Three Rivers Stadium

Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League (NFL).

Built as a replacement for Forbes Field, which opened in 1909, the US$55 million ($375.8 million today) multi-purpose facility was designed to maximize efficiency. Ground was broken in April 1968 and an oft behind-schedule construction plan lasted for 29 months.[6] The stadium opened on July 16, 1970, when the Pirates played their first game there. In the 1971 World Series, Three Rivers Stadium hosted the first World Series game played at night. The following year, the stadium was the site of the Immaculate Reception. The final game in the stadium was won by the Steelers on December 16, 2000. Three Rivers Stadium also hosted the Pittsburgh Maulers of the United States Football League and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers football team for a single season each.[7][8]

After its closing, Three Rivers Stadium was imploded in 2001, and the Pittsburgh Pirates and Pittsburgh Steelers moved into newly built stadiums: PNC Park and Heinz Field, respectively.

Three Rivers Stadium
The Blast Furnace
The House that Clemente Built
Three Rivers Stadium logo
Three Rivers Stadium
Location600 Stadium Circle
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212
Coordinates40°26′48″N 80°0′46″W / 40.44667°N 80.01278°WCoordinates: 40°26′48″N 80°0′46″W / 40.44667°N 80.01278°W
OwnerCity of Pittsburgh
OperatorPittsburgh Stadium Authority
CapacityFootball: 59,000
Baseball: 47,971
Field sizeLeft Field — 335 ft / 102 m
Left-Center — 375 ft / 114 m
Center Field — 400 ft / 122 m
Right-Center — 375 ft / 114 m
Right Field — 335 ft / 102 m
Wall height — 10 ft / 3 m
SurfaceTartan Turf (1970–1982)
AstroTurf (1983–2000)
Construction
Broke groundApril 25, 1968
OpenedJuly 16, 1970
ClosedDecember 16, 2000
DemolishedFebruary 11, 2001
Construction costUS$55 million
($376 million in 2018 dollars[1])
ArchitectDeeter Ritchy Sipple
Michael Baker, Jr.
Structural engineerOsborn Engineering
Services engineerElwood S. Tower Consulting Engineers[2]
General contractorHuber, Hunt & Nichols/Mascaro[3]
Tenants
Pittsburgh Pirates (MLB) (1970–2000)
Pittsburgh Steelers (NFL) (1970–2000)
Duquesne Dukes (1971)[4]
Pittsburgh Maulers (USFL) (1984)
Pittsburgh Panthers (NCAA) (2000)
DesignatedNovember 26, 2007[5]

History

Planning and construction

A proposal for a new sports stadium in Pittsburgh was first made in 1948; however, plans did not attract much attention until the late 1950s.[9] The Pittsburgh Pirates played their home games at Forbes Field, which opened in 1909,[10] and was the second oldest venue in the National League (Philadelphia's Connie Mack Stadium was oldest, having opened only two months earlier than Forbes). The Pittsburgh Steelers, who had moved from Forbes Field to Pitt Stadium in 1964, were large supporters of the project.[9] For their part, according to longtime Pirates announcer Bob Prince, the Pirates wanted a bigger place to play in order to draw more revenue.[11]

In 1958, the Pirates sold Forbes to the University of Pittsburgh for $2 million ($17.4 million today). The university wanted the land for expanded graduate facilities.[11] As part of the deal, the university leased Forbes back to the Pirates until a replacement could be built.[12] An early design of the stadium included plans to situate the stadium atop a bridge across the Monongahela River. It was to call for a 70,000-seat stadium with hotels, marina, and a 100-lane bowling alley.[13] Plans of the "Stadium over the Monongahela" were eventually not pursued.[14] A design was presented in 1958 which featured an open center field design—through which fans could view Pittsburgh's "Golden Triangle".[15] A site on the city's Northside was approved on August 10, 1958, due to land availability and parking space,[15] the latter of which had been a problem at Forbes Field.[9] The same site had hosted Exposition Park, which the Pirates had left in 1909.[16] The stadium was located in a hard-to-access portion of downtown, making it hard in later years to get in before games and leave after games.[11] Political debate continued over the North Side Sports Stadium and the project was often behind schedule and over-budget.[15] Arguments were made by commissioner (and former Allegheny County Medical Examiner) Dr. William McCelland that the Pirates and Steelers should fund a higher percentage of the $33 million project ($254.8 million today). Due to lack of support, however, the arguments faded.[15][17]

Boat pulls a water skier from the confluence of the Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio Rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh toward Three Rivers Stadium on the northern shore of the Ohio River, circa 1977.

