A three-point field goal (also 3-pointer, three or informally, trey) is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.
The distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association (NBA) the arc is 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) from the center of the basket; in FIBA, the WNBA, and NCAA Division I men's play the arc is 6.75 metres or 22 feet 1 3⁄4 inches; and in women's play in all three NCAA divisions, plus men's play in NCAA Divisions II and III, the arc is 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m). In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet (0.91 m) from each sideline; as a result the distance from the basket gradually decreases to a minimum of 22 feet (6.71 m). In NCAA Divisions II and III the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations (see main article).
The three-point line was first tested at the collegiate level in 1945, with a 21-foot line, in a game between Columbia and Fordham, but it was not kept as a rule. There was another one-game experiment in 1958, this time with a 23-foot line, in a game between St. Francis (N.Y.) and Siena. In 1961, Boston University and Dartmouth played one game with an experimental rule that counted all field goals as three points.
At the direction of Abe Saperstein, the American Basketball League became the first basketball league to institute the rule in 1961. Its three-point line was a radius of 25 feet (7.62 m) from the baskets, except along the sides. The Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963–64 season.
The three-point shot later became popularized by the American Basketball Association (ABA), introduced in its inaugural 1967–68 season. ABA commissioner George Mikan stated the three-pointer "would give the smaller player a chance to score and open up the defense to make the game more enjoyable for the fans." During the 1970s, the ABA used the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the NBA; its ninth and final season concluded in the spring of 1976.
Three years later in June 1979, the NBA adopted the three-point line for a one-year trial for the 1979–80 season, despite the view of many that it was a gimmick. Chris Ford of the Boston Celtics is widely credited with making the first three-point shot in NBA history on October 12, 1979; the season opener at Boston Garden was more noted for the debut of Larry Bird (and two new head coaches). Rick Barry of the Houston Rockets, in his final season, also made one in the same game, and Kevin Grevey of the Washington Bullets made one that Friday night as well.
The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot (6.71 m) line for the 1980–81 season. Ronnie Carr of Western Carolina was the first to score a three-point field goal in college basketball history on November 29, 1980. Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and distance required for a three-pointer. The line was as close as 17 ft 9 in (5.41 m) in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), and as far away as 22 ft (6.71 m) in the Big Sky.
Used only in conference play for several years, it was adopted by the NCAA in April 1986 for the 1986–87 season at 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m) and was first used in the NCAA Tournament in March 1987. The NCAA adopted the three-pointer in women's basketball on an experimental basis for that season at the same distance, and made its use mandatory beginning in 1987–88. In 2007, the NCAA lengthened the men's distance by a foot to 20 ft 9 in (6.32 m), effective with the 2008–09 season, and the women's line was moved to match the men's in 2011–12. American high schools, along with elementary and middle schools, adopted a 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m) line nationally in 1987, a year after the NCAA. The NCAA experimented with the 6.75 m (22 ft 1 3⁄4 in) FIBA three-point line distance in the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 2018 and 2019, then adopted that distance for all men's play with a phased conversion that begins with Division I in the 2019–20 season. In that same 2019–20 season, the NCAA is experimenting with the FIBA arc in women's postseason events other than the NCAA championships in each division, most notably the Women's National Invitation Tournament and Women's Basketball Invitational.
For three seasons beginning in 1994–95, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the distance of the line from 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) (22 ft (6.71 m) at the corners) to a uniform 22 ft (6.71 m) around the basket. From the 1997–98 season on, the NBA reverted the line to its original distance of 23 ft 9 in (22 ft at the corners, with a 3-inch differential). Ray Allen is currently the NBA all-time leader in career made three-pointers with 2,973.
In 2008, FIBA announced that the distance would be increased by 50 cm (19.7 in) to 6.75 m (22 ft 1 3⁄4 in), with the change being phased in beginning in October 2010. In December 2012, the WNBA announced that it would be using the FIBA distance, starting in 2013; by 2017, the line at corners were lengthened to match the NBA. The NBA has discussed adding a four-point line, according to president Rod Thorn.
