Thyatira

Thyateira (also Thyatira) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"). The name is probably Lydian. It lies in the far west of Turkey, south of Istanbul and almost due east of Athens. It is about 50 miles (80 km) from the Aegean Sea.

Thyatira (Θυάτειρα)

Ancient City of Greece

Paul's third journey
Paul's third journey
Thyatira is located in Turkey
Thyatira
Thyatira
Coordinates: 38°55′12″N 27°50′10″E / 38.92°N 27.836111°E
Ruins of Thyateira
Ruins of the city.

History

It was an ancient Greek city called "Pelopia" (Greek language: Πελοπία), and during the Hellenistic era, in 290 BC, it was named Thyateira (Θυάτειρα) by King Seleucus I Nicator. He was at war with Lysimachus when he learned that his wife had given birth to a daughter. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, he called this city "Thuateira" from Greek θυγατήρ, θυγατέρα (thugatēr, thugatera), meaning "daughter", although it is likely that it is an older, Lydian name.[1][2] In classical times, Thyatira stood on the border between Lydia and Mysia. During the Roman era, (1st century AD), it was famous for its dyeing facilities and was a center of the purple cloth trade.[3] Among the ancient ruins of the city, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in the city. Indeed, more guilds are known in Thyatira than any other contemporary city in the Roman province of Asia (inscriptions mention the following: wool-workers, linen-workers, makers of outer garments, dyers, leather-workers, tanners, potters, bakers, slave-dealers, and bronze-smiths).[4]

In early Christian times, Thyateira was home to a significant Christian church, mentioned as one of the seven Churches of the Book of Revelation in the Book of Revelation.[5] According to Revelation, a woman named Jezebel (who called herself a prophetess) taught and seduced the Christians of Thyateira to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.[6]

The Apostle Paul and Silas might have visited Thyateira during Paul's second or third journey, although the evidence is entirely circumstantial. They visited several small unnamed towns in the general vicinity during the second journey. While in Philippi, Paul and Silas stayed with a woman named Lydia from Thyateira, who continued to help them even after they were jailed and released.

In 366, a battle fought near Thyateira saw the army of Roman emperor Valens defeat Roman usurper Procopius.

Bishopric

A dictionary of the Bible.. (1887) (14595164770)
19th-century Thyatira[7]

The city was home to a Christian community from the apostolic period. The community continued until 1922, when the Orthodox Christian population was deported.

ThyatiraBasilika
Byzantine basilica of Thatira

In 1922, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople appointed an exarch for Western and Central Europe with the title Archbishop of Thyateira. The current Archbishop of Thyateira (since 2019) is Nikitas Lulias.[8] The Archbishop of Thyateira resides in London and has pastoral responsibility for the Greek Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta.

The see of Thyatira is also included, without archiepiscopal rank, in the Roman Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, De Urbibus ("On cities") [1]
  2. ^ Θυγάτηρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  3. ^ Acts 16:14.
  4. ^ W.M. Ramsey, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, (Hodder, 1904), pp. 324-35.
  5. ^ Rev. 1:11; 2:18-28.
  6. ^ Rev. 2:20
  7. ^ Schaff, Philip, A dictionary of the Bible(1887).
  8. ^ [2] - Biography at the website of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
  9. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 988

Coordinates: 38°55′15″N 27°50′30″E / 38.9208333333°N 27.8416666667°E

Akhisar

Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey. Akhisar is also the ancient city of Thyatira (also known as Thyateira).

With archaeological findings that are proving settlements going back to 3000 BC, Akhisar has been a busy trade center with its strategic location at the intersection of important roads during ancient and medieval ages. Akhisar also hosted one of the Seven churches of Asia: Thyateira, which is mentioned in the Bible. Akhisar maintained its importance as a regional trade center during the Ottoman period.

Today's Akhisar is still the trade and business center in its region. Akhisar's name is internationally associated with tobacco. The fertile Akhisar Plain produces about 10% of total Turkish tobacco production. Akhisar's high-quality olives and olive oil are also globally known.

Apollonis (Lydia)

Apollonis (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλωνίς), also known as Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία), Apollones (Ἀπολλώνης), and Apollonias (Ἀπολλωνίας), was a city in ancient Lydia. It was located south of Apollonia in Mysia, where there is a ridge of hills, after crossing which the road to Sardis had on the left Thyatira, and on the right Apollonis, which was 300 stadia from Pergamum, and the same distance from Sardis. It was named after the queen Apollonis, the mother of Eumenes II and Attalus II of Pergamum, in the place of an older city; possibly Doidye. It was mentioned by Cicero. It was destroyed in 17 CE by the great earthquake that destroyed twelve cities of Asia Minor. Tiberius rebuilt the city. It issued coins; those from Marcus Aurelius to Severus Alexander are extant. Apollonis is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.The site of Apollonis is located near Palamut Kalesi, Mecidiye.

Battle of Thyatira

The Battle of Thyatira was fought in 366 at Thyatira, Lydia (modern Turkey), between the army of the Roman Emperor Valens and the army of the usurper Procopius, led by his general Gomoarius.

Euthyatira pryeri

Euthyatira pryeri is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It is found in Japan and possibly Shaanxi, China.

Habrosyne albipuncta

Habrosyne albipuncta is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It is found in Taiwan, China (Fujian, Sichuan, Yunnan), Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar.

