Thurii

Thurii (/ˈθʊəriaɪ/; Greek: Θούριοι, translit. Thoúrioi), called also by some Latin writers Thurium (compare Greek: Θούριον in Ptolemy), for a time also Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Tarentine gulf, within a short distance of the site of Sybaris, whose place it may be considered as having taken. The ruins of the city can be found in the Sybaris archaeological park near Sibari in the Province of Cosenza, Calabria, Italy.

Thurii
Θούριοι
Sybaris archeological park 1
Overview of excavated ruins, possibly from Thurii
Thurii is located in Italy
Thurii
Shown within Italy
Alternative nameThurium, Copia, Copiae
LocationSibari, Province of Cosenza, Calabria, Italy
RegionBruttium
Coordinates39°43′2″N 16°29′44″E / 39.71722°N 16.49556°ECoordinates: 39°43′2″N 16°29′44″E / 39.71722°N 16.49556°E
TypeSettlement
Site notes
WebsiteArcheoCalabriaVirtual ‹See Tfd›(in Italian)

History

Sybaris archeological park 2
Excavated area seen from the normal elevation of the surrounding landscape.
Sybaris archeological park 4
Excavated remains of buildings, possibly from Thurii.
Sybaris archeological park 6
Excavated mosaic floor with swastikas, possibly from Thurii.

Thurii was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, not having been founded until nearly 70 years after the fall of Sybaris. The site of that city had remained desolate for a period of 58 years after its destruction by the Crotoniats; when at length, in 452 BC, a number of the Sybarite exiles and their descendants made an attempt to establish themselves again on the spot, under the guidance of some leaders of Thessalian origin; and the new colony rose so rapidly to prosperity that it excited the jealousy of the Crotoniats, who, in consequence, expelled the new settlers a little more than 5 years after the establishment of the colony.[1] The fugitive Sybarites first appealed for support to Sparta, but without success: their application to the Athenians was more successful, and that people determined to send out a fresh colony, at the same time that they reinstated the settlers who had had been lately expelled from thence. A body of Athenian colonists was accordingly sent out by Pericles, under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus. Pericles' expressed intent was for it to be a Panhellenic colony,[2] and the number of Athenian citizens was small, the greater part of those who took part in the colony being collected from various parts of Greece. Among them were two celebrated names – Herodotus the historian, and the orator Lysias, both of whom appear to have formed part of the original colony.[3] The laws of the new colony were established by the sophist Protagoras at the request of Pericles,[4] adopting the laws of Zaleucus of Locri.[2]

The new colonists at first established themselves on the site of the deserted Sybaris, but shortly afterwards removed (apparently in obedience to an oracle) to a spot at a short distance from thence, where there was a fountain named "Thuria", from whence the new city derived its name of Thurii.[5] The foundation of Thurii is assigned by Diodorus to the year 446 BC; but other authorities place it three years later, 443 BC, and this seems to be the best authenticated date.[6] The protection of the Athenian name probably secured the rising colony from the assaults of the Crotoniats, at least we hear nothing of any obstacles to its progress from that quarter; but it was early disturbed by dissensions between the descendants of the original Sybarite settlers and the new colonists, the former laying claim not only to honorary distinctions, but to the exclusive possession of important political privileges. These disputes at length ended in a revolution, and the Sybarites were finally expelled from the city. They established themselves for a short time in Sybaris on the Traeis but did not maintain their footing long, being dislodged and finally dispersed by the neighboring barbarians.[7] The Thurians meanwhile concluded a treaty of peace with Crotona, and the new city rose rapidly to prosperity. Fresh colonists poured in from all quarters, especially the Peloponnese; and though it continued to be generally regarded as an Athenian colony, the Athenians in fact formed but a small element of the population. The citizens were divided, as we learn from Diodorus, into ten tribes, the names of which sufficiently indicate their origin. They were: the Arcadian (from Arcadia), Achaean (from Achaea), Elean (from Elea), Boeotian (from Boeotia), Amphictyonic (from Amphictyonis), Dorian (from Doris), Ionian (from Ionia), Athenian (from Athens), Euboean (from Euboea), and Nesiotic (from the islands).[8] The form of government was democratic, and the city is said to have enjoyed the advantage of a well-ordered system of laws; but the statement of Diodorus, who represents this as owing to the legislation of Charondas, and that lawgiver himself as a citizen of Thurii, is certainly erroneous. The city itself was laid out with great regularity, being divided by four broad streets or plateae, each of which was crossed in like manner by three others.[9]