In the NBA, three-point field goals became increasingly more frequent along the years, especially by mid 2015 onward. The increase in latter years has been attributed to NBA player Stephen Curry, who is credited with revolutionizing the game by inspiring teams to regularly employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. The 1979–80 season had an average 0.8 three-point goals per game and 2.8 attempts (29% effectiveness). The 1989–90 season had an average 2.2 three-point goals per game and 6.6 attempts (33% effectiveness). The 1999–2000 season had an average 4.8 three-point goals per game and 13.7 attempts (35% effectiveness). The 2009-10 season had an average 6.4 three-point goals per game and 18.1 attempts (36% effectiveness). The 2016–17 season had an average 9.7 three-point goals per game and 27.0 attempts (36% effectiveness).
A three-point line consists of an arc at a set radius measured from the point on the floor directly below the center of the basket, and two parallel lines equidistant from each sideline extending from the nearest end line to the point at which they intersect the arc. In the NBA and FIBA standard, the arc spans the width of the court until it is a specified minimum distance from each sideline. The three-point line then becomes parallel to the sidelines from those points to the baseline. The unusual formation of the three-point line at these levels allows players some space from which to attempt a three-point shot at the corners of the court; the arc would be less than 2 feet (0.61 m) from each sideline at the corners if it was a continuous arc. In the NCAA and American high school standards, the arc spans 180° around the basket, then becomes parallel to the sidelines from the plane of the basket center to the baseline (4 feet 3 inches or 1.30 metres in college, 5 feet 3 inches or 1.60 metres in high schools). The distance of the three-point line to the center of the hoop varies by level:
|Arc radius||Minimum distance
|NBA||23 ft 9 in (7.24 m)||3 ft 0 in (0.91 m)|||
|FIBA||6.75 m (22 ft 2 in)||0.9 m (2 ft 11 in)|||
|NCAA Division I men||22 ft 1.75 in (6.75 m)||2 ft 11 in (0.89 m)|
|NCAA Division I women
NCAA Divisions II and III men
|20 ft 9 in (6.32 m)||4 ft 3 in (1.30 m)|||
|U.S. high schools||19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)||5 ft 3 in (1.60 m)|||
A player's feet must be completely behind the three-point line at the time of the shot or jump in order to make a three-point attempt; if the player's feet are on or in front of the line, it is a two-point attempt. A player is allowed to jump from outside the line and land inside the line to make a three-point attempt, as long as the ball is released in mid-air.
An official raises his/her arm with three fingers extended to signal the shot attempt. If the attempt is successful, he/she raises his/her other arm with all fingers fully extended in manner similar to a football official signifying successful field goal to indicate the three-point goal. The official must recognize it for it to count as three points. Instant replay has sometimes been used, depending on league rules. The NBA, WNBA, FIBA and the NCAA specifically allow replay for this purpose. In NBA, FIBA, and WNBA games, video replay does not have to occur immediately following a shot; play can continue and the officials can adjust the scoring later in the game, after reviewing the video. However, in late game situations, play may be paused pending a review.
If a shooter is fouled while attempting a three-pointer and subsequently misses the shot, the shooter is awarded three free-throw attempts. If a player completes a three-pointer while being fouled, the player is awarded one free-throw for a possible 4-point play. Conceivably, if a player completed a three-pointer while being fouled, and that foul was ruled as either a Flagrant 1 or a Flagrant 2 foul, the player would be awarded two free throws for a possible 5-point play.
Major League Lacrosse features a two-point line which forms a 15-yard (14 m) arc around the front of the goal. Shots taken from behind this line count for two points, as opposed to the standard one point.
In gridiron football, a standard field goal is worth three points; various professional and semi-pro leagues have experimented with four-point field goals. NFL Europe and the Stars Football League adopted a rule similar to basketball's three-point line in which an additional point was awarded for longer field goals; in both leagues any field goal of 50 yards (46 m) or more was worth four points. The Arena Football League awards four points for any successful drop kicked field goal (like the three-point shot, the drop kick is more challenging than a standard place kick, as the bounce of the ball makes a kick less predictable, and arena football also uses narrower goal posts for all kicks than the outdoor game does).
During the existence of the World Hockey Association in the 1970s, there were proposals for two-point hockey goals for shots taken beyond an established distance (one proposal was a 44-foot (13.4m) arc, which would have intersected the faceoff circles), but this proposal gained little support and faded after the WHA merged with the NHL. It was widely believed that long-distance shots in hockey had little direct relation to skill (usually resulting more from goalies' vision being screened or obscured), plus with the lower scoring intrinsic to the sport a two-point goal was seen as disruptive of the structure of the game.