Habrosyne gloriosa

Habrosyne gloriosa, the glorious habrosyne moth, is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It is found in North America, where it has been recorded from the northern United States, south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona. In Canada, it is found in Ontario and Quebec.The wingspan is about 37 mm. Adults are very similar to Habrosyne scripta, but the antemedian line has a sharp angle near the middle. Adults are on wing from April to September in two generations per year.

The larvae feed on Rubus species.

Habrosyne petrographa

Habrosyne petrographa is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It is found in China (Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Fujian, Sichuan, Yunnan) and Taiwan.The wingspan is 35–39 mm.

Habrosyne scripta

Habrosyne scripta, the lettered habrosyne or scribe, is a moth of the family Drepanidae. It was first described by Gosse in 1840. It is found in southern Canada and the northern United States, from Labrador to Vancouver Island, south in the Appalachians, Ozarks and Rocky Mountains to North Carolina and Mississippi and south in the west to Arizona.

The wingspan is 30–39 mm. Adults are on wing from May to August. There are two generations per year.

The larvae feed on the leaves of Rubus species (including black raspberry and purple-flowering raspberry).

Horithyatira decorata

Horithyatira decorata is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It is found from the north-eastern Himalaya and Nepal to southern China and Taiwan.

Lydia of Thyatira

Lydia of Thyatira (Greek: Λυδία) is a woman mentioned in the New Testament who is regarded as the first documented convert to Christianity in Europe. Several Christian denominations have designated her a saint.

Macrothyatira oblonga

Macrothyatira oblonga is a moth in the family Drepanidae first described by Gustave Arthur Poujade in 1887. It is found in the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan.The forewings are dark greyish fuscous with wavy cross lines. The basal patch is small, projecting in the middle somewhat in the shape of a duck's beak. There is a small white spot at the middle of the costa and a large and a small white spot on the inner margin, often united. There is also an oblique rounded white apical patch and a small flattened anal patch. The wavy dark transverse lines are alternated with paler spaces and the outer and subterminal lines are edged with grey. The terminal lunules are dark with grey edges. The hindwings are fuscous tinged with luteous and there is a darker obscurely marked subterminal band.

Mill Bridge, North Carolina

Mill Bridge is an unincorporated town and populated place officially registered as Mill Bridge in 1874. It is located in Mount Ulla Township, Rowan County, North Carolina, United States. The prominent features include the Kerr Mill and Thyatira Presbyterian Church.

Peach blossom

The peach blossom (Thyatira batis) is a moth of the family Drepanidae. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.It is found throughout Europe and east through the Palearctic to Japan and Mongolia. It is a fairly common species in the British Isles.

It is a striking species with brown forewings marked with five pink and white blotches which do rather resemble the petals of peach blossom. The hindwings are buff and grey. The wingspan is 40–45 mm. The species flies at night, in western Europe in June and July sometimes with a partial second brood emerges in late August and September. The species is attracted to light and sugar.

The larva is brown with white markings and several humps along its back. At rest it raises both ends as with many drepanids. It feeds on various Rubus species. The species overwinters as a pupa.

^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range.

Pseudothyatira

Pseudothyatira is a monotypic moth genus of the family Drepanidae first described by Augustus Radcliffe Grote in 1864. Its only species, Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides, the tufted thyatirid moth, was first described by Achille Guenée in 1852. It is found in North America in Newfoundland, British Columbia, northern California, Maryland, West Virginia, Kansas and North Carolina.

The wingspan is 38–44 mm. The moth flies from June to September depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Betula nigra, Betula populifolia and Prunus virginiaca.

Revelation 2

Revelation 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle, but the precise identity of the author remains a point of academic debate. This chapter contains messages to churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum and Thyatira, four of the seven churches of Asia located in modern-day Turkey, with messages for the other three churches appearing in chapter 3.

Sarukhan, Bey of Magnesia

Sarukhan (1300/01–1345/46) was a Turkish Bey of Magnesia (present-day Manisa, Turkey).Sarukhan was a Turkish Emir who is remembered for his conquest in the Anatolian Peninsula. In 1313, he occupied Thyatira (present-day Akhisar, Manisa Province), and then left his name "Saruhan" to the region he had occupied, becoming an independent ruler and transmitting the region to his descendants.At one point in 1336, Sarukhan formed an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus the Younger, and supported him militarily in two sieges against the Genoese, in Mytilene and Phocaea. In 1341 however he attacked Constantinople with a fleet, but was repulsed around the Chersonesus in 1341.

Thyatira, Mississippi

Thyatira is an unincorporated community in eastern Tate County, Mississippi. It is approximately 11 miles east of the county seat of Senatobia and 21 miles west of Holly Springs in Marshall County. The main thoroughfare is Mississippi Highway 4. It is home to two of the oldest Churches of Christ on record in the state, both of which bear the same name: Thyatira Church of Christ. Its elevation is 371 feet (131 m).

Thyatira (genus)

Thyatira is a genus of moths belonging to the subfamily Thyatirinae. It was erected by Ferdinand Ochsenheimer in 1816.

Thyatira Presbyterian Church, Cemetery, and Manse

Thyatira Presbyterian Church, Cemetery, and Manse is a historic church at 220 White Road off NC 150 in Mill Bridge in Rowan County, North Carolina, ten miles west of the town of Salisbury. Presbyterians have been worshiping at this site since at least 1753.The current Gothic Revival church building was constructed between 1858 and 1860 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The church was originally organized as early as 1753 as Cathey's Meeting Place on its current site on Cathye's Creek. The adjacent cemetery features gravestones dating back to 1755. The church is still in active use, and the congregation is currently affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA).

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