Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG (/ˈraɪəθsli/ RY-əth-slee;[1] 10 March 1607 – 16 May 1667), styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was an English statesman, a staunch supporter of King Charles II who after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 rose to the position of Lord High Treasurer, which term began with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry. He "was remarkable for his freedom from any taint of corruption and for his efforts in the interests of economy and financial order,"[2] a noble if not completely objective view of his work as the keeper of the nation's finances.[3] He died before the impeachment of Lord Clarendon, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government.

Thomas Wriothesley
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, wearing his Garter Star and holding his Staff of Office as Lord High Treasurer. Portrait by School of Sir Peter Lely
Born10 March 1607
Died16 May 1667 (aged 60)
Title4th Earl of Southampton
Other titlesEarl of Chichester
Lord Wriothesley
OfficesLord High Treasurer
PredecessorHenry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Spouse(s)Rachel de Massue
Lady Elizabeth Leigh
Frances Seymour
ParentsHenry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Elizabeth Vernon
Coat of arms of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG
Quartered arms of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's chapel
Arms of Wriothesley: Azure, a cross or between four hawks close argent


He was the only surviving son of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573–1624) by his wife Elizabeth Vernon (1572–1655), daughter of John Vernon (died 1592) of Hodnet, Shropshire.


He succeeded to the earldom following his father's death in 1624, after which event he attended St. John's College, Cambridge.[4] At first, he sided with the Parliament supporters upon the controversies leading to the English Civil War, but upon his realisation of their propensity to violence, he became a loyal supporter of King Charles I. While remaining very loyal to the deposed monarch, he still worked for peace and represented the king at the peace conferences in 1643 and one at Uxbridge in 1645.[5] He was allowed to remain in England, having paid fines to the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents of more than £6,000.

Several months after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Lord Southampton was appointed Lord High Treasurer (8 September 1660), a position he occupied until his death. Samuel Pepys admired Southampton's integrity and the stoicism with which he endured his painful last illness, but clearly had doubts about his competence as Treasurer; in particular he recorded Southampton's despairing words to him, having been asked to raise more funds at a Council meeting in April 1665: "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say, but what would you have me do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money?"[6] However Pepys admitted that Sir William Coventry, the colleague he most admired, was himself an admirer of Southampton, whom he described as "a great statesman". Coventry recalled that other ministers would joke that regardless of his complaints that it was "impossible" to find money, Southampton always succeeded in the end. Southampton however once grimly remarked that "Impossible will be found impossible at the last", an accurate prophecy of the crisis of 1672 which led to the Stop of the Exchequer.

Lord Southampton's name lives on in London as both Southampton Row and Southampton Street in Holborn are named after him.[2]

Marriages and children

Portrait of Rachel de Massue, Countess of Southampton, by Anthony van Dyck, c.1638
Portrait c. 1638 of Rachel de Massue, Southampton's first wife, by van Dyck

He married three times and had three daughters:

  1. to Rachel de Massue (1603 – 16 February 1640), a French Huguenot and an aunt of Henri de Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 1st Viscount Galway. By Rachel he had children two daughters and co-heiresses:
    1. Elizabeth Wriothesley, Viscountess Campden, wife of Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough[2]
    2. Rachel Wriothesley, wife of William Russell, Lord Russell (1639–1683), the third son of William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford, later created Duke of Bedford. The eventual heir to all the estates of her father Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, was her only son Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford (1680–1711).
  2. to Lady Elizabeth Leigh, daughter of Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester from whom he inherited the title Earl of Chichester.[7] By Elizabeth Leigh he had a further daughter:
    1. Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley (1646–1690) who married twice, firstly to Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670), whom she bore an only surviving child, heiress to the vast Percy estates, Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722) who married Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662–1748). She secondly married Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu.[8]
  3. Lady Frances Seymour (equally her third marriage), daughter of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1587–1660) by his second wife Lady Frances Devereux. They had no children.They DID have a child Mary born1648 married Captain stout


