Thomas Pinckney

Thomas Pinckney (October 23, 1750 – November 2, 1828) was an early American statesman, diplomat, and soldier in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, achieving the rank of major general. He served as Governor of South Carolina and as the U.S. minister to Great Britain. He was also the Federalist candidate for vice president in the 1796 election.

Born into a prominent Charleston, South Carolina family, Pinckney studied in Europe before returning to America. He supported the independence cause and worked as an aide to General Horatio Gates. After the Revolutionary War, Pinckney managed his plantation and won election as Governor of South Carolina, serving from 1787 to 1789. He presided over the state convention which ratified the United States Constitution. In 1792, he accepted President George Washington's appointment to the position of minister to Britain, but was unable to win concessions regarding the impressment of American sailors. He also served as an envoy to Spain and negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo, which defined the border between Spain and the United States.

Following his diplomatic success in Spain, the Federalists chose Pinckney as John Adams's running mate in the 1796 presidential election. Under the rules then in place, the individual who won the most electoral votes became president, while the individual who won the second most electoral votes became vice president. Although Adams won the presidential election, Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson won the second most electoral votes and won election as vice president. After the election, Pinckney served in the United States House of Representatives from 1797 to 1801. His brother, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, was the Federalist vice presidential nominee in 1800 and the party's presidential nominee in 1804 and 1808. During the War of 1812, Pinckney was commissioned as a major general.

Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 1st district
In office
November 23, 1797 – March 3, 1801
Preceded byWilliam Smith
Succeeded byThomas Lowndes
2nd United States Minister to the United Kingdom
In office
August 9, 1792 – July 27, 1796
PresidentGeorge Washington
Preceded byJohn Adams
Succeeded byRufus King
36th Governor of South Carolina
In office
February 20, 1787 – January 26, 1789
LieutenantThomas Gadsden
Preceded byWilliam Moultrie
Succeeded byCharles Pinckney
Personal details
BornOctober 23, 1750
Charlestown, South Carolina, British America
DiedNovember 2, 1828 (aged 78)
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
Political partyFederalist
EducationChrist Church, Oxford (BA)
Special Military School of St. Cyr
Inner Temple
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceContinental Army
 United States Army
Years of service1775–1783 (Continental)
1812–1815 (United States)
RankUS-O4 insignia.svg Major (Continental)
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General (United States)
Unit1st South Carolina Regiment
Battles/warsAmerican Revolutionary War
 • Battle of Camden
War of 1812

Early life and Revolutionary War years

Pinckney was born on October 23, 1750 in Charlestown in the Province of South Carolina. His father, Charles Pinckney, was a prominent colonial official, while his mother, Eliza Lucas, was known for her introduction of indigo culture to the colony. Pinckney was the second of three siblings to survive to adulthood; his older sister, Harriett, later married a wealthy South Carolina planter, while his younger brother Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, became a prominent leader in South Carolina. When Pinckney was 3, his father took the family to Great Britain on colonial business, but the elder Pinckney died in 1758. His mother kept the family in Great Britain, and Pinckney studied at Westminster School, Christ Church, Oxford, and the Middle Temple. Pinckney was admitted to the bar in November 1774 and almost immediately left for South Carolina.[1]

Though he had spent the majority of his life in England, Pinckney sympathized with the Patriot cause in the American Revolutionary War. Along with his brother, Charles, he became a captain in the Continental Army in June 1775.[2] After seeing much action, he became an aide-de-camp to General Horatio Gates, and was captured by the British at the disastrous Battle of Camden in 1780.[3] By that time he had married and had an infant child. He was allowed to recuperate from his wounds at his mother-in-law Rebecca Brewton Motte's plantation outside Charleston. In 1781 he and his family traveled to Philadelphia, where he was released by the British in a prisoner exchange. Pinckney returned to the South and that year fought under the Marquis de Lafayette in Virginia.

Governor and ambassador

After the war, Pinckney focused on his plantations and his legal practice. In 1787, he ran for the position of Governor of South Carolina at the urging of his friend, Edward Rutledge. Pinckney was elected governor with little opposition. He strongly favored ratification of the United States Constitution and presided over the state convention that ratified the Constitution.[4] He served in the South Carolina House of Representatives for St. Philip's and St. Michael's Parish from January 3, 1791 to December 20, 1791.