Very shortly after its foundation, Thurii became involved in a war with Tarentum (modern Taranto). The subject of this was the possession of the fertile district of the Siritis, about 50 km north of Thurii, to which the Athenians had a claim of long standing, which was naturally taken up by their colonists. The Spartan general, Cleandridas, who had been banished from Greece some years before, and taken up his abode at Thurii, became the general of the Thurians in this war, which, after various successes, was at length terminated by a compromise, both parties agreeing to the foundation of the new colony of Heracleia in the disputed territory.[10]

Knowledge of the history of Thurii is very scanty and fragmentary. Fresh disputes arising between the Athenian citizens and the other colonists were at length allayed by the oracle of Delphi, which decided that the city had no other founder than Apollo.[11] But the same difference appears again on occasion of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily, when the city was divided into two parties, the one desirous of favoring and supporting the Athenians, the other opposed to them. The latter faction at first prevailed, so far that the Thurians observed the same neutrality towards the Athenian fleet under Nicias and Alcibiades as the other cities of Italy.[12] Thurii was, in fact, the city where Alcibiades escaped his Athenian captors who were taking him home for trial.

But two years afterwards (413 BC) the Athenian party had regained the ascendency; and when Demosthenes and Eurymedon touched at Thurii, the citizens afforded them every assistance, and even furnished an auxiliary force of 700 hoplites and 300 dartmen.[13] From this time we hear nothing of Thurii for a period of more than 20 years, though there is reason to believe that this was just the time of its greatest prosperity. In 390 BC we find that its territory was already beginning to suffer from the incursions of the Lucanians, a new and formidable enemy, for protection against whom all the cities of Magna Graecia had entered into a defensive league. But the Thurians were too impatient to wait for the support of their allies, and issued forth with an army of 14,000 foot and 1000 horse, with which they repulsed the attacks of the Lucanians; but having rashly followed them into their own territory, they were totally defeated, near Laüs, and above 10,000 of them cut to pieces.[14]

This defeat must have inflicted a severe blow on the prosperity of Thurii, while the continually increasing power of the Lucanians and Bruttians, in their immediate neighborhood would prevent them from quickly recovering from its effects. The city continued also to be on hostile, or at least unfriendly, terms with Dionysius of Syracuse, and was in consequence chosen as a place of retirement or exile by his brother Leptines and his friend Philistus.[15] The rise of the Bruttian people about 356 BC probably became the cause of the complete decline of Thurii, but the statement of Diodorus that the city was conquered by that people[16] must be received with considerable doubt. It reappears in history at a later period, when Corinthian soldiers en route to join Timoleon on his expedition to Syracuse are blockaded there by Carthaginian ships. At this point it is still an independent Greek city, though much fallen from its former greatness. No mention of it is found during the wars of Alexander of Epirus in this part of Italy; but at a later period it was so hard pressed by the Lucanians that it had recourse to the alliance of Rome; and a Roman army was sent to its relief under Gaius Fabricius Luscinus. He defeated the Lucanians, who had actually laid siege to the city, in a pitched battle, and by several other successes to a great extent broke their power, and thus relieved the Thurians from all immediate danger from that quarter.[17] But shortly after they were attacked on the other side by the Tarentines, who are said to have taken and plundered their city;[18] and this aggression was one of the immediate causes of the war declared by the Romans against Tarentum in 282 BC.