The Super Goal is a similar concept in Australian rules football, in which a 50-meter (55 yd) arc determines the value of a goal; within the arc, it is the usual 6 points, but 9 points are scored for a "super goal" scored from outside the arc. To date the super goal is only used in pre-season games and not in the season proper.
The National Professional Soccer League II, which awarded two points for all goals except those on the power play, also used a three-point line, drawn 45 feet (14 m) from the goal. It has since been adopted by some other indoor soccer leagues.
Field goal percentage in basketball is the ratio of field goals made to field goals attempted. Its abbreviation is FG%. Although three-point field goal percentage is often calculated separately, three-point field goals are included in the general field goal percentage. Instead of using scales of 0 to 100%, the scale .000 to 1.000 is commonly used. A higher field goal percentage denotes higher efficiency. In basketball, a FG% of .500 (50%) or above is considered a good percentage, although this criterion does not apply equally to all positions. Guards usually have lower FG% than forwards and centers. Field goal percentage does not completely tell the skill of a player, but a low field goal percentage can indicate a poor offensive player or a player who takes many difficult shots. In the NBA, Center Shaquille O'Neal had a high career FG% (around .580) because he played near the basket making many high percentage layups and dunks. Guard Allen Iverson often had a low FG% (around .420) because he took the bulk of his team's shot attempts, even with high difficulty shots.
The NBA career record for field goal percentage is held by DeAndre Jordan at 0.671. The highest field goal percentage for a single season was set by Wilt Chamberlain with 0.727 in the 1972–73 season.
Field goal percentages were substantially lower in the NBA until the mid-to-late 1960s. For this reason, many early NBA stars have low field goal percentages, such as Bob Cousy at .375, and George Mikan, Bob Pettit, and Bill Russell, whose career field goal percentages of .404, .436, and .440, respectively, are much lower than later post players.Three-point field goal percentage is usually kept as additional statistics. Its abbreviation is 3FG%. A 3FG% of .400 and above is a very good percentage.List of National Basketball Association annual three-point field goal percentage leaders
In basketball, a three-point field goal (also known as a "three-pointer" or "3-pointer") is a field goal made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc radiating from the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for shots made inside the three-point line. The National Basketball Association's (NBA) three-point shooting leader is the player with the highest three-point field goal percentage in a given season. The statistic was first recognized in the 1979–80 season when the three-point line was first implemented that season. To qualify as a three-point shooting leader, the player must have at least 82 three-point field goals made. This has been the entry criteria since the 2013–14 season.Craig Hodges, Steve Kerr, and Jason Kapono have led the league in three-point shooting for two seasons, while Kyle Korver has led the league in three-point shooting for four seasons. Kapono and Korver are the only players to do so in consecutive seasons. Korver, who shot 53.6% from beyond the arc in the 2009–10 season, holds the all-time record for three-point field goal percentage in a season.
None of the leaders in this statistic have been inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.Memorial Day Miracle
The Memorial Day Miracle is a game-winning three-point field goal by Sean Elliott in Game 2 of the 1999 Western Conference Finals between the Portland Trail Blazers and the San Antonio Spurs at the Alamodome in San Antonio, Texas on May 31, 1999, Memorial Day.Oakland Golden Grizzlies men's basketball
The Oakland Golden Grizzlies are the men's basketball team that represent Oakland University in Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States. The school's team competes in the Horizon League and plays their home games at the Athletics Center O'rena. The Golden Grizzlies are coached by Greg Kampe. Kampe is the third longest-tenured Division I head coach, behind Jim Boeheim and Mike Krzyzewski. Oakland last played in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 2011.
Through March 6, 2019, Oakland has made a three-point field goal in 969 consecutive games, the seventh-longest active NCAA Division I streak. They last finished a game without a three-pointer on January 30, 1988.Western Michigan Broncos men's basketball
The Western Michigan Broncos men's basketball team represents Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The school's team competes in the Mid-American Conference (MAC). The team last played in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 2014. The Broncos are coached by Steve Hawkins.William
William is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin. It became very popular in the English language after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and remained so throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era. It is sometimes abbreviated "Wm." Shortened familiar versions in English include Will, Willy, Bill, and Billy. A common Irish form is Liam. Scottish diminutives include Wull or Wullie (see Oor Wullie or Douglas for example). Female forms are Willa, Willemina, Willamette, Wilma and Wilhelmina.
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