Pinckney initially declined appointment to a federal position, but in 1792 he agreed to serve as President George Washington's ambassador to Britain. As Pinckney was unable to get the British to reach an agreement on various issues, including the practice of impressment or the evacuation of British forts in American territory, Washington dispatched John Jay as a special envoy to Britain. Pinckney helped Jay conclude the Jay Treaty, which addressed some issues between the U.S. and Britain but proved divisive in the United States. In 1795, while he continued to serve as the ambassador to Britain, Pinckney was sent to Spain to negotiate a treaty regarding boundaries and U.S. navigation on the Mississippi River. In the resulting Treaty of San Lorenzo, Spain agreed to allow Americans to export goods through the Mississippi River.[5]

Upon his return to the United States, Pinckney joined with his mother-in-law, Rebecca Motte in developing a rice plantation known as Eldorado on the Santee River outside Charleston. She lived there with him and her daughter and grandchildren in her later years.

Presidential election of 1796

Pinckney's diplomatic success with Spain made him popular at home, and on his return the Federalist party nominated him as a candidate in the 1796 presidential election. The Federalists were strongest in the region of New England, and they hoped that Pinckney's Southern roots would help him win votes in his home region. Pinckney would be the ostensible running mate of Vice President John Adams, but under the electoral rules in place prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes for president with no distinction made between presidential votes and vice presidential votes. Pinckney, Adams, and the main Democratic-Republican candidates, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, each had a potential chance at winning the presidency.[6]

Alexander Hamilton clashed with Adams over control of the Federalist Party, and he may have worked to elect Pinckney as president over Adams.[6] Many Democratic-Republicans held favorable views of Pinckney, who had not been closely identified with the Federalist Party before 1796. Some Democratic-Republicans hoped that Pinckney could bridge partisan divides. Thus, Pinckney could potentially attract electors who would not consider voting for Adams.[7]

In the election, most New England electors voted for the Federalist candidates, most Southern electors voted for Democratic-Republican candidates, and the two parties each received support from electors in the middle states. South Carolina split its vote between Jefferson and Pinckney, awarding each candidate 8 electoral votes. However, several New England electors, fearing the possibility of Pinckney's election over Adams, refused to vote for Pinckney. Adams finished with 71 electoral votes, Jefferson with 68 electoral votes, and Pinckney with 59 electoral votes. Adams became president and, under the rules then in place, the runner-up, Jefferson, became vice president.[6]

Later life

Public service

Pinckney was elected to the United States House of Representatives in September 1797, and served until March 1801. His service was frequently affected by poor health, and he declined to seek another term in 1800. While in Congress, he supported the Alien and Sedition Acts.[8] He also served as one of the managers appointed by the House in 1798 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against William Blount.

After leaving Congress, Pinckney once again focused on developing his plantations. At the request of President James Madison, he returned to military service during the War of 1812. He did see battle during the war, but served as an administrator of American forces in the Southern United States. In 1826, he succeeded his brother as the president of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization made up of veteran officers of the American Revolutionary War.[9]

Denmark Vesey conspiracy

In 1822, news was reported of a massive planned slave uprising, to be led by Denmark Vesey, a literate free man of color. Vesey and numerous other free blacks and slaves were quickly arrested in a roundup and suppression of rebellion by authorities. Slaves constituted the majority of the population in Charleston, where there was a substantial population of free people of color. Whites long feared just such an uprising. In closed court proceedings, and Vesey and numerous other suspects were convicted; they were soon executed as conspirators. Arrests continued, with some suspects deported from the country.

Pinckney published a pamphlet listing factors that he thought led to the rebellion conspiracy and should be prevented in the future.

  • 1st: The example of St. Domingo (Saint-Domingue) (Note: A violent and protracted slave uprising there gained the independence of Haiti in 1804), and the encouragement received from thence.
  • 2nd: The indiscreet zeal in favor of universal liberty, expressed by many of our fellow citizens in the States north and east of Maryland; aided by the black population of those states.
  • 3rd: The idleness, dissipation, and improper indulgences permitted among all classes of negroes in Charleston, and particularly among the domestic being taught to read and write. Being taught to read and write is the most dangerous.
  • 4th: The facility of obtaining money afforded by the nature of their occupations to those employed as mechanics, draymen, fisherman, butchers, porters and hucksters.
  • 5th: The disparity of numbers between the white and black inhabitants of the city.[10]

Death

Pinckney died in Charleston, South Carolina on November 2, 1828.[11] He is interred in St. Philip's Churchyard.

