Thurrock

Thurrock (/ˈθʌrək/) is a unitary authority area with borough status in the English ceremonial county of Essex. It is part of the London commuter belt and an area of regeneration within the Thames Gateway redevelopment zone. The local authority is Thurrock Council.

Thurrock

Borough of Thurrock
Lakeside Shopping Centre
Lakeside Shopping Centre
Shown within Essex
Shown within Essex
Coordinates: 51°30′00″N 0°25′00″E / 51.50000°N 0.41667°E
CountryUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionEast
Ceremonial CountyEssex
Government
 • BodyThurrock Council
 • LeadershipLeader & Cabinet[1]
 • ExecutiveConservative Administration,
(Council NOC)
 • MPsJackie Doyle-Price (C)
Stephen Metcalfe (C)
 • Leader of the CouncilCllr Robert Gledhill (C)
 • Mayor of ThurrockCllr Tunde Ojetola (C)
Area
 • Total163.38 km2 (63.08 sq mi)
Population
 • TotalRanked 113th
172,525
 • Density1,042/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
 • Ethnicity[2]
80.9% White British
4.9% Other White
3.8% Asian
7.8% Black
2.0% Mixed Race
0.6% other
Time zoneGMT
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time
ONS code00KG (ONS)
E06000034 (GSS)
Websitewww.thurrock.gov.uk

The borough

It lies on the River Thames just to the east of London. With over 18 miles (29 km) of riverfront it covers an area of 64 square miles (170 km2), with more than half defined as Green Belt. With Greater London to the west and the river to the south, the county of Essex abuts the Borough to the north and east, and across the river lies Kent.

Politics

The local authority is Thurrock Council. Elections are held 3 out of every 4 years. In 2016, the Conservative Party took control of the council, albeit as a minority-party administration.

Thurrock is covered by two parliamentary constituencies. Thurrock includes most of the borough while South Basildon and East Thurrock includes some wards in the east of the borough. Both seats were Conservative gains from Labour at the 2010 general election.

The Council is led by Cllr Rob Gledhill (C) as of May 2016. The Mayor is Cllr Barbara Rice (L).

Land use

Thurrock has a population of 157,500[3] people living in 90,500 homes. The Metropolitan Green Belt covers 70% of the borough. There are 494 acres (200 ha) of land available for industrial use.[4] There are seven conservation areas, 19 scheduled ancient monuments, including the dovecote at High House Purfleet, and 239 listed buildings.

The borough contains ten sites of special scientific interest:

  • Globe Pit, Grays
  • Grays Chalk Pit
  • Lion Pit, Grays
  • Purfleet Chalk Pits
  • West Thurrock Lagoon and Marshes
  • Inner Thames Marshes
  • Vange and Fobbing Marshes
  • Basildon Meadows
  • Mucking Flats and Marshes
  • Hangman's Wood and Deneholes

Despite much of the borough being protected Green Belt land, Thurrock provides localised opportunities for further industrial and commercial development. The borough forms part of the Thames Gateway regeneration area, a corridor of opportunity that has been identified by central government as the area with greatest development and commercial potential in the country. Thurrock Development Corporation took over much of the borough's planning functions from its creation in 2005 until its demise in March 2011.

Much of the population and commercial activity is centred along the riverfront. This includes many large and important industrial sites, including two large oil refineries, manufacturing industries, a container port, cruise liner terminal, distribution warehousing and one of Britain's largest refuse disposal sites at the appropriately named settlement of Mucking. Thurrock is also home to the Lakeside Shopping Centre.

Attractions

Dovecote HHPP purfleet
The Dovecote at High House

There is one multiplex cinema attached to the Lakeside Shopping Centre, and the Thameside Theatre in Grays. Live shows are held at the Circus Tavern in Purfleet. Open space includes Chafford Gorges Nature Park, Langdon Hills Country Park and Grove House Wood, managed by Essex Wildlife Trust. Museums and historic buildings include Coalhouse Fort at East Tilbury, Tilbury Fort in Tilbury, Purfleet Heritage and Military Centre, High House, Purfleet with its historic farm buildings, the Royal Opera House's Bob and Tamar Manoukian Production Workshop, The Backstage Centre and ACME artists' studios, Thurrock Museum and Walton Hall Farm Museum.

Next to Lakeside Shopping Centre is Arena Essex, a motor sports complex, where speedway, banger and stock car racing takes place.