Ground was broken on April 25, 1968,[15] and due to the Steelers' suggestions, the design was changed to enclose center field.[15] Construction continued, though it became plagued with problems such as thieves stealing materials from the building site.[15] In April 1969, construction was behind schedule and the target opening of April 1970 was deemed unlikely.[18] That November, Arthur Gratz asked the city for an additional $3 million ($20.5 million today), which was granted.[19] In January 1970, the new target date was set for May 29; however, because of a failure to install the lights on schedule, opening day was pushed back to July 16.[19] The stadium was named in February 1969 for to its location at the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River, which forms the Ohio River.[20][21] It would sometimes be called The House That Clemente Built after Pirates' right-fielder Roberto Clemente.[22]

Opening Day

In their first game after the All-Star Break in 1970, the Pirates opened the stadium against Cincinnati on Thursday, July 16.[23][24] The team donned new uniform designs for the first time that day, a similar plan was for new "mini-skirts" for female ushers. However, the ushers' union declined the uniform change for female workers.[25] A parade was held before opening ceremonies. The expansive parking lot, both Pirates and Steelers team offices, the Allegheny Club (VIP Club) and the press boxes and facilities were not opened until weeks later due to extended labor union work stoppages. Instead of allowing cars to park, the team instructed fans to park downtown and walk to the stadium over bridges or take shuttle buses. The opening of Three Rivers marked the first time the Pirates allowed beer to be sold in the stands during a game since the early 1960s.[25]

During batting practice on that day, a stray foul ball hit a woman named Evelyn Jones in the eye while she was walking the stadium's concourse. She sued the Pirates and their subsidiary that managed the stadium, arguing that the Baseball Rule, which usually prevents spectators at baseball games from holding teams liable for foul ball injuries, did not apply because she was away from the seating areas and not watching what was going on on the field. A jury awarded Jones $125,000, but it was reversed on appeal. That decision was in turn reversed by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, which agreed with her argument about the Baseball Rule and also noted that the opening to the concourse through which the foul had passed was a purely architectural choice that was not necessary to the game of baseball.[26]

Design and alterations

Three Rivers Stadium aerial view 1996
A Steelers game in 1996

Three Rivers Stadium was similar in design to other stadiums built in the 1960s and 1970s, such as Riverfront Stadium, the Houston Astrodome, and Busch Memorial Stadium, which were designed as multi-purpose facilities to maximize efficiency.[27][28] Due to their similar design these stadiums were nicknamed "cookie-cutter" or "concrete doughnut" ballparks.[11] The sight lines were more favorable to football; almost 70% of the seats in the baseball configuration were in fair territory.[11] It originally seated 50,611 for baseball,[11] but several expansions over the years brought it to 58,729.[29] In 1993, the Pirates placed tarps on most of the upper deck to create a better baseball atmosphere, reducing capacity to 47,687.[11][30][31]

Three Rivers was the first multi-purpose stadium and the first in either the NFL or MLB to feature 3M's Tartan Turf (then a competitor to the dominant AstroTurf), which was installed for opening day.[32][33] It had a dirt skin infield on the basepaths for baseball through 1972,[23] until converted to "sliding pits" at the bases for 1973.[34] Renovations for the start of the 1983 baseball season included replacing the Tartan Turf with AstroTurf, the center field Stewart-Warner scoreboard being removed and replaced with new seating—while a new Diamond Vision scoreboard with a White Way messageboard was installed at the top of the center field upper deck—and the outfield fence being painted blue from the previous aqua.[35][36] The field originally used "Gamesaver vacuum vehicles" to dry the surface, though they were later replaced by an underground drainage system.[33]

In 1975, the baseball field's outfield fences were moved ten feet (3 m) closer to home plate, in an attempt to boost home run numbers.[33] The bullpens were moved to multiple locations throughout the stadium's history; however, their first position was also their final one—beyond the right-field fence.[33] A Pittsburgh Post-Gazette story in 1970 stated that the new stadium boasted 1,632 floodlight bulbs.[37]

Wagner statue 930606
Honus Wagner statue
at Three Rivers

Due to Three Rivers Stadium's multi-purpose design, bands including Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, The Rolling Stones, and The Who hosted concerts at the venue.[38][39] On August 11, 1985,[40] Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band hosted the largest concert in Pittsburgh history, when they performed for 65,935 on-lookers.[41] And in 1992, the Pittsburgh Penguins celebrated their second Stanley Cup victory at the Stadium.[39] The stadium hosted various Jehovah's Witnesses conventions, including international conventions in 1973 and 1978, and a centennial conference in 1984. A Billy Graham Crusade took place at Three Rivers in June, 1993.[42] The venue also served as the premiere of the 1994 Disney film Angels in the Outfield which, despite being based around the California Angels, paid homage to the original 1951 film, which featured the Pirates in "heavenly" need.[43]

