Thomas Reid

Thomas Reid FRSE (/riːd/; 7 May (O.S. 26 April) 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously trained Scottish philosopher. He was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. A contemporary of David Hume, Reid was also "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".[6]

Thomas Reid

Reid as painted by Henry Raeburn in 1796
Born7 May 1710
Died7 October 1796 (aged 86)
Glasgow, Scotland, Great Britain
Alma materUniversity of Aberdeen
Era18th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolScottish Common Sense Realism[1]
Scottish Enlightenment
Epistemological externalism[2]
Direct realism[4]
Correspondence theory of truth[5]
Main interests
Metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of perception, ethics
Notable ideas
Direct realism, epistemological externalism,[2] sensationperception distinction
Cameo of Thomas Reid by James Tassie, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
Cameo of Thomas Reid by James Tassie, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow


He was born in the manse at Strachan, Aberdeenshire, on 26 April 1710 O.S., the son of Lewis Reid (1676–1762) and his wife Margaret Gregory, first cousin to James Gregory. He was educated at Kincardine Parish School then the O'Neil Grammar School in Kincardine.[7]

He went to the University of Aberdeen in 1723 and graduated MA in 1726 (the young age was normal at that time). He was licensed to preach by the Church of Scotland in 1731, when he came of age. He began his career as a minister of the Church of Scotland but ceased to be a minister when he was given a professorship at King's College, Aberdeen, in 1752. He obtained his doctorate and wrote An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (published in 1764). He and his colleagues founded the 'Aberdeen Philosophical Society' which was popularly known as the 'Wise Club' (a literary-philosophical association).[8] Shortly after the publication of his first book, he was given the prestigious Professorship of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow when he was called to replace Adam Smith. He resigned from this position in 1781, after which he prepared his university lectures for publication in two books: Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785) and Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind (1788). Reid was buried at Blackfriars Church in the grounds of Glasgow College and when the university moved to Gilmorehill in the west of Glasgow, his tombstone was inserted in the main building. See separate article on Thomas Reid's tombstone.

Philosophical work


Reid believed that common sense (in a special philosophical sense of sensus communis) is, or at least should be, at the foundation of all philosophical inquiry.[9] He disagreed with Hume, who asserted that we can never know what an external world consists of as our knowledge is limited to the ideas in the mind, and George Berkeley, who asserted that the external world is merely ideas in the mind. By contrast, Reid claimed that the foundations upon which our sensus communis are built justify our belief that there is an external world.

In his day and for some years into the 19th century, he was regarded as more important than Hume.[10] He advocated direct realism, or common sense realism, and argued strongly against the Theory of Ideas advocated by John Locke, René Descartes, and (in varying forms) nearly all Early Modern philosophers who came after them. He had a great admiration for Hume and had a mutual friend send Hume an early manuscript of Reid's Inquiry. Hume responded that the "deeply philosophical" work "is wrote in a lively and entertaining matter," but that "there seems to be some defect in method," and criticized Reid for implying the presence of innate ideas.[11]

Thomas Reid's theory of common sense

His theory of knowledge had a strong influence on his theory of morals. He thought epistemology was an introductory part to practical ethics: When we are confirmed in our common beliefs by philosophy, all we have to do is to act according to them, because we know what is right. His moral philosophy is reminiscent of Roman stoicism in its emphasis on the agency of the subject and self-control. He often quotes Cicero, from whom he adopted the term "sensus communis". Reid's answer to Hume's sceptical and naturalist arguments was to enumerate a set of principles of common sense (sensus communis) which constitute the foundations of rational thought. Anyone who undertakes a philosophical argument, for example, must implicitly presuppose certain beliefs like, "I am talking to a real person," and "There is an external world whose laws do not change," among many other positive, substantive claims. For Reid, the belief in the truth of these principles is not rational; rather, reason itself demands these principles as prerequisites, as does the innate "constitution" of the human mind. It is for this reason (and possibly a mocking attitude toward Hume and Berkeley) that Reid sees belief in the principles of common sense as a litmus test for sanity. For example, in The Intellectual Powers of Man he states, "For, before men can reason together, they must agree in first principles; and it is impossible to reason with a man who has no principles in common with you." One of the first principles he goes on to list is that "qualities must necessarily be in something that is figured, coloured, hard or soft, that moves or resists. It is not to these qualities, but to that which is the subject of them, that we give the name body. If any man should think fit to deny that these things are qualities, or that they require any subject, I leave him to enjoy his opinion as a man who denies first principles, and is not fit to be reasoned with."