  1. ^ Wells, J. C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Southampton, Earl of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 489–490.
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ "Wriothesley, Thomas (WRTY642T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  5. ^ Per Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 April 1665
  7. ^
  8. ^ Leslie Stephen (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 38. p. 263. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
jointly with The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond

English Interregnum
Preceded by
Sir Henry Wallop
Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
In commission
Sir Edward Hyde as First Lord
Title last held by
The Lord Cottington
Lord High Treasurer
In commission
The Duke of Albemarle as First Lord
Title next held by
The Lord Clifford of Chudleigh
Honorary titles
English Interregnum Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
Succeeded by
Lord Percy
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk
Succeeded by
The Lord Townshend
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
Succeeded by
Lord St John
Preceded by
The Duke of Somerset
Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
The Lord Windsor
Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire
Succeeded by
The Lord Windsor
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Lieutenant of Kent
Succeeded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
The 3rd Duke of Richmond
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Wriothesley
Earl of Southampton
Preceded by
Francis Leigh
Earl of Chichester
Bedford Estate

The Bedford Estate is an estate in central London that is owned by the Russell family, which holds the peerage title of Duke of Bedford. The estate was originally based in Covent Garden, then stretched to include Bloomsbury in 1669. The Covent Garden property was sold for £2 million in 1913 by Herbrand Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford, to the MP and land speculator Harry Mallaby-Deeley, who sold his option to the Beecham family for £250,000; the sale was finalised in 1918.

Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire.

William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester bef. 1544 – aft. 1558

John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester bef. 1562–1576

Sir Francis Walsingham bef. 1577–1590

George Carey, 2nd Baron Hunsdon bef. 1594–1603

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton bef. 1605–1624

Sir Henry Wallop 1624–1642

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton 1642–1646, 1660–1667

Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland 1667–1670

Charles Paulet, 6th Marquess of Winchester 1670–1676

James Annesley, Baron Annesley 1676–1681

Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough 1681–1688

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick 1688For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire.

Earl of Chichester

Earl of Chichester is a title that has been created three times in British history. The current title was created in 1801 for Thomas Pelham, 2nd Baron Pelham of Stanmer in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Elizabeth Percy, Countess of Northumberland

Elizabeth Percy, Countess of Northumberland (née Wriothesley; 1646 – 19 September 1690), was a British courtier. She was one of the Windsor Beauties, painted by Sir Peter Lely.

John Trussell

John Trussell (c. 1575 – 1648) was an English historical writer.

Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire

This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire. Since 1688, all the Lords Lieutenant have also been Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire. From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton.

William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester 1551–?

William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester bef. 1585 – 24 November 1598 jointly with

Henry Radclyffe, 4th Earl of Sussex 3 July 1585 – 14 December 1593

Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire 4 August 1595 – 3 April 1606 jointly with

George Carey, 2nd Baron Hunsdon 29 October 1597 – 8 September 1603 and

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton 10 April 1604 – 10 November 1624

Edward Conway, 1st Viscount Conway 9 May 1625 – 3 January 1631

Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland 8 February 1631 – 13 March 1635

James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond 29 May 1635 – 1642 jointly with

Jerome Weston, 2nd Earl of Portland 29 May 1635 – 1642 and

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton 3 June 1641 – 1642


Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton 24 September 1660 – 16 May 1667

Charles Paulet, Lord St John 20 December 1667 – 1675

Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough 20 March 1676 – 24 December 1687 jointly with

Wriothesley Noel, Viscount Campden 9 April 1684 – 24 December 1687

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick 24 December 1687 – 4 April 1689

Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton 4 April 1689 – 27 February 1699

Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton 11 June 1699 – 15 September 1710

Henry Somerset, 2nd Duke of Beaufort 15 September 1710 – 24 May 1714

Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton 5 August 1714 – 21 January 1722