Thurrock in Bloom

Thurrock in Bloom is a voluntary group that works in partnership with Thurrock Council and co-sponsors such as Sandown Nursery and Elm Horticulture to promote floral displays. It is part of a more general "in bloom" initiative organised by the Royal Horticultural Society.[5] The Thurrock initiative includes an annual competition[6] and sponsorship of roundabouts.[7] Award winners include Woodside Primary School which has received silver and gold awards for its wildlife garden.

History

Mammoths once grazed in the Thurrock area[8] and archaeologists recently unearthed the remains of a jungle cat. Man has been in the area since prehistoric times[8] and the land has been farmed by the Romans[8] and Anglo-Saxons[8] Thurrock has numerous archaeological sites including the major excavation at Mucking.

Wool-market
The Woolmarket

Horndon-on-the-Hill was the site of an 11th century mint as well as the 15th century woolmarket which gives an indication of the area's wealth in the 15th century. The narrowing of the river where Tilbury now stands meant it was important in the defence of London, and Henry VIII built three blockhouses, two on the Tilbury side and another on the Gravesend side of the river, following the end of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.

In 1381, villagers from Fobbing, Mucking and Stanford-le-Hope instigated the Peasant's Revolt when they were called to Brentwood to pay the poll tax. When they refused to pay, a riot ensued which was the catalyst for a mass protest across Essex and Kent.

Later, in 1588 Elizabeth I addressed her troops not far from the Tilbury blockhouse as the Spanish Armada sailed up the English Channel. Between 1670 and 1682, the Tilbury blockhouse was substantially rebuilt into a much larger fortification (Tilbury Fort) and Coalhouse Fort was built further down river, close to the second blockhouse. The importance of the forts in defending the country continued through Napoleonic times and into the two world wars. The land where Tilbury Town now stands was farmland and marsh grazing until the building of the docks in the 1890s. Thurrock includes the Bata village, built for workers of the shoe company in 1933. Eight homes and the factory are listed.

Historically, the area was renowned for mineral extraction, including clay, aggregates and notably the digging of huge amounts of chalk from the West Thurrock area for use in the now defunct cement industries. When chalk extraction ceased one of the disused pits was redeveloped as Lakeside Shopping Centre. A number of former pits have been used to form the Chafford Gorges Nature Reserve, managed by the Essex Wildlife Trust.[9]

The present-day borough of Thurrock was created in 1974 from the former area of Thurrock Urban District. The Local Government Act 1972 left the boundaries mostly untouched, although part of it, in Basildon New Town, was ceded to the Basildon district and the district gained borough status.[10]

It was given administrative independence from Essex County Council on 1 April 1998 by The Essex (Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock and District of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996. It remains part of Essex for ceremonial purposes such as lord-lieutenancy.

Captain Kidd

The body of Captain Kidd was displayed in Thurrock. He had been convicted of piracy and hanged on 23 May 1701, at 'Execution Dock', Wapping. His body was gibbeted — left to hang in an iron cage over the Thames at Tilbury Point[11] — as a warning to future would-be pirates for twenty years. Some sources give the location that his body was exhibited as Tilbury Ness, but this may be an alternative name for the same place. There is some uncertainty as to whether his body was displayed at what is now called Coalhouse Point or at a site a few hundred yards up stream, close to the present Tilbury Docks.[12]

1953 Floods

On 31 January 1953, the low-lying areas of Thurrock were inundated by the North Sea flood of 1953. The Van den Berghs and Jurgens margarine factory, which manufactured Stork margarine, was forced to stop production for many months. Since the output of this factory constituted one third of the country's ration allocation, this led to a severe strain on the supply of margarine in the UK.[13] Most schools in Thurrock were closed, either as a direct result of the flooding or in order to use them to help the relief effort. More than 1300 people in Tilbury and other low-lying areas were evacuated to schools on the higher ground.[14] Chadwell St Mary Primary school was used as the main welfare centre for the homeless.[15] By 15 February, most schools had returned to normal. The last to resume were the Landsdowne school in Tilbury and the newly opened Woodside Primary School - then called Tyrell Heath School.[16] On Friday 13 February, the flooded areas were visited by the young Queen Elizabeth II[14] Despite severe loss of life in nearby Canvey Island, only one person in Thurrock died as a result of the floods.[17]