Reid also made positive arguments based in phenomenological insight to put forth a novel mixture of direct realism and ordinary language philosophy. In a typical passage in the Intellectual Powers he asserts that when he has a conception of a centaur, the thing he conceives is an animal, and no idea is an animal; therefore, the thing he conceives is not an idea, but a centaur. This point relies both on an account of the subjective experience of conceiving an object and also on an account of what we mean when we use words. Because Reid saw his philosophy as publicly accessible knowledge, available both through introspection and the proper understanding of how language is used, he saw it as the philosophy of common sense.

Exploring sense and language

Reid started out with a 'common sense' based on a direct experience of an external reality but then proceeded to explore in two directions - external to the senses, and internal to human language - to find a more rational basis.

In the case of the latter, Reid saw this as based on an innate capacity pre-dating human consciousness, and acting as an instrument for that consciousness. Also, language then becomes a means of examining the original form of human cognition. Reid notes that current human language contains two distinct elements: first, the acoustic element and secondly the meanings which seem to have nothing to do with the sounds as such. This state of the language, which he calls 'artificial', cannot be the primeval one, which he terms 'natural', wherein sound was not an abstract sign, but a concrete gesture or natural sign. Reid looks to the way a child learns the language, by imitating sounds, becoming aware of them long before it understands the meaning accorded to the various groups of sounds in the artificial state of contemporary adult speech. If, says Reid, the child was to understand immediately the conceptual content of the words it hears, it would never learn to speak at all. Here Reid distinguishes between natural and artificial signs.

'It is by natural signs chiefly that we give force and energy to language; and the less language has of them, it is the less expressive and persuasive. ... Artificial signs signify, but they do not express; they speak to the intellect, as algebraic characters may do, but the passions and the affections and the will hear them not: these continue dormant and inactive, till we speak to them in the language of nature, to which they are all attention and obedience.' (p. 52)[12]

As regards the former, Reid was led to his critical distinction between 'sensation' and 'perception'. While we become aware of an object through the senses, the content of that perception is not identical with the sum total of the sensations caused in our consciousness. Thus, while we tend to focus on the object perceived, we pay no attention to the process leading from sensation to perception, which contains the knowledge of the thing as real. How, then, do we receive the conviction of the latter's existence? Reid's answer is, by entering into an immediate intuitive relationship with it, as a child does. In the case of the adult, the focus is on perceiving, but with the child, it is on receiving of the sensations in their living nature. For Reid, the perception of the child is different from the adult, and he states that man must become like a child to get past the artificial perception of the adult, which leads to Hume's view that what we perceive is an illusion. Also, the artist provides a key to the true content of sense experience, as he engages the 'language of nature'.

'It were easy to show, that the fine arts of the musician, the painter, the actor, and the orator, so far as they are expressive... are nothing else but the language of nature, which we brought into the world with us, but have unlearned by disuse and so find the greatest difficulty in recovering it. (p. 53)[13]
That without a natural knowledge of the connection between these [natural] signs and the things signified by them, the language could never have been invented and established among men; and, That the fine arts are all founded upon this connection, which we may call the natural language of mankind." (p. 59)[14]