Charles Paulet, 3rd Duke of Bolton 8 February 1722 – 3 September 1733

John Wallop, 1st Earl of Portsmouth 3 September 1733 – 19 July 1742

Charles Powlett, 3rd Duke of Bolton 19 July 1742 – 26 August 1754

Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton 13 November 1754 – 25 October 1758

Charles Powlett, 5th Duke of Bolton 25 October 1758 – 15 June 1763

James Brydges, Marquess of Carnarvon 15 June 1763 – 20 August 1764

Robert Henley, 1st Earl of Northington 20 August 1764 – 6 February 1771

James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos 6 February 1771 – 10 May 1780

George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers 10 May 1780 – 15 April 1782

Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton 15 April 1782 – 5 April 1793

In commission: 1793–1798

George Paulet, 12th Marquess of Winchester

Sir William Heathcote, 3rd Baronet

William John Chute

Charles Paulet, Earl of Wiltshire 3 March 1798 – 1 March 1800

Thomas Orde-Powlett, 1st Baron Bolton 1 March 1800 – 30 July 1807

James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury 22 August 1807 – 21 November 1820

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 27 December 1820 – 1 September 1852

John Paulet, 14th Marquess of Winchester 27 October 1852 – 4 July 1887

Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon 6 August 1887 – 29 June 1890

Thomas Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook 7 November 1890 – 15 November 1904

Henry Paulet, 16th Marquess of Winchester 21 December 1904 – 24 January 1918

John Edward Bernard Seely, 1st Baron Mottistone 24 January 1918 – 7 November 1947

Wyndham Portal, 1st Viscount Portal 12 December 1947 – 6 May 1949

Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington 9 September 1949 – 19 September 1960

Alexander Francis St Vincent Baring, 6th Baron Ashburton 19 September 1960 – 1973

William James Harris, 6th Earl of Malmesbury 16 April 1973 – 1982

Lt. Col. Sir James Walter Scott, 2nd Baronet 17 December 1982 – 2 November 1993

Dame Mary Fagan 28 March 1994 – 11 September 2014

Nigel Atkinson 11 September 2014 - Present

Lord Lieutenant of Kent

This is a list of people who have served as Lord-Lieutenant of Kent. Since 1746, all Lords Lieutenant have also been Custos Rotulorum of Kent.

Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk

This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk. Since 1689, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Norfolk.

Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex 1557–1559

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk 1559–1572

Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon 3 July 1585 – 23 July 1596

Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton 16 July 1605 – 16 June 1614

Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel 18 April 1615 – 1642 jointly with

Henry Howard, Lord Maltravers 28 February 1633 – 1642


Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton 24 September 1660 – 19 August 1661

Horatio Townshend, 1st Viscount Townshend 19 August 1661 – 6 March 1676

Sir Robert Paston, 1st Earl of Yarmouth 6 March 1676 – 8 March 1683

Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk 5 April 1683 – 2 April 1701

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend 26 May 1701 – 30 April 1713

James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde 30 April 1713 – 30 October 1714

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend 30 October 1714 – 25 June 1730

Charles Townshend, Lord Lynn 25 June 1730 – 13 December 1739

John Hobart, 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire 13 December 1739 – 22 September 1756

George Walpole, 3rd Earl of Orford 29 June 1757 – 5 December 1791

George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend 24 February 1792 – 14 September 1807

William Assheton Harbord, 2nd Baron Suffield 11 March 1808 – 1 August 1821

John Wodehouse, 2nd Baron Wodehouse 1 November 1821 – 31 May 1846

Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester 28 July 1846 – 3 September 1906

Thomas Coke, 3rd Earl of Leicester 3 September 1906 – 1 May 1929

Russell James Colman 1 May 1929 – 14 March 1944

Thomas Coke, 4th Earl of Leicester 14 March 1944 – 21 August 1949

Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet 30 September 1949 – 1978

Sir Timothy Colman, KG 30 March 1978 – 19 September 2004

Richard Jewson 19 September 2004 – present

Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire

This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire. From 1750, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Wiltshire.

Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire

This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire. Since 1719, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Worcestershire.