Thurii now sunk completely into the condition of a dependent ally of Rome, and was protected by a Roman garrison. No mention is found of its name during the wars with Pyrrhus or the First Punic War, but it plays a considerable part in the Second Punic War with Hannibal. It was apparently one of the cities which revolted to the Carthaginians after the battle of Cannae, in another passage, Livy places its defection more precisely in 212 BC.[19] After the defection of Tarentum, they betrayed the Roman troops into the hands of the Carthaginian general Hanno.[20] A few years later (210 BC), Hannibal, finding himself unable to protect his allies in Campania, removed the inhabitants of Atella who had survived the fall of their city to Thurii;[21] but it was not long before he was compelled to abandon the latter city also to its fate; and when he himself in 204 BC withdrew his forces into Bruttium, he removed to Crotona 3500 of the principal citizens of Thurii, while he gave up the city itself to the plunder of his troops.[22] It is evident that Thurii was now sunk to the lowest state of decay; but the great fertility of its territory rendered it desirable to preserve it from utter desolation: hence in 194 BC, it was one of the places selected for the establishment of a Roman colony with Latin rights.[23] The number of colonists was small in proportion to the extent of land to be divided among them, but they amounted to 3000 foot and 300 knights.[24] Livy says merely that the colony was sent in Thurinum agrum, and does not mention anything of a change of name; but Strabo tells us that they gave to the new colony the name of Copiae, and this statement is confirmed both by Stephanus of Byzantium, and by the evidence of coins, on which, however, the name is written "COPIA".[25] But this new name did not continue long in use, and Thurii still continued to be known by its ancient appellation. It is mentioned as a municipal town on several occasions during the latter ages of the Roman Republic. In 72 BC it was taken by Spartacus, and subjected to heavy contributions, but not otherwise injured.[26] According to Suetonius, the Octavian family held some renown there, and Gaius Octavius (father of the future Caesar Augustus) defeated a Spartacist army near there; as a result, the future emperor was granted the surname Thurinus shortly after birth. At the outbreak of the Civil Wars it was deemed by Julius Caesar of sufficient importance to be secured with a garrison of Gaulish and Spanish horse; and it was there that M. Caelius Rufus was put to death, after a vain attempt to excite an insurrection in this part of Italy.[27] In 40 BC also it was attacked by Sextus Pompeius, who laid waste its territory, but was repulsed from the walls of the city.[28]

It is certain therefore that Thurii was at this time still a place of some importance, and it is mentioned as a still existing town by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as Strabo.[29] It was probably, indeed, the only place of any consideration remaining on the coast of the Tarentine gulf, between Crotona and Tarentum; both Metapontum and Heracleia having already fallen into almost complete decay. Its name is still found in the Itineraries.[30] and it is noticed by Procopius as still existing in the 6th century.[31]

Abandonment

Over time the sediment accretion of the Crati river caused its river delta to shift towards the sea at a long term rate of one meter a year. As a consequence the successive sites of Sybaris, Thurii and Copia became landlocked and lost their importance because they no longer had easy access to the sea for trade.[32] The period of its final decay is uncertain; but it seems to have been abandoned during the Middle Ages, when the inhabitants took refuge at a place called Terranova (Terranova da Sibari), about 15 kilometers inland, on a hill on the left bank of the Crati.

Thurium2
O: helmeted head of Athena left, wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla holding a rudder, neck guard decorated with a palmette. TIMO R: bull butting right; above, Nike flying right, crowning bull. ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ
AR Stater (7.98 g, 6h) Lucania, Thourioi ~350-300 BC

The exact location of Greek Thurii is not known, but that of the Roman town, which probably though not certainly occupied the same site, is fixed by several ruins as being c. 6 kilometers to the east of Terranova da Sibari, and as occupying an area some 6 km in circuit. It is clear, from the statements both of Diodorus and Strabo, that Thurii occupied a site near to, but distinct from, that of Sybaris:[33] hence the position suggested by some local topographers at the foot of the hill of Terranova, is probably too far inland. It is more likely that the true site is to be sought to the north of the Coscile (the ancient Sybaris), a few kilometers from the sea, where ruins still exist, attributed to Sybaris, but which are probably in reality those of Thurii. Henry Swinburne, however, mentions Roman ruins as existing in the peninsula formed by the rivers Crathis and Sybaris near their junction, which may perhaps be those of Thurii.[34]

Coinage

Thurii had an active mint in antiquity. The coins of Thurii are of great beauty; their number and variety indeed gives us a higher idea of the opulence and prosperity of the city than we should gather from the statements of ancient writers.

Famous people

  • Alexis (ancient comic poet)
  • Herodotus, who migrated to Thurii from Athens after 443 BC.
  • Lysias, who migrated to Thurii from Athens c. 430 BC.