Legacy and honors

  • From at least 1801 through 1825, he and his second wife Frances Pinckney lived at a town house they built at 14 George Street, in Charleston. It is now preserved as the Middleton-Pinckney House and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
  • Pinckneyville, Georgia was named after General Thomas Pinckney, after he traveled through the area. That town no longer exists, as its residents left to found the nearby Norcross. Pinckneyville is the name of a Middle School in Norcross.
  • Pinckney, New York was named after him.
  • Pinckney was portrayed by Hugh O'Gorman in the miniseries John Adams, though he is erroneously portrayed as a United States Senator instead of Ambassador to Great Britain during the George Washington administration

Family

His father, Charles Pinckney, was Chief Justice of South Carolina. His mother, Eliza Lucas, was prominent for introducing the cultivation of indigo to the colonies. His brother Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and his cousin Charles Pinckney were signers of the United States Constitution.

Pinckney first married Elizabeth Motte in 1779, a daughter of Jacob and Rebecca Brewton Motte, a planter and merchant family. After her death, he married in 1797 her younger sister, Frances, the widow of John Middleton. (He was a cousin of Arthur Middleton.) The Mottes were patriots in the Revolution.

Pinckney's elder son, Thomas, Jr., married Elizabeth Izard, a cousin twice removed of South Carolina Congressman Ralph Izard.

His younger son, named Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1789–1865) after his brother, married Phoebe Caroline Elliott, a daughter of a South Carolina State Representative, William Elliott, and Phoebe Waight. That son served as Lt. Governor of South Carolina between 1832 and 1834.

The Pinckneys' daughter Elizabeth married William Lowndes, son of Revolutionary War-era South Carolina Governor Rawlins Lowndes. He became a leading Republican voice in the House of Representatives from 1812 until his death in 1822. Lowndes's connection to the Pinckneys, despite their contrasting political affiliation, helped gain the younger man's election to Congress in 1811.[12]

References

  1. ^ Southwick (1998), pp. 14–16
  2. ^ Southwick (1998), pp. 16–17
  3. ^ Buchanan (1997), pp. 163, 170
  4. ^ Southwick (1998), p. 17
  5. ^ Southwick (1998), pp. 17–19
  6. ^ a b c Heidenreich (2011), pp. 151–165
  7. ^ Scherr (1975), pp. 51–59
  8. ^ Southwick (1998), p. 19
  9. ^ Southwick (1998), pp. 19–20
  10. ^ White, Deborah (2013). Freedom on my Mind. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's. p. 242.
  11. ^ Southwick (1998), p. 14
  12. ^ Vipperman, Carl. William Lowndes and the Transition of Southern Politics (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1989), 24–32.

Bibliography

  • Buchanan, John (1997). The Road to Guilford Courthouse. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471327165.
  • Heidenreich, Donald E. (2011). "Conspiracy Politics in the Election of 1796". New York History. 92 (3): 151–165. JSTOR 23185122.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. (2013). The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1907-8.
  • Purcell, L. Edward (1993). Who Was Who in the American Revolution. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2107-4.
  • Scherr, Arthur (April 1975). "The Significance of Thomas Pinckney's Candidacy in the Election of 1796". The South Carolina Historical Magazine. 76 (2): 51–59. JSTOR 27567304.
  • Southwick, Leslie (1998). Presidential Also-Rans and Running Mates, 1788 through 1996 (Second ed.). McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0310-1.
  • Williams, Francis Leigh (1978). A Founding Family: The Pinckneys of South Carolina. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0151315031.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
William Moultrie
Governor of South Carolina
1787–1789
Succeeded by
Charles Pinckney
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John Adams
United States Minister to the United Kingdom
1792–1796
Succeeded by
Rufus King
Party political offices
Preceded by
John Adams
Federalist nominee for Vice President of the United States
1796
Succeeded by
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
William Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 1st congressional district

1797–1801
Succeeded by
Thomas Lowndes
1796 United States elections

The 1796 United States elections elected the members of the 5th United States Congress. The election took place during the beginning stages of the First Party System, as the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party clashed over the states' rights, the financial policies of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, and the recently ratified Jay Treaty. The Federalists maintained control of the Senate, and won control of the House and the presidency.