Rachel Russell, Lady Russell

Rachel, Lady Russell (née Lady Rachel Wriothesley RYE-əths-lee; c. 1636 – 29 September 1723) was an English noblewoman, heiress, and author. Her second husband was William, Lord Russell, who was implicated in the Rye House Plot and later executed. A collection of the many letters she wrote to her husband and other distinguished men was published in 1773.

Richard Perrinchief

Richard Perrinchief or Perrincheif (c.1620-1673) was an English royalist churchman, a biographer of Charles I, writer against religious tolerance, and archdeacon of Huntingdon.

Simon Digby, 4th Baron Digby

Simon Digby, 4th Baron Digby (18 July 1657 – 19 January 1686) was an Irish peer and English Member of Parliament.

Digby was a younger son of Kildare Digby, 2nd Baron Digby, and Mary Gardiner. He was privately educated by a clergyman, William Rawlins, at the family estate of Coleshill, Warwickshire, before matriculating on 1 July 1674 at Magdalen College, Oxford. He was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1676, and succeeded his elder brother, Robert, as Baron Digby in December 1677.At the October 1679 election, Digby stood as a court candidate for Coventry, but was outpolled by all the other candidates. From 1679 to 1680, he was a commissioner of assessment for Warwickshire, and a deputy lieutenant of the county from 1680 on. A devout and scrupulous man (he rarely gambled, and donated any winnings to the poor), he took particular pains in exercising the advowson of Coleshill. He ultimately appointed John Kettlewell, then known as the author of The Measures of Christian Obedience, to the vicariate there in December 1682.On 27 August 1683, he married Lady Frances Noel, daughter of Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough and Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley (herself daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton). They had one daughter; Lady Digby died in childbirth, and was buried at Coleshill on 4 October.

Hon. Frances Digby (29 September 1684 – 3 May 1729), married James Scudamore, 3rd Viscount Scudamore and had one daughterAt the 1685 election, he was returned as Member of Parliament for Warwick, presumably, like his elder brother, with the support of Lord Brooke. He was quite active in Parliament, serving on several committees, and was so strenuous and effective a speaker against a standing army as to be numbered among the opposition, and named to the committee which wrote the address against employing Roman Catholic officers. However, this activity was not long to continue: Digby died on 19 January 1685/6 at Coleshill, and was buried there. Kettlewell preached his funeral sermon, as he had for Lady Digby. Simon was succeeded in the barony by his younger brother William.

Southampton Row

Southampton Row is a major thoroughfare running northwest-southeast in Bloomsbury, Camden, central London, England. The road is designated as part of the A4200.

Southampton Street, London

Southampton Street is a street in central London, running north from the Strand to Covent Garden Market.There are restaurants in the street such as Bistro 1

and Wagamama. There are also shops

such as The North Face outdoor clothing shop. The British Computer Society has its London offices in the Davidson Building at 5 Southampton Street.

The Sun's Darling

The Sun's Darling is a masque, or masque-like play, written by John Ford and Thomas Dekker, and first published in 1656.

The Sun's Darling was licensed for performance by Sir Henry Herbert, the Master of the Revels, on 3 March 1624. It was probably composed not long before; nineteenth-century speculations that the text was an old play of Dekker's, revised by Ford, have fallen out of favor. The original text may have been revised c. 1638–39; material in the early portion of Act V reflects the dominant political situation at that time. Cyrus Hoy has suggested that the play was revised and revived at that time, as a response to Thomas Nabbes's Microcosmus (1636; published 1637). Several attempts have been made by individual commentators to identify the shares of the two collaborators, though no general agreement on the question has been reached.

The first edition was a quarto printed by T. Bell for the bookseller Andrew Pennycuicke. The 1656 title page states that the play was "often presented" by Queen Henrietta's Men at the Cockpit Theatre; but it also makes the questionable claim that the play was "often presented" at Whitehall Palace — a claim dropped from the title page of the second quarto of 1657. If the work had a Court performance, it would in all likelihood have been once or at most twice, not "often."

