austrodiscors (Larson, 1996)

Ilybius balkei (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius bedeli (Zaitzev, 1908)

Ilybius biguttulus (Germar, 1824)

Ilybius boryslavicus Lomnicki, 1894

Ilybius chalconatus (Panzer, 1796)

Ilybius chishimanus Kôno, 1944

Ilybius churchillensis Wallis, 1939

Ilybius cinctus Sharp, 1878

Ilybius confertus (LeConte, 1861)

Ilybius confusus Aubé, 1838

Ilybius crassus Thomson, 1856

Ilybius dettneri (Fery, 1986)

Ilybius discedens Sharp, 1882

Ilybius discors (LeConte, 1861)

Ilybius erichsoni (Gemminger & Harold, 1868)

Ilybius euryomus (Larson, 1996)

Ilybius fenestratus (Fabricius, 1781)

Ilybius fraterculus LeConte, 1862

Ilybius fuliginosus (Fabricius, 1792)

Ilybius gagates (Aubé, 1838)

Ilybius guttiger (Gyllenhal, 1808)

Ilybius hozgargantae (Burmeister, 1983)

Ilybius hulae (Wewalka, 1984)

Ilybius hypomelas (Mannerheim, 1843)

Ilybius ignarus (LeConte, 1862)

Ilybius incarinatus Zimmermann, 1928

Ilybius jaechi (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius jimzim (Larson, 1996)

Ilybius lagabrunensis (Schizzerotto & Fery, 1990)

Ilybius larsoni (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius lateralis (Gebler, 1832)

Ilybius lenensis Nilsson, 2000

Ilybius lenkoranensis (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius lineellus (LeConte, 1861)

Ilybius meridionalis Aubé, 1837

Ilybius montanus (Stephens, 1828)

Ilybius nakanei Nilsson, 1994

Ilybius neglectus (Erichson, 1837)

Ilybius oblitus Sharp, 1882

Ilybius obtusus Sharp, 1882

Ilybius opacus (Aubé, 1837)

Ilybius ovalis Gschwendtner, 1934

Ilybius pederzanii (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius picipes (Kirby, 1837)

Ilybius pleuriticus LeConte, 1850

Ilybius poppiusi Zaitzev, 1907

Ilybius pseudoneglectus (Franciscolo, 1972)

Ilybius quadriguttatus (Lacordaire, 1835)

Ilybius quadrimaculatus Aubé, 1838

Ilybius samokovi (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Ilybius satunini (Zaitzev, 1913)

Ilybius similis Thomson, 1856

Ilybius subaeneus Erichson, 1837

Ilybius subtilis (Erichson, 1837)

Ilybius thynias Fery & Przewozny, 2011

Ilybius vancouverensis (Leech, 1937)

Ilybius vandykei (Leech, 1942)

Ilybius verisimilis (Brown, 1932)

Ilybius vittiger (Gyllenhal, 1827)

Ilybius walsinghami (Crotch, 1873)

Ilybius wasastjernae (C.R.Sahlberg, 1824)

Ilybius wewalkai (Fery & Nilsson, 1993)

Kefken Island

Kefken Island, in Turkish Kefken Adası, lies off the Black Sea coast of Turkey, a short boat ride from the mainland village of Cebeci in the Kandıra district of Kocaeli Province.

It has an area of 21 hectares, and is about four times as long as it is broad.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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