Thus, for Reid, common sense was based on the innate capacity of man in an earlier epoch to directly participate in nature, and one we find to some extent in the child and artist, but one that from a philosophical and scientific perspective, we must re-awaken at a higher level in the human mind above nature. Why does Reid believe that perception is the way to recognize? Well, to him “an experience is purely subjective and purely negative. It supports the validity of a proposition, only on the fact that I find that it is impossible for me not to hold it for true, to suppose it therefore not true” (Reid, 753). To understand this better, it is important to know that Reid divides his definition of perception into two categories: conception, and belief. “Conception is Reid’s way of saying to visualize an object, so then we can affirm or deny qualities about that thing. Reid believes that beliefs are our direct thoughts of an object, and what that object is” (Buras, The Functions of Sensations to Reid). So, to Reid, what we see, what we visualize, what we believe of an object, is that object’s true reality. Reid believes in direct objectivity, our senses guide us to what is right since we cannot trust our own thoughts. “The worlds of common sense and of philosophy are reciprocally the converse of each other” (Reid, 841). Reid believes that Philosophy overcomplicates the question of what is real. So, what does Common Sense actually mean then? Well, “common sense is the senses being pulled all together to form one idea” (Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid, 164). Common sense (all the senses combined) is how we truly identify the reality of an object; since all that can be perceived about an object, are all pulled into one perception. How do people reach the point of accessing common sense? That’s the trick, everyone is born with the ability to access common sense, that is why it is called common sense. “The principles of common sense are common to all of humanity,” (Nichols, Ryan, Yaffe, and Gideon, Thomas Reid). Common sense works as such: If all men observe an item and believe the same qualities about that item, then the knowledge of that item is universally true. It is common knowledge, with without explanation is held true by other people; so, what is universally seen is universally believed. “The real, then, is that which, sooner or later, information and reasoning would finally result in, and which is therefore independent of the vagaries of me and you. Thus, the very origin of the conception of reality shows that this conception essentially involves the notion of a community, without definite limits, and capable of a definite increase of knowledge,” (Reid, 155). The combination of the same ideas, of a thing, by multiple people, is what confirms the reality of an object. Reid also believes that the philosophers of his time overexaggerated what is truly real. Where most philosophers believe that what we see is not fully what that thing is, for example, Descartes. Reid counters this argument simply by stating that this assumption “that such a hypothesis is no more likely to be true than the common-sensical belief that the world is much the way we perceive it to be,” (Nichols, Ryan, Yaffe, and Gideon, Thomas Reid). Reality is what we make it out to be, nothing more.

Reid also claimed that this discovery of the link between the natural sign and the thing signified was the basis of natural philosophy and science, as pointed out by Bacon in his new method of discovery of the innate laws of nature.

The great Lord Verulam had a perfect comprehension of this when we called it an interpretation of nature. No man ever more distinctly understood, or happily expressed the nature and foundation of the philosophic art. What is all we know of mechanics, astronomy, and optics, but connections established by nature and discovered by experience or observation, and consequences deduced from them? …What we commonly call natural causes might, with more propriety, be called natural signs, and what we call effects, the things signified…[as]all we can certainly affirm, is, that nature hath established a constant conjunction between them and the things called their effects." (p. 59)[15]


It has been claimed that his reputation waned after attacks on the Scottish School of Common Sense by Immanuel Kant (although Kant, only 14 years Reid's junior, also bestowed much praise on Scottish philosophy - Kant attacked the work of Reid, but admitted he had never actually read the works of Thomas Reid) and by John Stuart Mill. But Reid's was the philosophy taught in the colleges of North America during the 19th century and was championed by Victor Cousin, a French philosopher. Justus Buchler has shown that Reid was an important influence on the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, who shared Reid's concern to revalue common sense and whose work links Reid to pragmatism. To Peirce, conceptions of truth and the real involve the notion of a community without definite limits (and thus potentially self-correcting as far as needed), and capable of a definite increase of knowledge.[16] Common sense is socially evolved, open to verification much like scientific method, and constantly evolving, as evidence, perception, and practice warrant, albeit with a slowness that Peirce came only in later years to see, at which point he owned his "adhesion, under inevitable modification, to the opinion of...Thomas Reid, in the matter of Common Sense"[17] (Peirce called his version "critical common-sensism"). By contrast, on Reid's concept, the sensus communis is not a social evolutionary product but rather a precondition of the possibility that humans could reason with each other. The work of Thomas Reid influenced the work of Noah Porter and James McCosh in the 19th century United States and is based upon the claim of universal principles of objective truth, Pragmatism is not the development of the work of the Scottish "Common Sense" School - it is the negation of it. There are clear links between the work of the Scottish Common Sense School and the work of the Oxford Realist philosophers Harold Prichard and Sir William David Ross in the 20th century.