Three Rivers Stadium had a beverage contract with Coca-Cola throughout its history. It was during the Steelers' stay in Three Rivers that the now famous "Mean Joe" Greene Coke commercial aired, leading to a longstanding relationship between the two. When Heinz Field opened, Coca-Cola also assumed the beverage contract for that stadium (the Pirates signed a deal with Pepsi for PNC Park before signing with Coke again in 2014), and also became the primary sponsor for the Steelers' team Hall of Fame, the Coca-Cola Great Hall. After the initial 10-year contract expired, Heinz Field contracted with Pepsi for exclusive pouring rights, breaking a 50-year tradition with the Steelers.

Replacement

By the early 1990s, the multipurpose stadiums had gone out of fashion. They were considered by many to be ugly and obsolete, as well as not financially viable. Joining a wave of sports construction that swept the United States in the '90s, both the Pirates and Steelers began a push for a new stadium. This eventually culminated in the Regional Renaissance Initiative, an 11-county 1997 voter referendum to raise the sales tax in Pittsburgh's Allegheny County and ten surrounding counties ½% for seven years to fund separate new stadiums for the Pirates and Steelers, as well as an expansion of the David L. Lawrence Convention Center and various other local development projects. After being hotly debated throughout the entire southwestern Pennsylvania region the initiative was soundly defeated in all 11 counties; only in Allegheny County was it even close (58-42).

The initiative's defeat led to the development of "Plan B", an alternate finding proposal that used a combination of monies from the Allegheny Regional Asset District (an extra 1% sales tax levied on Allegheny County), state and federal monies and a number of other sources. Despite polls which showed that the public was opposed to this plan as well, on February 3, 1999, the state funding portion of "Plan B" passed the Pennsylvania State House and Senate, clearing the way for construction.

Ground was broken for the new stadiums in 1999.[44][45] On October 1, 2000, the Pirates were defeated 10–9 by the Chicago Cubs in their final game at Three Rivers Stadium.[31] After the game, former Pirate Willie Stargell threw out the ceremonial last pitch (he died the following April hours before the first regular season game was played at PNC Park).[46] Two months later on December 16, 2000, the Steelers concluded play at Three Rivers Stadium, with a 24-3 victory over the Washington Redskins.[47]

Three Rivers Stadium was imploded on February 11, 2001, at 8:03 a.m. on a chilly 21 °F (−6 °C) day. Over 20,000 people viewed the implosion from Point State Park. Another 3,000-4,000 viewing from atop Mount Washington and an uncounted number of people viewed the demolition from various high points across the city. Mark Loizeaux of Controlled Demolition, Inc. pushed the button that set off the 19-second implosion, while Elizabeth and Joseph King pushed the "ceremonial old fashioned dynamite plunger".[48] The demolition cost $5.1 million and used 4,800 pounds (2,180 kg) of explosive.[49][50] With the newly constructed Heinz Field only 80 feet (24 m) away, effects from the blast were a concern. Doug Loizeaux, vice president of Controlled Demolition, Inc., was happy to report that there was no debris within 40 feet (12 m) of Heinz Field.

At the time of the demolition, Three Rivers Stadium still had $27.93 million in debt ($39.5 million today), some of it from the original construction but the rest from renovations in the mid-1980s, bringing more criticism to the public funding of sports stadiums. The debt was finally retired by 2010.[51][52]

Like most stadiums demolished during this time whose replacements were located nearby (including the Civic Arena over a decade later), the site of Three Rivers Stadium mostly became a parking lot. Much like the Pittsburgh Penguins would do with the site of Civic Arena, the Steelers retained development rights to the site of Three Rivers, and would later build Stage AE on portions of the site, as well as an office building that hosts the studios for Root Sports Pittsburgh, the headquarters of StarKist Tuna, and the regional headquarters of Del Monte Foods. On December 23, 2012, on the 40th anniversary of the Immaculate Reception, the Steelers unveiled a monument at the exact spot where Franco Harris made the reception in the parking lot.[53] In 2015, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette moved into a new office building also built on a portion on the site after 53 years in the former Pittsburgh Press building and more than two centuries in Downtown.[54]