Heritage plaques

In 2002, a partnership between Thurrock Council, Thurrock Heritage Forum and the Thurrock Local History Society began an initiative to place heritage plaques marking the famous people, events and organisations associated with Thurrock.[18] By June 2013 there were plaques to:

Culture and film

Thurrock has been the scene of several major films.[21] St Clement's Church and street scenes at West Thurrock were used in the making of the film Four Weddings and a Funeral. Thurrock can also be seen in 28 Days Later. Scenes from the films Alfie (2004), and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade were shot at Tilbury docks. The opening scenes from Batman Begins (2005) were shot at Coalhouse Fort in East Tilbury. Some filming also took place for the film Essex Boys in and around the Bata estate at East Tilbury. The State Cinema where Eddie met Roger in the classic Who Framed Roger Rabbit can be found in Grays.

Art Deco architecture in Thurrock

The State Nov 07
The State Cinema in 2007

There are a number of examples of Art Deco architecture in Thurrock. The baggage hall at Tilbury was opened in 1930. It has an art deco interior, designed by Sir Edwin Cooper and is a grade II listed building.[22] The State cinema is also a listed building and dates from 1938. It is one of the few surviving examples of 1930s cinema architecture. It has the original cinema organ which can still be played. However, in the early 21st century the building became disused and faced dereliction. In September 2015 it was announced that J D Wetherspoon had bought the property for conversion to a public house.[23] Building of the Bata Shoes estate in East Tilbury was begun in 1933 and this is now a conservation area.

Chadwell St Mary has one of the few examples of a "Sunspan" house designed by the architect Wells Coates. Although built in the 1950s, Woodside Primary School's architecture has been described as the slightly earlier "ocean liner" style of Art Deco. The building features a number of bricked curves and circular windows, while the wrought-iron banisters on the stairs are deliberately set to lean out at an angle.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1911 2,500—    
1951 82,100+3184.0%
1961 114,300+39.2%
1971 125,000+9.4%
1981 127,400+1.9%
1985 124,600−2.2%
1991 128,700+3.3%
1995 133,400+3.7%
2001 143,300+7.4%
2005 148,900+3.9%
2007 152,200+2.2%
2011 158,300+4.0%
All totals rounded to nearest hundred
Source: Populstat & NOMIS

At the census of 2011, there were 157,705 people, 62,353 households and 45,985 families residing in the borough. The population density was 9.7 people per hectare. There were 63,869 housing units. The racial makeup of the borough was 86% White, 3.8% Asian, 7.8% Black, 2% Mixed Race, 0.6% other.

There were 62,353 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.7% were married couples living together, 52.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.[24]

The median age in the borough was 42. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.3% of residents were between the ages of 19 and 24; 30.3% were from 25 to 44; 24.2% were from 45 to 64; and 38.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.6% female.[24]

Education

Schools in Thurrock include the Ockendon Academy, Harris Academy Chafford Hundred, Gable Hall School, Gateway Academy, Grays Convent High School, William Edwards School & Sports College, Hathaway Academy, Deneholm Primary, Little Thurrock Primary, Quarry Hill Infant and Junior, St Thomas Of Canterbury Catholic Primary, Stifford Clays Infant and Junior, Stifford Primary, Thameside Infant and Junior School, Tudor Court Primary School, Warren Primary School, Chafford Hundred Primary School, Woodside Primary School (which was opened in 1952 as Tyrell's Infant and Junior Schools, the names being changed to avoid confusion with the neighbouring Torell's Secondary School; the schools were later amalgamated into one primary school) and Treetops School.

The local sixth form college is Palmer's College, whilst other colleges in Thurrock include South Essex College (Thurrock Campus) and Thurrock Adult Community College, and recently the Stanford and Corringham Sixth Form Centre was opened, as a joint sixth form college between Gable Hall School, Hassenbrook Specialist Technology College and St Clere's School.

Partnerships

The Tilbury and Chadwell St Mary Excellence Cluster.[25] brings together Chadwell St Mary Primary School, Corringham Primary School, Grays Convent High School, Hassenbrook Academy, Herringham Primary School, Landsdowne Primary School, Manor Infant School, Manor Junior School, St Mary's RC Primary School, Woodside Primary School and The Gateway Academy. Senior members of the schools councils also sit on the cluster's student council.

Gable Hall School has had a long partnership with Pro Arte Alphen Park School in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa for almost 10 years - the two schools have held exchange programmes with each other and the students sampling life in each other's respective countries.