Reid's reputation has revived in the wake of the advocacy of common sense as a philosophical method or criterion by G. E. Moore early in the 20th century, and more recently because of the attention given to Reid by contemporary philosophers, in particular philosophers of religion in the school of Reformed epistemology such as William Alston,[18] Alvin Plantinga, and Nicholas Wolterstorff,[19] seeking to rebut charges that theistic belief is irrational where it has no doxastic foundations (that is, where that belief is not inferred from other adequately grounded beliefs).

He wrote a number of important philosophical works, including Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (1764, Glasgow & London), Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785) and Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788). In 1844, Schopenhauer praised Reid for explaining that the perception of external objects does not result from the raw data that is received through the five senses:

Thomas Reid's excellent book, Inquiry into the Human Mind... affords us a very thorough conviction of the inadequacy of the senses for producing the objective perception of things, and also of the non-empirical origin of the intuition of space and time. Reid refutes Locke's teaching that perception is a product of the senses. This he does by a thorough and acute demonstration that the collective sensations of the senses do not bear the least resemblance to the world known through perception, and in particular by showing that Locke's five primary qualities (extension, figure, solidity, movement, number) cannot possibly be supplied to us by any sensation of the senses...

Other philosophical positions

Though known mainly for his epistemology, Reid is also noted for his views in the theory of action and the metaphysics of personal identity. Reid held an incompatibilist or libertarian notion of freedom, holding that we are capable of free actions of which we are the cause, and for which we are morally appraisable.[20] Regarding personal identity, he rejected Locke's account that self-consciousness in the form of memory of one's experiences was the basis of a person's being identical with their self over time. Reid held that continuity of memory was neither necessary nor sufficient to make one numerically the same person at different times.[21]


Until recently the standard edition of the Inquiry and the Essays has been the sixth edition of William Hamilton (ed.), Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart, 1863. A new critical edition of these titles, plus correspondence and other important material, is being brought out by Edinburgh University Press as The Edinburgh Edition of Thomas Reid. An accessible selection from Hamilton's 6th ed. is Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays, ed. Ronald Beanblossom and Keith Lehrer, Indianapolis, In: Hackett, 1983.


  1. ^ Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, ed. by G. A. Johnston (1915), essays by Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart (online version).
  2. ^ a b c Rebecca Copenhaver, Todd Buras (eds.), Thomas Reid on Mind, Knowledge, and Value, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 214.
  3. ^ Fumerton, Richard (21 February 2000). "Foundationalist Theories of Epistemic Justification". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  4. ^ Patrick Rysiew, New Essays on Thomas Reid, Routledge, 2017, p. 18.
  5. ^ M. T. Dalgarno, E. H. Matthews (eds.), The Philosophy of Thomas Reid, Springer, 2012, p. 195.
  6. ^ See Craig G. Bartholomew and Michael W. Goheen, Christian Philosophy page 138 (Baker Academic, 2013).
  7. ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
  8. ^ See H. Lewis Ulman, The Minutes of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society 1758-1773 (Aberdeen University Press for Aberdeen University Studies Committee, 1990).
  9. ^ Thomas Reid. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 2016.
  10. ^ See Craig G. Bartholomew and Michael W. Goheen, Christian Philosophy page 138 (Baker Academic, 2013).
  11. ^ Thomas Reid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Ed. Derek R Brookes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997. p. 255
  12. ^ Thomas Reid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Ed. Derek R Brookes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997
  13. ^ Thomas Reid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Ed. Derek R Brookes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997
  14. ^ Thomas Reid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Ed. Derek R Brookes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997
  15. ^ Thomas Reid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. Ed. Derek R Brookes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997
  16. ^ Peirce, C. S. (1868), "Some Consequences of Four Incapacities", Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2, pp. 140–157, see p. 155 via Google Books. Reprinted, Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 264–317 (see 311), Writings v. 2, pp. 211–42 (see 239), Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 28–55 (see 52).
  17. ^ Peirce, C. S. (1905), "Issues of Pragmaticism", The Monist, v. XV, n. 4, pp. 481–99, see pp. 484–5 via Google Books. Reprinted, Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 438–63 (see 444), Essential Peirce v. 2, pp. 346–59 (see 349).
  18. ^ Alston invokes Reid in his Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 19991) pp. 151–155; 162–165.
  19. ^ For Wolterstorff's use of Reid in aid of Reformed Epistemology, see his "Can Belief in God be Rational if it has no Foundations?" in Faith and Rationality (Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1983)
  20. ^ Essays on the Active Powers, "Essay Four: Of the Liberty of Moral Agents"
  21. ^ Essays on the Intellectual Powers, "Essay Three: Of Memory".