In 2011, the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review reported that the Three Rivers Stadium website was still active, 11 years after the facility's demolition.[55] The newspaper has revisited the issue and reported several times that the website remained active.[56][57]

Seating capacity

Baseball
Years Capacity
1970
50,500
1971–1978
50,235
1979
50,364
1980
50,230
1981–1982
54,598
1983
54,490
1984
58,365
1985
58,429
1986–1987
58,437
1988–1989
58,727
1990–1992
58,729
1993–2000
47,952
Football
Years Capacity
1970–1979
50,350
1980–1982
54,000
1983–1990
59,000
1991–2000
59,600

Stadium usage

Panthers

The Pitt Panthers played at Three Rivers Stadium on multiple occasions. The Panthers played their full home schedule here for the 2000 season. The Panthers went 7-3 in the stadium. They played here in the following games:

1975: #10 Penn State 7 vs #17 Pitt Panthers 6

1976: Penn State 7 vs #1 Pitt Panthers 24

1982: #5 North Carolina 6 vs #1 Pitt Panthers 7

1998: West Virginia 52 vs Pitt Panthers 14

2000: Kent State 7 vs Pitt Panthers 30

2000: Penn State 0 vs Pitt Panthers 12

2000: Rutgers 17 vs Pitt Panthers 29

2000: Boston College 26 vs Pitt Panthers 42

2000: North Carolina 20 vs Pitt Panthers 17

2000: West Virginia 28 vs Pitt Panthers 38

Pirates

Three Rivers Stadium opened on July 16, 1970, but the Pirates lost 3–2 to the Cincinnati Reds in front of 48,846 spectators.[30][58] The first pitch was thrown by Dock Ellis—a strike—to Ty Cline.[59] The first hit in the stadium was by Pittsburgh's Richie Hebner, in the bottom of the first inning.[59] The Pirates lifted their local blackout policy so that local fans could see the inaugural game.[60] The Pirates' lowest season of attendance was 1985, at an average of 9,085.[61] The average attendance would peak in 1991, when the Pirates averaged 25,498 per game.[61] Game one of the 1970 NLCS, at Three Rivers Stadium, was the first postseason baseball game to be played on an artificial surface.[14] The following season, the Pirates advanced to the World Series against the Baltimore Orioles. Three Rivers Stadium hosted game four, in which the Pirates defeated the Orioles in the first night game in the history of the World Series.[14] Pittsburgh hosted its third All-Star Game in 1974. The National League won the game 7–2 and the Pirates' Ken Brett was the winning pitcher.[62] In 1979, the Pirates again won a World Championship, yet again defeating the Baltimore Orioles in a seven-game World Series. Games 3, 4 and 5 of the Series were played at Three Rivers. 15 years later, the midsummer classic returned in 1994. With 59,568 in attendance, the largest crowd to ever attend a baseball game at the stadium,[30] the National League won 8-7 in the 10th inning. On July 6, 1980, the Pirates beat the Chicago Cubs 5-4 in 20 innings—the most innings ever played at the stadium. The longest game at the stadium was played on August 6, 1989, when Jeff King hit a walk-off home run 5 hours and 42 minutes into the 18-inning contest, as the Pirates once again beat the Cubs 5-4.[63] On September 30, 1972, Pirates' right-fielder Roberto Clemente got his 3,000th hit at Three Rivers Stadium, three months before his death.[14]

Bobby Bonilla hit one of the only 13 home runs ever hit into the upper deck of Three Rivers Stadium, and one of the six to the right-field side. Willie Stargell is the all-time leader in upper deck shots at the stadium, hitting four of the remaining five right-field blasts; Mark Whiten hit the other. The left-field upper deck had been reached by Jeff Bagwell twice, and Bob Robertson, Greg Luzinski, Howard Johnson, Glenallen Hill and Devon White (his home run struck the facade) once each.[64]

Steelers

The Pittsburgh Steelers played their first game in Three Rivers Stadium on September 20, 1970—a 19–7 loss to the Houston Oilers.[31] Throughout their 31 seasons in Three Rivers Stadium, the Steelers posted a record of 182–72, including a 13-5 playoff record, and defeated every visiting franchise at least once from the stadium's opening to close, enjoying perfect records there against seven teams. The Steelers sold out every home game from 1972 through the closing of the stadium, a streak which continues through 2008.[66] The largest attendance for a football game was on January 15, 1995, when 61,545 spectators witnessed the Steelers lose to the San Diego Chargers.[31] On December 23, 1972, Three Rivers Stadium was site to the Immaculate Reception, which became regarded as one of the greatest plays in NFL history.[65] Three Rivers Stadium hosted seven AFC Championship Games from 1972 to 1998;[31][67] the Steelers won four.[68] In the 1995 AFC Championship game, the Steelers' Randy Fuller deflected a Hail Mary pass intended for Indianapolis Colts receiver Aaron Bailey as time expired, to send the franchise to their 5th Super Bowl.[67][67] A Steelers symbol recognized worldwide, The Terrible Towel debuted on December 27, 1975, at Three Rivers Stadium. The Steelers would move to Heinz Field after it was closed.[69]