References

  1. ^ Diod. xi. 90, xii. 10.
  2. ^ a b Pomeroy, Sarah; Burstein, Stanley; Donlan, Walter; Roberts, Jennifer (2008). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History (second edition). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-19-530800-6.
  3. ^ Diod. xii. 10; Strabo vi. p. 263; Dionys. Lys. p. 453; Vit. X. Orat. p. 835; Plutarch Peric. 11, Nic. 5.
  4. ^ Barrett, Harold. The Sophists (Novato, California: Chandler & Sharp Publishers, INC, 1987), 10.
  5. ^ Diod. l. c.; Strabo l. c.
  6. ^ Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 54.
  7. ^ Diod. xii. 11, 22; Arist. Pol. v. 3.
  8. ^ Diod. xii. 11.
  9. ^ Diod. xii. 10.
  10. ^ Diod. xii. 23, 36, xiii. 106; Strabo vi. p. 264; Polyaen. Strat. ii. 10.
  11. ^ Diod. xii. 35.
  12. ^ Thucydides vi. 44.
  13. ^ Id. vii. 33, 35.
  14. ^ Diod. xiv. 101.
  15. ^ Diod. xv. 7.
  16. ^ xvi. 15.
  17. ^ Livy Epit. xi.; Pliny xxxiv. 6. s. 15; Valerius Maximus i. 8. § 6.
  18. ^ Appian, Samn. 7. § 1.
  19. ^ Liv. xxii. 61, xxv. 1.
  20. ^ Id. xxv. 15; Appian, Hann. 34.
  21. ^ Appian, Hann. 49.
  22. ^ Appian, l. c., 57.
  23. ^ Liv. xxxiv. 53; Strabo vi. p. 263.
  24. ^ Liv. xxxv. 9.
  25. ^ Strabo l. c.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Θούριοι; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 164.
  26. ^ Appian, B.C. i. 117.
  27. ^ Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Civili iii. 21, 22.
  28. ^ Appian, B.C. v. 56, 58.
  29. ^ Strabo vi. p. 263; Plin. iii. 11. s. 15; Ptol. iii. 1. § 12.
  30. ^ Antonine Itinerary p. 114, where it is written Turios; Tabula Peutingeriana.
  31. ^ Procop. B. G. i. 15.
  32. ^ Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Bernasconi, Maria Pia (2009). "Sybaris-Thuri-Copia trilogy: three delta coastal sites become land-locked". Méditerranée (112): 75–86. doi:10.4000/mediterranee.3190.
  33. ^ Diod. xii. 10; Strab. l. c.
  34. ^ Henry Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. pp. 291, 292; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 236.

External links

  • Media related to Thurii at Wikimedia Commons
Alexis (poet)

Alexis (Greek: Ἄλεξις; c. 375 – c. 275 BC) was a Greek comic poet of the Middle Comedy period. He was born at Thurii (in present-day Calabria, Italy) in Magna Graecia and taken early to Athens, where he became a citizen, being enrolled in the deme Oion (Οἶον) and the tribe Leontides. It is thought he lived to the age of 106 and died on the stage while being crowned. According to the Suda, a 10th-century encyclopedia, Alexis was the paternal uncle of the dramatist Menander and wrote 245 comedies, of which only fragments now survive, including some 130 preserved titles.

Archias of Thurii

Archias (Ancient Greek: Ἀρχίας) of Thurii was an actor turned military agent of the Macedonian general Antipater in the 4th century BCE in ancient Greece. He was nicknamed "the hunter of the exiles" (φυγαδοθήρας).

Archias was originally trained as a rhetor under Anaximenes of Lampsacus and Lacritus before becoming an actor. In his career as a tragic actor, he was said to have achieved some renown, performing in Athens and elsewhere. Plutarch mentions him as having been the mentor of the great actor Polus of Aegina, as well as having once won the Lenaia around 330, despite being, as far as Athens was concerned, a "foreigner".Archias is more known to history as a servant of the Macedonian statesman Antipater, probably for money. He was not an Athenian, but neither was he a Macedonian, and seemed to have no affiliation with any political parties, so later historians have assumed his motivations to have been mercenary in nature. Archias was sent in 322, after the Battle of Crannon, to apprehend the anti-Macedonian orators whom Antipater had demanded of the Athenians, and who had fled from Athens. Archias seized Hypereides, Aristonicos, and Himeraeus, and had them dragged from the sanctuary of Aeacus in Aegina, and transported to Cleonae in Argolis, where they were executed - quite gruesomely in the case of Hypereides.