Pennycuicke dedicated Q1 to Lady Newton, wife of Sir Henry Newton. Q2 was dedicated to Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton; that dedication is signed by Pennycuicke and the actor Theophilus Bird. Both the 1656 and 1657 editions include prefatory verses by John Tatham. The title pages describe the work as a "moral masque" — an accurate description, in that the drama combines the traits and characteristics of the traditional morality play with those of the 17th-century masque.Featuring standard masque-style personifications, like Youth, Health, Delight, Time, Detraction, Fortune, etc., and rich in songs, dances, and May-Day games, the play has some obvious crowd appeal to explain its popularity in its own era. The protagonist is Raybright, who is the child and "darling" of the Sun. To treat his melancholy, he is given a year to experience the earthly pleasures of the four seasons. He falls, however, under the deceptive influences of Humor (in the Elizabethan sense) and Folly, and his search for satisfaction is unfulfilled. In the end the Sun warns Raybright that he must resist Folly and Humor to attain harmony.

Some critics have praised the "vitality and beauty" of some of the lyrics in the play; others have judged the work more harshly.

Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth

Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth, PC (c.1627 – 3 November 1687) was the son of Dixie Hickman and his wife Elizabeth Windsor, sister and heiress of Thomas, 6th Baron Windsor. He assumed the additional surname of Windsor and succeeded to the Windsor family's estate around Hewell Grange near Redditch in 1645. The same year he distinguished himself in the Battle of Naseby. Hickman-Windsor impressed King Charles I by relieving his garrison at High Ercall.

Upon the Restoration, the title of Baron Windsor, which had last been held by his maternal uncle Thomas, was called out of abeyance in his favour, on 16 June 1660. From 1661 to 1663, he served as Governor of Jamaica. However he actually spent only three months in Jamaica: according to Samuel Pepys his abrupt return to England caused a good deal of comment. The reason was apparently ill health. His one notable achievement as Governor had been to order the attack by Sir Christopher Myngs on Santiago de Cuba. The raid was a success, but caused a crisis in Anglo-Spanish relations, and was later disavowed by Charles II.

He acquired the Navigation of the Warwickshire Avon from James, Duke of York and employed Andrew Yarranton to restore Pershore Sluice, thus restoring navigation from Tewkesbury to Evesham. He then sold two-thirds of the navigation above Evesham to Andrew Yarranton and others, who restored the navigation from there to Stratford-upon-Avon. He and George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol financed Andrew Yarranton's ultimately unsuccessful attempts to improve the River Salwarpe and River Stour to make them navigable.

He was appointed Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles II; in that capacity he was sent in September 1678 with a crucial message to Danby to investigate certain allegations made by Titus Oates and Israel Tonge, thus setting in motion the Popish Plot.On 6 December 1682, Windsor was created the first Earl of Plymouth, a new creation with the previous title holder having been Charles II's natural son Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth (1675-1680). He was succeeded by his grandson Other Windsor (his curious first name is a variant of Otho, a remote ancestor).

Thomas Wriothesley (disambiguation)

Thomas Wriothesley may refer to:

Thomas Wriothesley, d.1534

Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, (1505–1550)

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, (1607–1667)


Wriothesley (pronounced RYE-uths-lee) may refer to:

William Wriothesley (died 1513), officer of arms at the College of Arms in London

Thomas Wriothesley (died 1534), long-serving officer of arms at the College of Arms in London

Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton KG (1505–1550), English politician of the Tudor period

Charles Wriothesley (1508–1562), long-serving officer of arms at the College of Arms in London

Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton (1545–1581), English noble

Mary Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton (1552–1607), English countess

Elizabeth Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton (1572–1655), chief lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth I of England

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573–1624), English noble

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton KG (1607–1667), 17th-century English statesman, and supporter of Charles II

Rachel Wriothesley, Lady Russell (1636–1723), English noblewoman, heiress, and author

Baptist Wriothesley Noel (1799–1873), English evangelical clergyman of aristocratic family

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