Concerts

References

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Bibliography

  • Gershman, Michael (1993). Diamonds: The Evolution of the Ballpark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-61212-5.
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  • McCollister, John (1998). The Bucs! The Story of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Lenexa, Kansas: Addax Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-886110-40-3.
  • Mehno, John (1995). "History of the Stadium". Pittsburgh Pirates Official 1995 Commemorative Yearbook. Sports Media, Inc.

External links

1974 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1974 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 45th playing of the midsummer classic between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 23, 1974, at Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania the home of the Pittsburgh Pirates of the National League. The game resulted in the National League defeating the American League 7–2.

This marked the third time the Pirates had been host for the All-Star Game (the first two having been in 1944 and the first game in 1959). This would be the first of two times that the game would be played at Three Rivers Stadium, with the stadium hosting again in 1994.

1975 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1975 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 43rd in the National Football League. They would be the second championship team in club history. This Steelers team entered the beginning of the season as defending champions for the first time in their 40-year history. The team was led by a dominating defense and a quick offense, and won Super Bowl X over the Dallas Cowboys, 21-17. The team posted their best defensive numbers since 1946, and scored more points than any other Steelers team to that point.

1977 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1977 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 45th in the National Football League. After what was considered the franchise's greatest season ever in 1976, the 1977 Pittsburgh Steelers failed to improve on their 10-4 record from 1976 and finished with a 9-5 record, however they appeared in the playoffs for their 6th straight season. The Steelers were not as sharp as usual, as they won the AFC Central with a 9–5 record. They had a hard time for most of the season as their record hovered around .500. Even the Steel curtain seemed to have a little wear and tear allowing 243 points on the season, more than 100 more than the previous season. The sloppy plays would catch up with them in the Divisional Playoffs when they are knocked off by the Broncos 34–21 in Denver.

1979 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1979 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 47th season in the National Football League. The Steelers successfully defend their Super Bowl Championship from the previous year as they achieved a 12–4 record and went on to defeat the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl XIV. The Steelers started out to a 4-0 record. Adding to the previous season, the Steelers had won 12 in a row. They finished the regular season at 12-4. In six of those games the opponents were held to a touchdown or less. In the playoffs Pittsburgh defeated Miami, 34-14 and then for the second consecutive season beat Houston 27-13, in the AFC championship game. Finally defeating the Los Angeles Rams 31-19 in Super Bowl XIV.

With the win, and the Pittsburgh Pirates win in the 1979 World Series, Pittsburgh would be the last city to claim Super Bowl and World Series wins in the same year until 1986 when the New York Mets won the World Series in 7 games over the Boston Red Sox, and the New York Giants won Super Bowl XXI 39–20 over the Denver Broncos.

1981 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1981 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 49th in the National Football League. After enduring an injury plagued 9–7 season the previous year, and missing the playoffs for the first time since 1971, the Steelers had hoped that the 1980 season was just a small hiatus from contending for championships. However, while the Steelers had flashes of their former glory years after starting the season with 2 unimpressive losses, the 1981 season would end in an 8-8 record and eventually prove to be the beginning of the end of the Steelers great dynasty of the 1970s.

1982 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1982 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 50th in the National Football League. The steelers returned to the playoffs after missing the playoffs for two years. This was also the Steelers 50th Anniversary season. Although the season was shortened as a result of the 1982 strike, the Steelers finished a strong 6–3 record, good enough for fourth in the AFC as a whole. Although division standings were thrown out as a result of the strike, the Steelers unofficially finished second in the AFC Central, one game behind defending AFC Champion Cincinnati.

The 1982 season is best remembered as the final seasons for Hall of Famers Lynn Swann and Jack Ham and the "unofficial" final season of fellow Hall of Famer Terry Bradshaw, who would miss much of the 1983 season due to injuries before retiring. On the flip side, it would also be the first year of placekicker Gary Anderson and the first year of the team using a 3-4 defense, a style still used by the team as of 2017

The Steelers would lose in the first round of the playoffs to the San Diego Chargers, in what would be the last home playoff game for the Steelers for the next ten years.