Woodside Primary is linked with a school in Nepal, through the charity Gorkha Learning for Life, which was founded by a member of school staff.[26]

Transport

Being both on the river and close to London, Thurrock is served with good communication links. The M25 London Orbital Motorway, the railway line between Southend and London Fenchurch Street which provides direct access to Central London and, eventually, Stratford International Station, the Port of Tilbury and the nearby London City Airport make Thurrock an important international trade centre. There is a grass airstrip south of Bulphan village. A ferry for passengers on foot connects Tilbury with Gravesend on the southern bank of the River Thames.

Rail transport in the borough is provided by c2c with stations at:

Bus services within the Thurrock urban area are mostly provided by Ensignbus.

  • Arriva has a depot at West Thurrock, but all of its work is Transport for London contracts, and has only one route running into Thurrock.

Other operators are First, Stagecoach and Imperial bus co.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Thurrock at current basic prices published[27] (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional gross value added[28] Agriculture[29] Industry[30] Services[31]
1995 1,406 8 657 741
2000 1,737 4 677 1,056
2003 1,995 5 664 1,327

Sport and leisure

Thurrock has several Non-League football clubs in the area:

Thurrock Yacht Club is based in the centre of Grays on the Thames foreshore, and offers a range of competitive and recreational boating opportunities.

List of places in the borough

Historic buildings

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[32]

References

  1. ^ "The Cabinet and its members | Cabinet | Thurrock Council". www.thurrock.gov.uk.
  2. ^ Services, Good Stuff IT. "Thurrock - UK Census Data 2011". UK Census Data.
  3. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Check Browser Settings". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  4. ^ [1] Archived 29 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Britain in Bloom". Archived from the original on 17 April 2010.
  6. ^ "Overview - Thurrock in Bloom - Thurrock Council". Archived from the original on 23 January 2010.
  7. ^ Roundabout sponsorship
  8. ^ a b c d Catton, Jonathan, A Short History of Thurrock in Christopher Harrold, ed. (2008). Exploring Thurrock. Thurrock Local History Society.
  9. ^ "The Geology of Essex".
  10. ^ [2] Archived 5 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Captain Kidd - the Tilbury connection". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
  13. ^ Grieve, Hilda (1959). The Great Tide. Essex County Council. p. 466.
  14. ^ a b "1953 Floods". Archived from the original on 5 March 2010.
  15. ^ Grieve, 1959, page 600
  16. ^ Grieve, 1959, page 616
  17. ^ Grieve, 1959, page 568
  18. ^ "Thurrock Council".
  19. ^ Thurrock Yellow Advertiser, 26 April 2012
  20. ^ Reporter, Staff (14 June 2013). "Commemorating the Norman knight, Henry de Grey".
  21. ^ "Thurrock Heritage Fact File". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011.
  22. ^ Good Stuff. "Riverside Station (Including Floating Landing Stage) - Tilbury - Thurrock - England - British Listed Buildings".
  23. ^ "Pub chain JD Wetherspoon confirm purchase of State Cinema". Thurrock Gazette.
  24. ^ a b Neighbourhood Statistics. "Check Browser Settings". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  25. ^ "Tilbury and Chadwell St Mary Excellence Cluster". Archived from the original on 30 April 2010.
  26. ^ "Gorkha Learning for Life". Archived from the original on 11 March 2010.
  27. ^ [3] Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  29. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  30. ^ includes energy and construction
  31. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  32. ^ "Thurrock, England Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  33. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on 5 July 2013.

External links

Coordinates: 51°30′N 0°25′E / 51.500°N 0.417°E

1999 Thurrock Council election

The 1999 Thurrock Council election took place on 6 May 1999 to elect members of Thurrock Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party stayed in overall control of the council. Overall turnout in the election was 20.0%.After the election, the composition of the council was

Labour 45

Conservative 1

2000 Thurrock Council election

The 2000 Thurrock Council election took place on 4 May 2000 to elect members of Thurrock Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party stayed in overall control of the council.After the election, the composition of the council was

Labour 38

Conservative 10

Vacant 1

2002 Thurrock Council election

The 2002 Thurrock Council election took place on 2 May 2002 to elect members of Thurrock Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party stayed in overall control of the council.43 candidates stood in the election, with 16 of the 20 wards being contested. Both Conservative and Labour parties stood in all 16 seats, along with 7 Liberal Democrats, 3 Independents and 1 Green Party candidate.After the election, the composition of the council was