Further reading

  • Barker, Stephen and Tom Beauchamp, eds., Thomas Reid: Critical Interpretations, University City Science Center, 1976.
  • Terence Cuneo, René van Woudenberg (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Daniels, Norman. Thomas Reid's Inquiry:The Geometry of Visibles and the Case for Realism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Davis, William C., Thomas Reid's Ethics: Moral Epistemology on Legal Foundations. Continuum International, 2006. ISBN 0-8264-8809-9
  • Ducheyne, Steffen. "Reid's Adaptation and Radicalization of Newton's Natural Philosophy". History of European Ideas 32 (2006) 173–189.
  • Roger D. Gallie, Thomas Reid and the Way of Ideas, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.
  • Haldane, John. "Reid, Scholasticism, and Current Philosophy of Mind" in M. Delgano and E. Matthews, eds., The Philosophy of Thomas Reid. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.
  • Lehrer, Keith. Thomas Reid. London: Routledge, 1989.
  • Rowe, William. Thomas Reid on Freedom and Morality. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.
  • Wolterstorff, N. Thomas Reid and the Story of Epistemology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

External links

Bristol Racer

The Bristol Type 72 Racer was a British racing monoplane designed by Wilfrid Thomas Reid and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company at Filton, England.

Common sense

Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people. The first type of common sense, good sense, can be described as "the knack for seeing things as they are, and doing things as they ought to be done." The second type is sometimes described as folk wisdom, "signifying unreflective knowledge not reliant on specialized training or deliberative thought." The two types are intertwined, as the person who has common sense is in touch with common-sense ideas, which emerge from the lived experiences of those commonsensical enough to perceive them.In a psychology context, Smedslund defines common sense as "the system of implications shared by the competent users of a language" and notes, "A proposition in a given context belongs to common sense if and only if all competent users of the language involved agree that the proposition in the given context is true and that its negation is false."The everyday understanding of common sense derives from historical philosophical discussion involving several European languages. Related terms in other languages include Latin sensus communis, Greek αἴσθησις κοινὴ (aísthēsis koinḕ), and French bon sens, but these are not straightforward translations in all contexts. Similarly in English, there are different shades of meaning, implying more or less education and wisdom: "good sense" is sometimes seen as equivalent to "common sense", and sometimes not.

"Common sense" also has at least two specifically philosophical meanings. One is a capability of the animal soul (ψῡχή, psūkhḗ) proposed by Aristotle, which enables different individual senses to collectively perceive the characteristics of physical things such as movement and size, which all physical things have in different combinations, allowing people and other animals to distinguish and identify physical things. This common sense is distinct from basic sensory perception and from human rational thinking, but cooperates with both.

The second special use of the term is Roman-influenced and is used for the natural human sensitivity for other humans and the community. Just like the everyday meaning, both of these refer to a type of basic awareness and ability to judge that most people are expected to share naturally, even if they cannot explain why.

All these meanings of "common sense", including the everyday ones, are interconnected in a complex history and have evolved during important political and philosophical debates in modern Western civilisation, notably concerning science, politics and economics. The interplay between the meanings has come to be particularly notable in English, as opposed to other western European languages, and the English term has become international.Since the Age of Enlightenment the term "common sense" has frequently been used for rhetorical effect, sometimes pejorative, and sometimes appealed to positively, as an authority. It can be negatively equated to vulgar prejudice and superstition, it is often positively contrasted to them as a standard for good taste and as the source of the most basic axioms needed for science and logic. It was at the beginning of the eighteenth century that this old philosophical term first acquired its modern English meaning: "Those plain, self-evident truths or conventional wisdom that one needed no sophistication to grasp and no proof to accept precisely because they accorded so well with the basic (common sense) intellectual capacities and experiences of the whole social body"