In the first contested Presidential election and the first presidential election in which parties played a major role, Federalist Vice President John Adams narrowly defeated Democratic-Republican former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Adams won New England while Jefferson won the South, leaving the mid-Atlantic states to decide the election. As the election took place prior to the ratification of the 12th Amendment, Jefferson, who finished with the second most electoral votes, succeeded Adams as vice president. Federalist former Governor Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina finished with the third most electoral votes, while Democratic-Republican Senator Aaron Burr of New York finished in fourth place. This election marked the only time in American history that members of two different political parties were elected as president and vice president. Adams's election made him the first member of a political party to be elected president, as George Washington had remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his presidency.In the House, Federalists won moderate gains, taking majority control of the chamber.In the Senate, Federalists picked up one seat, maintaining a commanding majority in the chamber.

1796 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 4 to Wednesday, December 7, 1796. It was the first contested American presidential election, the first presidential election in which political parties played a dominant role, and the only presidential election in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing tickets. Incumbent Vice President John Adams of the Federalist Party defeated former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party.

With incumbent President George Washington having refused a third term in office, the 1796 election became the first U.S. presidential election in which political parties competed for the presidency. The Federalists coalesced behind Adams and the Democratic-Republicans supported Jefferson, but each party ran multiple candidates. Under the electoral rules in place prior to the 1804 ratification of the Twelfth Amendment, the members of the Electoral College each cast two votes, with no distinction made between electoral votes for president and electoral votes for vice president. In order to be elected president, the winning candidate had to win the votes of a majority of electors; should no individual win a majority, the House of Representatives would hold a contingent election.

The campaign was an acrimonious one, with Federalists attempting to identify the Democratic-Republicans with the violence of the French Revolution and the Democratic-Republicans accusing the Federalists of favoring monarchism and aristocracy. Republicans sought to associate Adams with the policies developed by fellow Federalist Alexander Hamilton during the Washington administration, which they declaimed were too much in favor of Great Britain and a centralized national government. In foreign policy, Republicans denounced the Federalists over the Jay Treaty, which had established a temporary peace with Great Britain. Federalists attacked Jefferson's moral character, alleging he was an atheist and that he had been a coward during the American Revolutionary War. Adams supporters also accused Jefferson of being too pro-France; the accusation was underscored when the French ambassador embarrassed the Republicans by publicly backing Jefferson and attacking the Federalists right before the election. Despite the vituperation between their respective camps, neither Adams nor Jefferson actively campaigned for the presidency.Adams was elected president with 71 electoral votes, one more than was needed for a majority. Adams won by sweeping the electoral votes of New England and winning votes from several other swing states, especially the states of the Mid-Atlantic region. Jefferson received 68 electoral votes and was elected vice president. Former Governor Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, a Federalist, finished with 59 electoral votes, while Senator Aaron Burr, a Democratic-Republican from New York, won 30 electoral votes. The remaining 48 electoral votes were dispersed among nine other candidates. Reflecting the evolving nature of both parties, several electors cast one vote for a Federalist candidate and one vote for a Democratic-Republican candidate. The election marked the formation of the First Party System, and established a rivalry between Federalist New England and Democratic-Republican South, with the middle states holding the balance of power (New York and Maryland were the crucial swing states, and between them only voted for a loser once between 1789 and 1820).

1797 State of the Union Address

John Adams' First State of the Union Address was delivered on Wednesday, November 22, 1797, in the Congress Hall of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At the time of the address, sickness was spreading through Philadelphia and Adams notes in his introduction that he was tempted to relocate the assembly of the national legislature but avoided this due to inevitable expense and general inconvenience.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (February 25, 1746 – August 16, 1825) was an early American statesman of South Carolina, Revolutionary War veteran, and delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was twice nominated by the Federalist Party as its presidential candidate in 1804 and 1808, losing both elections.