1988 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1988 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 56th in the National Football League. The season began the season with the death of Hall of Fame team founder & owner Art Rooney at age 87 less than two weeks before the start of the season on August 25. The team would wear AJR patches on the left shoulder the entire season in memory of "The Chief".

The team finished the season at 5–11 failing to improve on their 8-7 record from 1987, and their worst record since finishing an NFL-worst 1–13 in 1969. As of 2018, the 5–11 mark remains the team's worst record since 1969, and have only finished with ten losses twice since, in 1999 and 2003.

The Steelers got of to a disappointing start. After winning their home opener against the Dallas Cowboys, the team lost 6 straight, their first 6 game losing streak since 1969. The team never recovered after the skid, and eventually were at one point sitting at a 2-10 record after a 27-7 loss to the Cleveland Browns. It was the Steelers worst start to a season since their 1-13 1969 season. The team had several horrible and forgetful games during the season. One of those games was their week 10 game against the Cincinnati Bengals, a game in which they lost 42-7, the most points they had allowed in a game since 1985, when they allowed 54 points against the Chargers. The Steelers would, however, finish the season on a positive note, winning 3 of its last 4 games to finish the season 5-11.

1991 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1991 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 59th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

The Steelers struggled early as Neil O'Donnell took over from Bubby Brister at quarterback. The Steelers ended the season winning their last two games, 17–10, over the Cincinnati Bengals and Cleveland Browns at Three Rivers Stadium to finish with a 7–9 record. Following the season Chuck Noll announced his retirement, ending his 23-year career in which he won four Super Bowls while posting an overall record of 209–156–1.

1992 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1992 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 60th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

The Pittsburgh Steelers celebrated their 60th Anniversary season in 1992. This was also Bill Cowher's first season as head coach following the retirement of Chuck Noll after 23 seasons. The team was coming off a 7–9 season in 1991.

Cowher led the Steelers to an 11–5 record in his first season and the top seed in the AFC playoffs. However, in what later became somewhat commonplace in Cowher's reign as coach of the Steelers, the team failed to capitalize on the seeding and lost to the eventual AFC Champion Buffalo Bills in the divisional playoffs.

1994 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1994 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 62nd season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

This season marked as their third consecutive trip to the playoffs under head coach Bill Cowher. For the second time in Cowher's three seasons as head coach of the Steelers the team was the top seed in the AFC playoffs. Pittsburgh won its first playoff game since 1989 with a win in the divisional playoffs over their division rival Cleveland Browns, but failed to advance to the Super Bowl after losing to the San Diego Chargers in the AFC Championship Game.

1996 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1996 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 64th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

This was Bill Cowher's fifth season as head coach of the Steelers, which resulted in yet another trip to the playoffs for the team, as Pittsburgh won the AFC Central Division championship for the fourth time under Cowher.

However, the team's 10–6 record was not enough to earn the Steelers a first-round bye. In their first playoff game, a rematch of the previous year's AFC Championship Game, the Steelers defeated the Colts, However, their season would come to a halt a week later as the steelers lost to the New England Patriots, 28–3.

1998 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1998 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 66th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

This season marked the first time since the 1991 season, that the Steelers failed to make the playoffs. Pittsburgh finished 7–9 after starting the season 5–2, losing their last five games to lose a spot in the playoffs. It was Bill Cowher's first losing record as coach of the Steelers.

The season was marked by a controversial ending to the team's Thanksgiving Day game against the Detroit Lions, where Jerome Bettis claimed he called the coin toss in overtime as "tails" although referee Phil Luckett heard "heads." The Lions won 19–16 and started the Steelers' losing streak to finish the season.

The inept plays of Kordell Stewart was cited as another conflict, as the fans slowly began to turn on him. After their 11–5 1997 season, Pittsburgh lost two key offensive components: Chan Gailey, the offensive coordinator who went on to become head coach of the Dallas Cowboys, and their leading receiver, Yancey Thigpen, a Pro Bowler for Pittsburgh in 1997, who joined the Tennessee Oilers.

1999 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 1999 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise’s 67th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

For the second consecutive season the Steelers have failed to make the playoffs after starting off the season by winning 5 of their first 8 games. Losing seven of the remaining eight dropped Pittsburgh to 6–10 for the year, their worst record under Bill Cowher.

The 1999 Steelers are the only NFL team since at least 1940 to concede so many as five safeties in one season.