This began with Descartes' criticism of it, and what came to be known as the dispute between "rationalism" and "empiricism". In the opening line of one of his most famous books, Discourse on Method, Descartes established the most common modern meaning, and its controversies, when he stated that everyone has a similar and sufficient amount of common sense (bon sens), but it is rarely used well. Therefore, a skeptical logical method described by Descartes needs to be followed and common sense should not be overly relied upon. In the ensuing 18th century Enlightenment, common sense came to be seen more positively as the basis for modern thinking. It was contrasted to metaphysics, which was, like Cartesianism, associated with the Ancien Régime. Thomas Paine's polemical pamphlet Common Sense (1776) has been described as the most influential political pamphlet of the 18th century, affecting both the American and French revolutions. Today, the concept of common sense, and how it should best be used, remains linked to many of the most perennial topics in epistemology and ethics, with special focus often directed at the philosophy of the modern social sciences.

Dugald Stewart

Dugald Stewart (; 22 November 1753 – 11 June 1828) was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician. He is best known for popularizing the Scottish Enlightenment and his lectures at the University of Edinburgh were widely disseminated by his many influential students. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In most contemporary documents he is referred to as Prof Dougal Stewart.

Falmouth, Jamaica

Falmouth is the chief town and capital of the parish of Trelawny in Jamaica. It is situated on Jamaica's north coast 18 miles east of Montego Bay. It is noted for being one of the Caribbean's best-preserved Georgian towns.

Founded by Thomas Reid in 1769, Falmouth flourished as a market centre and port for forty years at a time when Jamaica was the world's leading sugar producer. It was named after Falmouth, Cornwall in the United Kingdom, the birthplace of Sir William Trelawny, the Governor of Jamaica, who was instrumental in its establishment.

The town was meticulously planned from the start, with wide streets in a regular grid, adequate water supply, and public buildings. It even had piped water before New York City.

Information source

An information source is a person, thing, or place from which information comes, arises, or is obtained. Information souces can be known as primary or secondary. That source might then inform a person about something or provide knowledge about it. Information sources are divided into separate distinct categories, primary, secondary, tertiary, and so on.

Jessie Reid

Jessie Thomas Reid (born June 1, 1962) is a former professional baseball players who played from 1987–1988 for the San Francisco Giants.

Libertarianism (metaphysics)

Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics. In particular, libertarianism, which is an incompatibilist position, argues that free will is logically incompatible with a deterministic universe and that agents have free will, and that, therefore, determinism is false. One of the first clear formulations of libertarianism is found in John Duns Scotus; in theological context metaphysical libertarianism was notably defended by Jesuit authors like Luis de Molina and Francisco Suárez against rather compatibilist Thomist Báñezianism. Other important metaphysical libertarians in the early modern period were René Descartes, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, and Thomas Reid. Roderick Chisholm was a prominent defender of libertarianism in the 20th century, and contemporary libertarians include Robert Kane, Peter van Inwagen and Robert Nozick.

New Westminster (electoral district)

For the city in British Columbia, see New Westminster.For other electoral districts in New Westminster or using the name Westminster, or successors to this riding, please see New Westminster (electoral districts).New Westminster was a federal electoral district in the province of British Columbia, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1871 to 1979.

This riding was created in 1871 as New Westminster District when British Columbia joined Confederation and filled by special byelection. It was renamed "New Westminster" in 1872. The riding was abolished in 1976, when it was redistributed into the ridings of New Westminster—Coquitlam and Burnaby.

Nicholas Wolterstorff

Nicholas Wolterstorff (born January 21, 1932) is an American philosopher and a liturgical theologian. He is currently Noah Porter Professor Emeritus Philosophical Theology at Yale University. A prolific writer with wide-ranging philosophical and theological interests, he has written books on aesthetics, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of religion, metaphysics, and philosophy of education. In Faith and Rationality, Wolterstorff, Alvin Plantinga, and William Alston developed and expanded upon a view of religious epistemology that has come to be known as Reformed epistemology. He also helped to establish the journal Faith and Philosophy and the Society of Christian Philosophers.