Pinckney was born into a powerful family of aristocratic planters. He practiced law for several years and was elected to the colonial legislature. A supporter of independence from Great Britain, Pinckney served in the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of brigadier general. After the war, he won election to the South Carolina legislature, where he and his brother Thomas Pinckney represented the landed elite of the South Carolina Lowcountry. An advocate of a stronger federal government, Pinckney served as a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which wrote a new federal constitution. Pinckney's influence helped ensure that South Carolina would ratify the United States Constitution.

Pinckney declined George Washington's first offer to serve in his administration, but in 1796 Pinckney accepted the position of Minister to France. In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the French demanded a bribe before they would agree to meet with the U.S. delegation. Pinckney returned to the United States, accepting an appointment as a general during the Quasi-War with France. Though he had resisted joining either major party for much of the 1790s, Pinckney began to identify with the Federalist Party following his return from France. The Federalists chose him as their vice presidential nominee in the 1800 election, hoping that his presence on the ticket could win support for the party in the South. Though Alexander Hamilton schemed to elect Pinckney president under the electoral rules then in place, both Pinckney and incumbent Federalist President John Adams were defeated by the Democratic-Republican candidates.

Seeing little hope of defeating popular incumbent President Thomas Jefferson, the Federalists chose Pinckney as their presidential nominee for the 1804 election. Neither Pinckney nor the party pursued an active campaign, and Jefferson won in a landslide. The Federalists nominated Pinckney again in 1808, in the hope that Pinckney's military experience and Jefferson's economic policies would give the party a chance of winning. Though the 1808 presidential election was closer than the 1804 election had been, Democratic-Republican nominee James Madison nonetheless prevailed.

Eldorado Plantation

Eldorado Plantation was the home of Major General Thomas Pinckney and his second wife Frances Motte Middleton, and was built in about 1797 in Charleston County, South Carolina. After Pinckney returned from Europe, where he had been serving as the United States minister to England and Spain, he bought a plantation on the South Santee River. His eldest son, Thomas Pinckney Jr and wife Elizabeth Izard Pinckney, took up residence at his wife Frances's family home, Fairfield Plantation just upstream on the South Santee River.

Pinckney named his new plantation Eldorado; the name came from the golden buttercups that bloomed on the property ("El Dorado" means "the Golden" in Spanish). Pinckney used a Spanish name in memory of his time as the minister to Spain. Pinckney and his mother-in-law, Rebecca Brewton Motte, built the plantation house and developed the plantation for rice culture. She lived with him and her daughter until her death in 1815.

The house stood on the property until it burned on May 10, 1897. It was owned at the time by the grandson of General Thomas Pinckney, Capt. Thomas Pinckney, and occupied by Captain Pinckney's nephew, Hamilton Seabrook. Captain Pinckney left the property to his daughter, Josephine Pinckney, and she in turn left it to her half-brother's children. The land was later sold and today is part of the Santee National Wildlife Refuge.

Fairfield Plantation (Charleston County, South Carolina)

Fairfield Plantation, also known as the Lynch House is a plantation about 5 mi (8 km) east of McClellanville in Charleston County, South Carolina. It is adjacent to the Wedge Plantation and just north of Harrietta Plantation. The plantation house was built around 1730. It is located just off US Highway 17 near the Santee River. It was named to the National Register of Historic Places on September 18, 1975.

Faithless elector

In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote. That is, they break faith with the candidate they were pledged to and vote for another candidate, or fail to vote. A pledged elector is only considered a faithless elector by breaking their pledge; unpledged electors have no pledge to break.

Electors are typically chosen and nominated by a political party or the party's presidential nominee: they are usually party members with a reputation for high loyalty to the party and its chosen candidate. Thus, a faithless elector runs the risk of party censure and political retaliation from their party, as well as potential legal penalties in some states. Candidates for elector are nominated by state political parties in the months prior to Election Day.

In some states, such as Indiana, the electors are nominated in primaries, the same way other candidates are nominated. In other states, such as Oklahoma, Virginia, and North Carolina, electors are nominated in party conventions. In Pennsylvania, the campaign committee of each candidate names their candidates for elector (an attempt to discourage faithless electors). The parties have generally been successful in keeping their electors faithful, leaving out the cases in which a candidate died before the elector was able to cast a vote.