Archias also apprehended the renowned Greek statesman and orator Demosthenes in the temple of Poseidon in Calaureia, leading to Demosthenes's suicide after a memorable exchange recorded by Plutarch.An otherwise unknown "Archias" is mentioned by Arrian as having escorted Antipater's daughter Nicaea of Macedon to Asia around 322, whom some scholars (such as Karl Julius Beloch) identify with Archias of Thurii.Archias's fortunes at some point afterward took a downward turn. He eventually died of hunger, ending his life in great poverty and disgrace.

Battle of Heraclea

The Battle of Heraclea took place in 280 BC between the Romans under the command of consul Publius Valerius Laevinus, and the combined forces of Greeks from Epirus, Tarentum, Thurii, Metapontum, and Heraclea under the command of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. Although the battle was a victory for the Greeks, their casualties were so high that they were eventually compelled to withdraw from Italy. It is from this battle that the term "pyrrhic victory" is derived, meaning a victory at such high cost as to amount to a defeat.

Battle of Thurii

The naval Battle of Thurii was fought between Ancient Rome and the Greek colony of TarentumFollowing the battle, Tarentum appealed to Pyrrhus, ruler of Epirus, for military aid. Motivated by his diplomatic obligations to Tarentum, and a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men and a contingent of war elephants on Italian soil in 280 BC, where his forces were joined by the Greeks and a portion of the Samnites who revolted against Roman control.

Calandro River

The Calandro River (Latin: Acalandrus, Ancient Greek: Ἀκάλανδρος), is a river of southern Italy, flowing into the Gulf of Taranto a little north of Roseto Capo Spulico, and about 10 miles (16 km) south of the mouth of the Siris (modern Sinni).

It is mentioned as a river of Lucania by both Pliny and Strabo, the former of whom appears to place it to the north of Heraclea: but his authority is not very distinct, and Strabo, on the contrary, clearly states that it was in the territory of Thurii, on which account Alexander of Epirus sought to transfer to its banks the general assembly of the Italian Greeks that had been previously held at Heraclea. It was probably the boundary between the territories of Heraclea and Thurii.

A canal on Mars was named Acalandrus for this river.

Clinomachus

Clinomachus (Greek: Κλεινόμαχος; 4th-century BC), was a Megarian philosopher from Thurii. He is said by Diogenes Laërtius to have been the first who composed treatises on the fundamental principles of dialectics, and is described as the founder of the Dialectical school. According to the Suda, he was the disciple of Euclid of Megara, and he taught Bryson, the teacher of Pyrrho. He thus lived towards the earlier half of the 4th century BC.

Deme

In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Greek: δῆμος) modern Municipality was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene, or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.

Dionysius Chalcus

Dionysius Chalcus (Greek: Διονύσιος ὁ Χαλκοῦς) was an ancient Athenian poet and orator. According to Athenaeus, he was called Chalcus ("brazen") because he advised the Athenians to adopt a brass coinage (xv. p. 669). His speeches have not survived, but his poems are referred to and quoted by such authors as Plutarch (Nicias, 5), Aristotle (Rhetoric, iii. 2), and Athenaeus (xv, p. 668, 702; x, p. 443; xiii, p. 602). The extant fragments are chiefly elegies on symposiac subjects and are characterized by extravagant metaphors.Plutarch credits Dionysius Chalcus with leading the band of Athenian colonists who founded Thurii in 443 BC.

Euthydemus (dialogue)

Euthydemus (Greek: Εὐθύδημος, Euthydemos), written c. 384 BC, is a dialogue by Plato which satirizes what Plato presents as the logical fallacies of the Sophists. In it, Socrates describes to his friend Crito a visit he and various youths paid to two brothers, Euthydemus and Dionysodorus, both of whom were prominent Sophists from Chios and Thurii.

The Euthydemus contrasts Socratic argumentation and education with the methods of Sophism, to the detriment of the latter. Throughout the dialogue, Euthydemus and Dionysodorus continually attempt to ensnare Socrates with what are presented as deceptive and meaningless arguments, primarily to demonstrate their professed philosophical superiority.