Labour 37

Conservative 9

Independent 2

Liberal Democrat 1

2006 Thurrock Council election

The 2006 Thurrock Council election took place on 4 May 2006 to elect members of Thurrock Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Conservative party stayed in overall control of the council.After the election, the composition of the council was

Conservative 26

Labour 21

Independent 2

2007 Thurrock Council election

The 2007 Thurrock Council election took place on 3 May 2007 to elect members of Thurrock Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Conservative party lost overall control of the council to no overall control.The Conservatives, Labour and British National Party (BNP) contested all 16 wards which were up for election. In total 55 candidates stood in the election including 6 Liberal Democrats, 3 from the United Kingdom Independence Party, 2 independents and 1 candidate from the Independent Working Class Association. Anti-social behaviour, recycling and cleanliness were seen as major issues by the parties, on a council which was seen as a top Labour target.The British National Party put up candidates in every ward, for the first time. However, they secured no seats despite claiming that they were picking up votes from right wing Conservative supporters disaffected with David Cameron, particularly in middle class areas. In the West Thurrock and South Stifford ward, Ken Daly stood for the BNP in protest at the treatment of his son's killer.The results of the election saw the Conservatives lose their overall majority on the council after losing 3 seats and only gaining one. The Labour party made a net gain of two seats, while the BNP came second in 6 seats after a strong rise in votes. Overall turnout was 31% and after the election the balance of power on the council was held by 3 independents.After the election, the composition of the council was:

Conservative 24

Labour 22

Independent 3

2010 Thurrock Council election

The result of the Thurrock Council election, 2010 (held on 6 May) was that Thurrock Council stay under no overall control. The Conservative party gained two seats from Labour while Labour gained one seat from the Conservatives. Of the 16 wards contested, eight were won by the Conservatives and eight by Labour. The composition of the resulting council was:

Conservatives 23

Labour 22

Independent 2

British National Party 1

Non Aligned 1A few days after the election, Stuart St Clair-Haslam resigned the Conservative party whip. Conservative councillor Ian Harrison also later resigned the Conservative whip, while Anne Cheale described herself as "non aligned". Following the election, John Kent (Labour) was elected council leader, defeating the former leader, Garry Hague (Conservative), by 25 votes to 23. Kent was supported by the Labour group, the two non-aligned councillors and the BNP councillor. This ended the Conservative administration that had been in power since 2004. At the same meeting, Anne Cheale was elected mayor. At this stage the party make-up was Labour 22 councillors, Conservatives 21, two East Tilbury Independents, three 'Thurrock Concerned Conservatives' and one British National Party councillor.

In November 2010 the BNP councillor resigned from the party to become a single Independent. In March 2011, Councillor St Clair-Haslam announced that he had joined the UKIP.

2011 Thurrock Council election

On 5 May 2011, one-third of seats on Thurrock Council were contested. The result of the election was that Thurrock Council stayed under no overall control. The Labour gained one seat from the Conservative party.

2012 Thurrock Council election

The 2012 Thurrock Council election took place on 3 May 2012 to elect members of Thurrock Borough Council in England. This was on the same day as other 2012 United Kingdom local elections.

The result was:

Labour 25 (+1) (39% of vote)

Conservative 21 (-1) (30%)

Independent 2 ( 7%)

UKIP 1 (+1) (18%)

LibDem 0 ( 4%)

other 0 ( 2%)

vacant 0 (-1)The Labour party took overall control (previously NOC with Labour administration).

2014 Thurrock Council election

Elections to Thurrock Council were held on 22 May 2014. The result saw the council change from Labour to no overall control. The UK Independence Party gained five seats, three from the Conservatives and two from Labour. Of the 16 wards contested, six were won by Labour, five by UKIP and five by the Conservatives.

2015 Thurrock Council election

The 2015 Thurrock Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of Thurrock Council in England. This was on the same day as the general election and other local elections. Elections were held in 16 wards for seats that were last contested in 2011, to elect roughly one third of the council. The results meant that there continued to be no overall control of the council. The new administration will be determined at the Annual Meeting on 27 May.

2016 Thurrock Council election

The 2016 Thurrock Council election took place on 5 May 2016 to elect members of Thurrock Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections.

There remains no overall control of the council. The Labour administration could have continued, until removed by a special motion, but Councillor Kent chose to resign at the Annual Meeting and the leader of the Conservative group Councillor Gledhill was elected to replace him.