During the 1836 election, Virginia's entire 23-man electoral delegation faithlessly abstained from voting for victorious Democratic vice presidential nominee Richard M. Johnson. The loss of Virginia's support caused Johnson to fall one electoral vote short of a majority, causing the vice presidential election to be thrown into the U.S. Senate for the only time in American history. The presidential election itself was not in dispute because Virginia's electors voted for Democratic presidential nominee Martin Van Buren as pledged. The U.S. Senate ultimately elected Johnson as vice president after a party-line vote.

There have been a total of 167 instances of faithlessness as of 2016. Nearly all have voted for third party candidates or non-candidates, as opposed to switching their support to a major opposing candidate. Ultimately, faithless electors have only impacted the outcome of an election once, during the 1796 election where Thomas Pinckney would have become the President and John Adams the Vice President.The United States Constitution does not specify a notion of pledging; no federal law or constitutional statute binds an elector's vote to anything. All pledging laws originate at the state level.

Middleton-Pinckney House

The Middleton-Pinckney House is a historic three-story home built on a raised basement at 14 George Street, Charleston, South Carolina in the Ansonborough neighborhood. Frances Motte Middleton (a daughter of Jacob and Rebecca Brewton Motte and widow of John Middleton) began construction of the house in 1796 after purchasing a second lot adjacent to one bought by her father on George St. The house was completed by her and her second husband, Maj. Gen. Thomas Pinckney, whom she married in 1797.The couple lived in the house at least from 1801 until, on February 26, 1825, the couple sold the house to Mrs. Pinckney's son, John Middleton, for $10,000. One exception occurred in 1816, when the family resided on Legare Street, perhaps to permit the reworking of the house in the then-popular Regency style.

John Middleton died in 1826, and the house was sold to Mrs. Juliet Gibbes Elliott, at which time the house became known as the Elliott Mansion. The house remained a private residence until Jesse W. Starr, Jr. bought it from Mrs. Elliott's estate in 1879 and resold it to the Water Works Company of Charleston in 1880. The water company was a private company until the City took over its operation in 1917.

In 1988, the house became the location of the headquarters of the Spoleto Festival USA. The City of Charleston donated the house to the festival in 2002, which undertook a rehabilitation of the property. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a contributing property to the Charleston Historic District.

Middleton-Rutledge-Pinckney family

The Middleton-Rutledge-Pinckney family is a family of politicians from the United States.

Henry Middleton 1717-1784, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1774, South Carolina State Senator 1778.Arthur Middleton 1742-1787, Delegate to the South Carolina Constitutional Convention 1776, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1776, South Carolina State Representative 1778, South Carolina State Senator 1781. Son of Henry Middleton.Henry Middleton 1770-1846, South Carolina State Representative 1802, South Carolina State Senator 1810, Governor of South Carolina 1810-1812, U.S. Representative from South Carolina 1815-1819, U.S. Minister to Russia 1820-1830. Son of Arthur Middleton.

Edward Rutledge 1749-1800, Delegate to the Continental Congress 1774-1776, South Carolina State Representative 1782, Governor of South Carolina 1798-1800. Brother-in-law of Henry Middleton.

John Rutledge 1739-1800, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1774, President of South Carolina 1776-1778, Governor of South Carolina 1779, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1789-1791, Chief Justice of the South Carolina Supreme Court 1791-1794, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1795. Brother to Edward Rutledge.Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1746-1825, South Carolina State Senator 1799-1804, U.S. Minister to France 1796-1797, candidate for Vice President of the United States 1800, candidate for President of the United States 1804, 1808. Son-in-law of Henry Middleton.John Rutledge, Jr. 1766-1819, member of the South Carolina State Legislature, U.S. Representative from South Carolina 1797-1803. Son of John Rutledge.NOTE: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was also brother of South Carolina Governor Thomas Pinckney and cousin of U.S. Senator Charles Pinckney.

Pinckney's Treaty

Pinckney's Treaty, also commonly known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the border between the United States and Spanish Florida, and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River. With this agreement, the first phase of the ongoing border dispute between the two nations in this region, commonly called the West Florida Controversy, came to a close.The treaty's full title is Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and the United States. Thomas Pinckney negotiated the treaty for the United States and Don Manuel de Godoy represented Spain. It was presented to the United States Senate on February 26, 1796, and, after debate, was ratified on March 7, 1796. It was ratified by Spain on April 25, 1796 and ratifications were exchanged on that date. The treaty was proclaimed on August 3, 1796.