As in many of the Socratic dialogues, the two Sophists against whom Socrates argues were indeed real people. Euthydemus was somewhat famous at the time the dialogue was written, and is mentioned several times by both Plato and Aristotle. Likewise, Dionysodorus is mentioned by Xenophon.

Euthydemus of Chios

Euthydemus of Chios (Latin: Euthydemus, Greek: Εὐθύδημος) also Euthydemos was a Greek sophist born in Chios who emigrated with his brother Dionysodorus to Thurii in Italy. When exiled from this city, he went to Athens where he lived for many years. Euthydemus was an older contemporary of Socrates. Plato mentions his ideas in a dialogue called Euthydemus, but due to his eristic views and arguments thought that not historical personal. But his historicity is proved by independent references by Aristotle.

Gaius Octavius

Gaius Octavius was a name used for men among the gens Octavia. Gaius was one of the four chief praenomina used by the Octavii, the other three being Gnaeus, Marcus and Lucius. The most celebrated member was the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar's great-nephew and adoptive son, who later became the first Roman emperor, famously known as Augustus.

Gaius Octavius also refers to men from several families of the gens Octavia:

Relatives of Augustus, member of the so-called Octavii Rufi:

Gaius Octavius (tribune 216 BC) (fl. 216 BC), military tribune in 216 BC, son of Gaius Octavius who was of the equestrian order and son of Gnaeus Octavius Rufus, and great-grandfather of Augustus;

Gaius Octavius (proconsul) (c. 100–59 BC), grandson of the previous, praetor in 61 BC, governorpraefectus pro praetor of Roman Macedonia, conqueror of Thurii, father of Augustus and first husband of Atia, niece of Julius Caesar;

Augustus (Gaius Octavius Thurinus, 63 BC–AD 14), son of the previous, first Roman Emperor, great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar as Gaius Julius Caesar OctavianusMembers of other families:

Gaius Octavius Laenas, curator of the aqueducts in Rome (AD 34–38) during the reigns of Tiberius and Caligula

Gaius Octavius Lampadio, a grammarian who divided the poem of Naevius on the First Punic War into seven books

Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus, senator and twice consul (214 and 240)

Gaius Octavius (tribune 216 BC)

Gaius Octavius (fl. 216 BC) was a Roman army officer who was active during the third century BC. He was the son of the equestrian Gaius Octavius and grandson of the quaestor Gnaeus Octavius Rufus, also the father of Velitrae's magistrate Gaius Octavius, grandfather of praetor Gaius Octavius and great-grandfather of Roman emperor Augustus (reigning 27 BC - 14 AD). When Marcus Antonius tried to show his contempt against Augustus, he said that Octavius was a freedman and rope-maker from Thurii.During the Second Punic War, Octavius served as military tribune and participated in the disastrous battle of Cannae, being one of few survivors. When the Carthaginians marched into the Roman camp, Octavius and his colleague, tribune P. Sempronius Tuditanus, managed to cut their way through the enemy and arrived safely in Canusium. He served in Sicilia (modern Sicily) under the praetor Lucius Aemilius Papus in 205 BC, but it is unknown whether he took part in some other expedition.

Gulf of Taranto

The Gulf of Taranto (Italian: Golfo di Taranto; Tarantino: Gurfe de Tarde; Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea, in Southern Italy.

The Gulf of Taranto is almost square, 140 km (87 mi) long and wide, and is delimited by the capes Santa Maria di Leuca (to the east, in Apulia) and Colonna (the ancient Lacinium, to the west, in Calabria), encompassed by the three regions of Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria. The most important rivers are the Basento, the Sinni, and the Agri.

The main cities on the gulf are Taranto and Gallipoli. Also the Greek colonies (Magna Graecia) of Kroton, Heraclea, Thurii, and Sybaris were founded on the Gulf of Taranto.

Italy claims the whole gulf as national waters, thus closed to international traffic. This position, which is similar to that of Libya on the Gulf of Sidra, is not recognized by some other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

List of speakers in Plato's dialogues

The following is a list of the speakers found in the dialogues traditionally ascribed to Plato, including extensively quoted, indirect and conjured speakers. Dialogues, as well as Platonic Epistles and Epigrams, in which these individuals appear dramatically but do not speak are listed separately.