2018 Thurrock Council election

The 2018 Thurrock Council elections took place on 3 May 2018 to elect members of Thurrock Council in England. Councillors in 16 out of the 20 electoral wards were be up for election. The council remained under overall control, with a minority Conservative administration running the council.On 26 January 2018, all sitting UKIP councillors resigned from the party and formed a new opposition group called Thurrock Independents.On 13 March 2018, Basildon UKIP announced that they had taken over responsibility for the 6 East Thurrock wards and are now called UKIP Basildon and Thurrock Branch.Before the elections, there was a by-election held in Ockendon which resulted in a Conservative gain after a tie and drawing of lots.

2019 Thurrock Council election

The 2019 Thurrock Council election will take place on 2 May 2019 to elect members of Thurrock Council in England.

Dartford Crossing

The Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing, commonly known as the Dartford Crossing and until 1991 the Dartford Tunnel, is a major road crossing of the River Thames in England, carrying the A282 road between Dartford in Kent in the south and Thurrock in Essex in the north. It consists of two bored tunnels and the cable-stayed Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. The only fixed road crossing of the Thames east of Greater London, it is the busiest estuarial crossing in the United Kingdom, with an average daily use of over 130,000 vehicles. It opened in stages: the west tunnel in 1963, the east tunnel in 1980 and the bridge in 1991. The crossing, although not officially designated a motorway, is considered part of the M25 motorway's route, using the tunnels northbound and bridge southbound. Described as one of the most important road crossings in Britain, it suffers from heavy traffic and congestion.

The crossing's development started in the late 1930s, but was interrupted due to the Second World War and resumed in the 1950s. The original tunnel catered for a single lane of traffic in each direction, but rising traffic levels required the second tunnel to be built. The M25 connected to the tunnels at both ends when completed in 1986, and this increased traffic put pressure on the tunnels' capacity. A Private Finance Initiative scheme was started in 1988 to build the bridge. The combined crossing now handles four lanes of traffic in each direction.

The crossing had always been tolled, and from 1 April 2003 this became a charge, though since 2008 it has been free from 10 pm to 6 am. An automatic number plate recognition charging scheme named the "Dart Charge" began in November 2014. As a result, the booths on the Kent side were removed and the charge is now only payable online. A residents' scheme is available, offering discounts for people living near the crossing.

East Thurrock United F.C.

East Thurrock United Football Club is a football club based in Corringham, Essex, England. They are currently members of the Isthmian League Premier Division, the seventh tier of English football, and play at Rookery Hill.

Grays

Grays (or Grays Thurrock) is the largest town in the borough and unitary authority of Thurrock in Essex and one of Thurrock's traditional (Church of England) parishes. The town is approximately 20 miles (32 km) to the east of London on the north bank of the River Thames, and 2 miles (3.2 km) east of the M25 motorway. Its economy is linked to Port of London industries, its own offices, retail and Lakeside, West Thurrock.

Thurrock Council elections

Thurrock is a unitary authority in Essex, England. Until 1 April 1998 it was a non-metropolitan district. One third of the council is elected each year, followed by one year without an election. Since the unitary authority was first elected in 1997, the council has consisted of 49 councillors elected from 20 wards.

Thurrock F.C.

Thurrock Football Club was an English football club based in Purfleet, Thurrock, Essex. Known as Purfleet until 2003, the club played at Ship Lane.

West Thurrock

West Thurrock is a traditional Church of England parish and town in Thurrock, Essex, England, located 17.5 miles (28.1 km) east south-east of Charing Cross, London.

National Rail in Thurrock
Stanford-le-Hope
East Tilbury
Tilbury Town
Grays
West Horndon
Chafford Hundred Lakeside
Ockendon
Purfleet
Climate data for Thurrock
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
11
(52)
12
(54)
16
(61)
18
(64)
21
(70)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
10
(50)
8
(46)
14
(57)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
4
(39)
6
(43)
6
(43)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
15
(59)
12
(54)
10
(50)
6
(43)
5
(41)
9
(48)
Average precipitation days 13 11 10 11 8 10 9 5 11 10 9 10 117
Source: Weatherbase [33]
Thurrock
Traditional parishes in Thurrock
Other places in Thurrock
Historic buildings in Thurrock
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Boroughs or districts
Major settlements
Rivers
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