Pinckney, New York

Pinckney is a town in Lewis County, New York, United States. The population was 329 at the 2010 census. The town was named after Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.

The Town of Pinckney is on the west border of the county and is southeast of Watertown.

Pinckney (surname)

Pinckney is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Pinckney political family of South CarolinaCharles Pinckney (South Carolina chief justice) (died 1758), South Carolina politician, father of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney, and uncle of Colonel Charles Pinckney

Colonel Charles Pinckney (1731–1782), South Carolina politician, British Loyalist during Revolutionary War, father of the Governor Charles Pinckney

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746–1825), Revolutionary War general and vice presidential candidate

Charles Pinckney (governor) (1757–1824), drafter of the United States Constitution, father of Henry Laurens Pinckney, and second cousin of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Eliza Lucas Pinckney, South Carolina planter

Thomas Pinckney (1750–1828), South Carolina governor, ambassador to Britain, diplomat who arranged Pinckney's Treaty, and a brother of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Henry L. Pinckney, U.S. Representative from South Carolina

John M. Pinckney, U.S. Representative from Texas; his parents were from South CarolinaOthersClementa C. Pinckney (1973–2015), American politician

Darryl Pinckney, American author and critic

Ed Pinckney (born 1963), American basketball player

Violet Millicent Pinckney (1871–1955), English tennis player

Ralph Izard

Ralph Izard (January 23, 1741/1742 – May 30, 1804) was a U.S. politician. He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1794.

Rebecca Brewton Motte

Rebecca Brewton Motte (1737–1815) was a plantation owner in South Carolina and townhouse owner in its chief city of Charleston. She was known as a patriot in the American Revolution, supplying continental forces with food and supplies for five years. By the end of the war, she had become one of the wealthiest individuals in the state, having inherited property from both her older brother Miles Brewton, who was lost at sea in 1775, and her husband Jacob Motte, who died in 1780.

In 1780 Motte left Charleston after the British occupied it, living with her family at the Mt. Joseph plantation about 95 miles away, along the Congaree River. It became known as Fort Motte after the British occupied and fortified it; she moved with her family from the big house to the overseer's house. To help patriots take over the property, she agreed to have the big house burned down.

Thomas Lowndes (congressman)

Thomas Lowndes (January 22, 1766 – July 8, 1843) was an American planter, lawyer and politician from Charleston, South Carolina. He was the son of Rawlins Lowndes, governor of South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War and half-brother of William Lowndes (congressman) who helped secure the declaration of the War of 1812. Educated in Charleston, he studied law there and became a practicing lawyer in the city in the late 18th century. He was a member of the state legislature from 1792 to 1799. He represented South Carolina's 1st Congressional District in the U.S. Congress from March 4, 1801 to March 3, 1805. He was not re-elected in 1804. He failed to win back his seat in 1808, and retired from public life thereafter. He died in Charleston in 1843.

Thomas Pinckney "Skipper" Heard

Thomas Pinckney "Skipper" Heard (August 25, 1898 – July 11, 1980) or T.P. "Skipper" Heard was the athletics director at Louisiana State University from 1931 until 1954.Heard was an early pioneer in the establishment of legal and honest athletic grants-in-aid and oversaw LSU's entry into the Southeastern Conference as a charter member in 1933. In addition, he is the "father" of night football games at Louisiana State University and was a force behind three expansions of Tiger Stadium raising seating capacity from 12,000 to 67,500. He also had LSU football games broadcast on 50,000-watt clear-channel WWL-AM in 1942 giving LSU a national broadcast platform and made it possible for LSU to fly to long-distance inter-sectional football games starting in 1939. Heard also coached the LSU Tigers golf team to a national championship (1947).

Heard was inducted into the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame in 2011.

Thomas Pinckney (American Civil War)

Captain Thomas Pinckney (August 13, 1828 – November 14, 1915) was a Southern rice planter and Confederate veteran of the American Civil War. He was the grandson of Major General Thomas Pinckney and one of the Immortal Six Hundred.

William Loughton Smith

William Loughton Smith (1758 – December 19, 1812) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat from Charleston, South Carolina. He represented South Carolina in the United States House of Representatives from 1789 until 1797, during which time he served as chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means.

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