Unnamed speakers

Patrocles

Patrocles name may refer to:

Patrocles of Thurii (5th century BC), tragic poet

Patrocles teacher of rhetoric mentioned by Quintilian

Patrocles (geographer) (c. 312-261 BC), Macedonian general and writer under Seleucus and Antiochus

Noël Patrocles de Thoisy (died 1671), early governor general of the French Antilles

Phyle

Phyle (Greek: φυλή, romanized: phulē, "tribe, clan"; pl. phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for tribe or clan. Members of the same phyle were known as symphyletai (Greek: συμφυλέται), literally: fellow tribesmen. They were usually ruled by a basileus. Some of them can be classified by their geographic location: the Geleontes, the Argadeis, the Hopletes, and the Agikoreis, in Ionia ; the Hylleans, the Pamphyles, the Dymanes, in the Dorian region.

Sybaris

Sybaris (Ancient Greek: Σύβαρις; Italian: Sibari) was an important city of Magna Graecia. It was situated on the Gulf of Taranto, in Southern Italy, between two rivers, the Crathis (Crati) and the Sybaris (Coscile).

The city was founded in 720 BC by Achaean and Troezenian settlers. Sybaris amassed great wealth thanks to its fertile land and busy port. Its inhabitants became famous among the Greeks for their hedonism, feasts, and excesses, to the extent that "sybarite" and "sybaritic" have become bywords for opulent luxury and outrageous pleasure-seeking.

In 510/09 BC the city was subjugated by its neighbor Kroton and its population driven out. Sybaris became a dependent ally of Kroton, but Kroton again besieged the city in 476/5 BC, probably resulting in another victory for Kroton. Two attempts to reoccupy the city failed around 452/1 BC and 446/5 BC when the remaining Sybarites were again expelled by the Krotoniates. After a call for help the Sybarites reoccupied their city later in 446/5 BC with the assistance of new settlers from Athens and other cities in the Peloponnese. This coexistence did not last long: the Sybarites got into a conflict with the new colonists and were ousted for the last time in the summer of 445 BC. In sum, the city saw a total of five periods of occupation separated by expulsion. The new settlers then proceeded to found the city of Thurii in 444/3 BC, a new colony which was built partially on top of the site of Sybaris. The surviving Sybarites founded Sybaris on the Traeis.

The ruins of Sybaris and Thurii became forgotten as they were buried by sediment from the Crati river over time. The ruins were rediscovered and excavated in the 1960s by Donald Freeman Brown. Today they can be found southeast of Sibari, a frazione in the comune of Cassano allo Ionio in the Province of Cosenza, Calabria region, Italy.

Sybaris on the Traeis

Sybaris on the Traeis was an ancient city of Magna Grecia situated on the Traeis river, now known as the Trionto. It shares its name with the original city of Sybaris (Ancient Greek: Σύβαρις) which was destroyed in 510 BC. Its former inhabitants built a new city, Thurii, not far from the site of Sybaris. This new colony was founded together with other Greek settlers in 446/445 BC. Soon a conflict arose between the two groups and most of the Sybarites were killed by the other Greek colonists of Thurii. The Sybarites who managed to flee then founded Sybaris on the Traeis a short time after 444 BC. The city was destroyed by the Bruttii not long after their emergence as an ethnic group in 356/355 BC.

In the present day the Trionto river flows through the Province of Cosenza in Calabria, Italy. The mouth of the river lies approximately 25 kilometers southeast of the site of Thurii. The exact location of Sybaris on the Traeis has not been found along the course of the Trionto yet.

Terranova da Sibari

Terranova da Sibari (Calabrian: Terranova di Sibbari) is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It is located on a hill between the river Crati and the last stretches of the Sila Mountains, at some 20 kilometres (12 miles) from the Ionian Sea. Refugees from the ancient city of Thurii founded Terranova after the destruction of their city in the war against Croton.

Once known as Terranova del Vallo and Terranova di Calabria Citra, it received the current name after the unification of Italy, referring to the ancient cities of Thurii and Sybaris.

The main attractions include the feudal castle, the Torre Acquanova fountain and six medieval-Baroque churches.

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