2000 Pittsburgh Steelers season

The 2000 Pittsburgh Steelers season was the franchise's 68th season as a professional sports franchise and as a member of the National Football League.

The season began with the team trying to improve on their 6–10 record from 1999 in which they failed to qualify for the playoffs. While Pittsburgh did improve to 9–7 and had their first winning season since 1997, it was not enough for the team to qualify for the playoffs. This season also marked the Steelers' last at Three Rivers Stadium.

Coach Bill Cowher named Kent Graham as the team's starting quarterback for the season, but after an auspicious 1–3 start, Graham got hurt, and Kordell Stewart, who was a backup, took over the starting job. Graham was released at the end of the season.

Allegheny HYP Club

The Allegheny HYP Club (Harvard-Yale-Princeton Club) is a private social club in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Located at 617-619 William Penn Place, it was built in 1894 and was added to the List of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation Historic Landmarks in 2002. On July 1, 1997 the club absorbed the Pittsburgh Club membership and assets.The Pittsburgh Harvard-Yale-Princeton Club was formally founded on November 7, 1930. The club merged with the Three Rivers Stadium based Allegheny Club in 2002 after Allegheny had filed for bankruptcy protection.

List of Pittsburgh Pirates Opening Day starting pitchers

The Pittsburgh Pirates are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They play in the National League Central division. Originally known as the Alleghenys, they played in the American Association from 1882 through 1886, and have played in the National League since 1887. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Pirates have used 71 Opening Day starting pitchers since they began to play as a Major League team in 1882. The Pirates have a record of 69 wins and 60 losses in their Opening Day games.The Pirates have played in several different home ball parks. Between 1882 and 1909 they played in two parks called Exposition Park and in Recreation Park. They played in Forbes Field from 1909 to 1970 and Three Rivers Stadium from 1970 to 2000 and they have played in their current stadium, PNC Park, since 2001. They had a record of no wins and one loss in the first Exposition Park, four wins and no losses in Recreation Park and no wins and two losses in the second Exposition Park. They had a record of four wins and two losses at Forbes Field and a record of five wins and eight losses at Three Rivers Stadium. Through 2010, they have a record of two wins and one loss at PNC Park. That gives the Pirates an overall Opening Day record of 15 wins and 14 losses at home. They have a record of 54 wins and 46 losses in Opening Day games on the road.Bob Friend has made the most Opening Day starts for the Pirates, with seven. Babe Adams and Frank Killen each made five Opening Day starts for the Pirates, and Deacon Phillippe, Howie Camnitz, Cy Blanton and Bob Veale each made four Opening Day starts. Ed Morris, Pud Galvin, Wilbur Cooper, Ray Kremer, Rip Sewell, Steve Blass, Dock Ellis, Rick Rhoden, Doug Drabek and Francisco Liriano all made three Opening Day starts for the Pirates. Several Pittsburgh Pirates Opening Day starting pitchers have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, including Galvin, Burleigh Grimes, Waite Hoyt, Jim Bunning, and Bert Blyleven. Bunning was elected as both a United States congressman and senator from Kentucky after retiring from baseball.The Pirates have won nine National League titles, in 1901, 1902, 1903, 1909, 1925, 1927, 1960, 1971 and 1979. They went on to win the World Series in 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971 and 1979 (the modern World Series begin in 1903). Sam Leever was the Pirates Opening Day starting pitcher in 1901, Phillippe was the Opening Day starting pitcher in both 1902 and 1903, Camnitz was the Opening Day starting pitcher in 1909, Emil Yde in 1925, Kremer in 1927, Friend in 1960, Ellis in 1971 and Blyleven in 1979.

List of baseball parks in Pittsburgh

This is a list of venues used for professional baseball in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The information is a synthesis of the information contained in the references listed.

Note: Allegheny, Pennsylvania, the "North Side", was a separate city until 1908. The ball club changed its formal name from "Allegheny" to "Pittsburg(h)" in 1887, although the team remained physically located in the city of Allegheny.