Reid Nichols

Thomas Reid Nichols (born August 5, 1958) is a former outfielder in Major League Baseball, playing mainly at center field from 1980 to 1987 for the Boston Red Sox (1980–1985), Chicago White Sox (1985–1986) and Montreal Expos (1987). Listed at 6' 0", 195 lb., he batted and threw right-handed. Nichols currently serves as Special Assistant to the GM / Player Development Milwaukee Brewers.

Scottish common sense realism

Scottish Common Sense Realism, also known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a realist school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the 18th-century Scottish Enlightenment. Reid emphasized man's innate ability to perceive common ideas and that this process is inherent in and interdependent with judgement. Common sense therefore, is the foundation of philosophical inquiry. Though best remembered for its opposition to the pervasive philosophy of David Hume, Scottish Common Sense philosophy is influential and evident in the works of Thomas Jefferson and late 18th-century American politics.

Thomas R. Cullen

Thomas Reid Cullen (January 19, 1904 – December 9, 1984) was a farmer and political figure on Prince Edward Island. He represented 2nd Kings in the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island as a Liberal from 1943 to 1947 and from 1951 to 1955.

He was born in Hope River, Prince Edward Island, the son of Timothy Patrick Cullen and Frances Etta Landrigan, and was educated at Prince of Wales College and Saint Dunstan's College. Cullen taught school for several years. In 1928, he married Pearl Burke. Cullen served as speaker for the assembly from 1944 to 1947. He was defeated when he ran for reelection in 1947. He served as Clerk for the General Assembly from 1949 to 1959 and again from 1966 to 1978. Cullen died at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Charlottetown at the age of 80.

His brother Eugene also served as speaker for the assembly.

Thomas Reid (British politician)

Thomas Reid (26 December 1881 – 28 January 1963) was a British diplomat and politician. He was Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Swindon from 1945 to 1955.

Thomas Reid (Canadian politician)

Thomas Reid (April 18, 1886 – October 12, 1968) was a Canadian businessman and politician in the province of British Columbia.

Reid was born in Cambuslang, Scotland. In 1909, he moved to Canada and in 1911 married Mary Jeanie Masson, also from Scotland. Together they raised a family of two sons and two daughters. The Reids moved to Surrey in 1918 where Thomas Reid managed the Pacific Car and Foundry Company.In 1922 Reid was elected to office as a Councillor for Surrey and served two years in this capacity. From 1924 to 1930 he was elected annually to the position of Reeve. During this time he was twice appointed head of the Union of British Columbia Municipalities. In 1930, Reid entered federal politics and was elected Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for the New Westminster riding. He represented this riding for nineteen years. Reid was a founding member of the International Pacific Coast Sockeye Salmon Commission and served as chairman from 1937 to 1967. He became Parliamentary Assistant to the Ministers of Fisheries and of National Revenue in 1948 and in 1949 assisted the Minister of National Health and Welfare. In 1948 he was summoned to the Senate.

Thomas Reid (disambiguation)

Thomas Reid (1710–1796) was a Scottish philosopher.

Thomas or Tom Reid may also refer to:

Thomas Reid (clockmaker) (1746–1831), a famous Edinburgh clockmaker

Sir Thomas Reid, 1st Baronet (1762–1824), Scottish businessman, director and governor of East India Co.

Thomas Mayne Reid (aviator) (1895–?), Canadian aviation pioneer, see Trans-Canada Trophy

Thomas Mayne Reid (1818–1883), Irish-American novelist

Tommy Reid (1905–1972), Scottish footballer

Thomas Reid (British politician) (1881–1963), Member of Parliament for Swindon, 1945–1955

Thomas Reid (naval surgeon) (1791–1825), Irish born Royal naval surgeon and prison reformer

Thomas Reid (planter), founder of Falmouth, Jamaica

Thomas Wemyss Reid (1842–1905), British newspaper editor, novelist and biographer

Tom Reid (rugby league), New Zealand international

Tom Reid (born 1946), American ice hockey player

Tom Reid (footballer, born 1901) (1901–?), English soccer player

Thomas Reid (Canadian politician) (1886–1968), Canadian businessman and politician in the province of British Columbia

Thomas Reid (humanist) (died 1624), Scottish humanist and philosopher

Thomas M. Reid (born 1966), American author and game designer

T.R. Reid (Thomas Roy Reid) (born 1943), American reporter, documentary film correspondent, and author

Tom Reid (rugby union) (1926–1996), Irish rugby union player

Tom Reid (electrical engineer) (1927-2010), involved in Apollo program

Thomas Reid Davys Bell

Thomas Reid Davys Bell (2 May 1863 – 24 June 1948), born in Bandon, Cork, was a lepidopterist, naturalist and forest officer in India.

Thomas was the youngest in a family of twelve. His early education was in Dresden. He tried to get into the Indian Civil Services but failed. He later wrote entrance exams to Sandhurst and Woolwich, passed but decided not to join the army. He passed the entrance for the Indian Woods and Forest Services and joined the services at Dharwad in 1884, as a Deputy Forest Officer. Here he was in touch with Edward Hamilton Aitken who was in the salt and excise department and James Davidson, collector of the district and along with these keen naturalists he began to study the Lepidoptera. He also made collections of beetles which he passed on to H. E. Andrewes at the British Museum. He was in Sind between 1905 and 1906 but returned to Belgaum. Davidson had moved back to Edinburgh and he moved to live at Karwar, North Kanara District, Bombay, India. A series on the common butterflies of India was started in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society by L.C.H. Young, but discontinued due to his ill-health. Walter Samuel Millard contacted Bell and suggested that he complete the series and Bell reluctantly took up this task. He reared many lepidoptera specimens from larvae collected in the field and published on a variety of topics including a volume (1937) on the Sphingidae in The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma in collaboration with Major F. B. Scott (who was in Assam). In 1911 he was made CIE. He became a Chief Conservator of Forests, Bombay Presidency in 1913, a position he held until his retirement in 1920. He worked on the grasses of the North Kanara region with L. J. Sedgwick, the collection now at St. Xavier's College in Bombay. Sedgwick and Bell founded the Journal of Indian Botany with P.F. Fyson as editor. Later he also took an interest in the orchids and his sister made illustrations of them. He joined a timber business at Sawanthwadi along with a partner who left him with significant financial losses. In 1930 he gave his entire collection of insects to the British Museum. It had 3000 specimens of butterflies, 12000 moths, 1900 Coleoptera, 1720 Hymenoptera and 20 Orthoptera. Several insect species have been described from his collections and named after Bell including:

Acmaeodera belli Kerremans, 1893

Ambulyx belli (Jordan, 1923)

Idgia belli Gorham, 1895Bell was unmarried and his sister Eva stayed with him for many years until her death in 1941.

Tommy Reid

Thomas Joseph Reid (15 August 1905 – 1972) was a Scottish footballer. Born in Motherwell, Lanarkshire, he began his career with Blantyre Victoria and moved to Clydebank for a season before moving to England in 1926 to play for Liverpool, with Liverpool paying a fee of £1,000 to sign Reid. After almost three years with Liverpool, during which time he scored 31 goals in 51 league appearances, he transferred to Manchester United in January 1929. He played for Manchester United for four years, leaving midway through the 1932–33 season, after scoring 63 goals in 96 league appearances. He joined Oldham Athletic and played for them for two years before joining Barrow. He also played for Prescot Cables before ending his career with Rhyl Athletic.

W.T. Reid

William Thomas Reid (1842–1922) was born in Jacksonville, Illinois and served as the Fourth President of the University of California from 1881 to 1885. He married Julia Reed (1846-1917) on August 16, 1870 in Jacksonville.

Reid studied at the Illinois College, but he left at the outbreak of the American Civil War. Enlisting in the 68th Illinois Infantry Regiment and served as a Corporal. After the war he attended Harvard University, graduating in 1868.

During his tenure as University of California President, Reid strengthened admission requirements and also instituted a plan whereby graduating high school seniors could be admitted without taking an examination. He resigned the presidency in 1885, during a period of intense politics involving the governance and operation of the University.

Wilfrid Thomas Reid

Wilfrid Thomas Reid (4 March 1887 – 5 April 1968) was an English aircraft designer and considered one of the pioneers of the Canadian aircraft industry.

Reid was born on 4 March 1887 in Battersea, Surrey. He died in Newton Abbot, Devon, on 5 April 1968 of heart failure. He was married with two children.

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