Recreation Park

Occupants:

Allegheny - Independent (1876), joined International Association (1877–1878)

Allegheny/Pittsburgh - American Association (1884–1886), moved to National League (1887–1890)

Location: buildings and Allegheny Avenue (west, third base); Pennsylvania Avenue (north, left field); Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway (now Norfolk Southern Fort Wayne Line) (northeast, center field); buildings and Grant (now Galveston) Avenue (east, right field); Boquet (now Behan) Street (south, first base)

Currently: BusinessesExposition Park

Occupants:

Pittsburgh Stogies - Union Association (1884)

Pittsburgh Burghers - Players' League (1890)

Allegheny - American Association (1882–1883)

Pittsburgh Pirates - National League (1891 – mid-1909)

Pittsburgh - Pennsylvania State League (1892)

Pittsburgh Stogies/Rebels - Federal League (1913 as minor league, 1914–1915 as major league)

Location: South Avenue (north, first base) - corresponds to the current General Robinson Street; School Avenue (later Scotland Avenue, now Tony Dorsett Drive) (east, third base); railroad tracks and Allegheny River (south, left field) - just east of the future site of Three Rivers Stadium

Currently: Parking lot for Heinz FieldForbes Field

Occupants:

Pittsburgh Pirates - NL (mid-1909 to mid-1970)

Homestead Grays - Negro Leagues (1922–1939)

Pittsburgh Crawfords - Negro Leagues (1933–1938)

Location: Oakland district - Boquet Street (southwest, first base); Sennott Street (northwest, third base), Joncaire Street (south, right field); Schenley Park (northeast, left/center fields)

Currently: Park and buildings for University of PittsburghAmmon Field aka Ammons Field

Occupants:

Pittsburgh Crawfords - Negro Leagues (1920s and 1930s)

Homestead Grays - Negro Leagues

Location: 2217 Bedford Avenue (south); Somers Drive (east)

Currently: playground and Josh Gibson Field diamondsGreenlee Field

Occupant: Pittsburgh Crawfords - Negro Leagues (1932–1938)

Location: 2501 Bedford Avenue (south, first base); Municipal Hospital (now Garden of Hope) (east, right field)

Currently: Bedford Dwellings housing projectThree Rivers Stadium

Occupants: Pittsburgh Pirates - NL (mid-1970 – 2000)

Location: 600 Stadium Circle

Currently: Parking lot for Heinz FieldPNC Park

Occupant: Pittsburgh Pirates - NL (2001–present)

Location: 115 Federal Street - Federal Street (east, left field); General Robinson Street (north, third base); Mazeroski Way (west, first base); North Shore Trail and Allegheny River (south, right field)

Pittsburgh Maulers

The Pittsburgh Maulers were a team that competed in the 1984 season of the United States Football League. Their most prominent player was first pick overall in the 1984 USFL draft, running back Mike Rozier of Nebraska, who won the Heisman Trophy, collegiate football's most prestigious individual award.

They were owned by shopping mall magnate Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr., the father of Edward J. DeBartolo, Jr., then-owner of the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League and the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. The Maulers played at Three Rivers Stadium.

Steelers–Titans rivalry

The Steelers–Titans rivalry is a National Football League rivalry between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Tennessee Titans that dates back to the 1970s when the Steelers and then-Houston Oilers played in the AFC Central. The two teams were realigned into separate divisions for the 2002 NFL season, however matchups are still considered heated between the two teams.

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Forbes Field
Home of the Pittsburgh Pirates
1970 – 2000
Succeeded by
PNC Park
Preceded by
Pitt Stadium
Home of the Pittsburgh Steelers
1970 – 2000
Succeeded by
Heinz Field
Preceded by
Pitt Stadium
Home of the Pittsburgh Panthers
2000
Succeeded by
Heinz Field
Preceded by
Royals Stadium
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Host of the MLB All-Star Game
1974
1994
Succeeded by
Milwaukee County Stadium
The Ballpark in Arlington
Preceded by
Miami Orange Bowl
Oakland Coliseum
Mile High Stadium
Ralph Wilson Stadium
Foxboro Stadium
Host of AFC Championship Game
1973
1976
1979–1980
1995–1996
1998
Succeeded by
Miami Orange Bowl
Oakland Coliseum
Jack Murphy Stadium
Foxboro Stadium
Mile High Stadium
Franchise
Ballparks
Culture
Lore
Rivalries
Minors
World Series
Championships (5)
League pennants (9)
Division titles (9)
Wild Card berths (3)
Media
Franchise
Stadiums
Culture
Lore
Rivalries
Media
Division championships (23)
Conference championships (8)
League championships (6)
Retired numbers
Hall of Fame members
Current league affiliations
Seasons (87)
Venues
Bowls & rivalries
Culture & lore
People
Seasons
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Hockey
Soccer
Other
Venues
Historical
Defunct stadiums of the National Football League
Early era:
19201940
Merger era:
19411970
Current era:
1971–present
Stadiums
used by
NFL teams
temporarily

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