Thomas Graunger or Granger (1625? – September 8, 1642) was one of the first people hanged in the Plymouth Colony (the first hanged in Plymouth or in any of the colonies of New England being John Billington) and the first known juvenile to be sentenced to death and executed in the territory of today's United States. He was a servant to Love Brewster, of Duxbury, in the Plymouth Colony of British North America. Graunger, at the age of 16 or 17, was convicted of "buggery with a mare, a cow, two goats, divers sheepe, two calves, and a turkey", according to court records of 7 September 1642.
Graunger confessed to his crimes in court privately to local magistrates, and upon indictment, publicly to ministers and the jury, being sentenced to "death by hanging until he was dead". He was hanged by John Holmes, Messenger of the Court, on September 8, 1642. Before Graunger's execution, following the laws set down in Leviticus 20:15 ("And if a man shall lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death: and ye shall slay the beast"), the animals involved were slaughtered before his face and thrown into a large pit dug for their disposal, no use being made of any part of them.
The 1640s decade ran from January 1, 1640, to December 31, 1649.1642
was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was
10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.1794 in Scotland
Events from the year 1794 in Scotland.2/9th Commando Squadron (Australia)
The 2/9th Commando Squadron was a commando unit raised by the Australian Army for service in World War II. Raised in 1944, the unit saw action late in the war against the Japanese during the Aitape–Wewak campaign taking part in number of long range patrol operations across the Torricelli Range in New Guinea before being used in an amphibious landing near Wewak in May 1945. After the war the unit was disbanded.Bob Banner
Robert James Banner, Jr. (August 15, 1921 – June 15, 2011) was an American producer, writer and director. From 1967 to 1972 he co-produced The Carol Burnett Show.Bone Sickness
Bone Sickness is a low-budget 2004 horror film about a degenerative bone disease, from the same director as Mummy Raider. The film runs for 98 minutes.Claudine de Culam
Claudine de Culam (d. 1601), was a sixteen-year-old girl who was tried and hanged for the act of bestiality with a dog in Rognon, France.The judge appointed female assistants in order to put the dog and the girl to the test. As the women undressed Claudine, the dog attempted to mount her. On the basis of this evidence both the dog and the young woman were strangled to death, their bodies burned and their ashes scattered 'that as little trace as possible might remain to remind mankind of their monstrous deeds.'Granger (name)
Granger is a surname of English and French origin. It is an occupational name for a farm bailiff. The farm bailiff oversaw the collection of rent and taxes from the barns and storehouses of the lord of the manor. This officer's Anglo-Norman title was grainger, and Old French grangier, which are both derived from the Late Latin granicarius (a derivative of granica, meaning "granary").Hibachi for Lunch
Hibachi for Lunch is the third extended play (EP) by American rapper 2 Chainz. It was released on October 28, 2016. The project consists of seven tracks, with guest appearances from Quavo, Gucci Mane, Ty Dolla Sign and Future, with production from Buddah Bless, DJ Paul, FKi 1st, Foreign Teck, K Swisha, Mike Dean, Mike Will Made It, Mondo, Supah Mario and TWhy Xclusive. The project was self-released. Originally the third track on the tape, "Good Drank" was removed from the tracklist and released January 20, 2017, as the lead single from his fourth studio album Pretty Girls Like Trap Music.John Haynes Holmes
John Haynes Holmes (November 29, 1879 – April 3, 1964) was a prominent Unitarian minister, pacifist, and co-founder of the NAACP and the ACLU. He is noted for his anti-war activism.John Holmes (Messenger of the Plymouth Court)
John Holmes (1603–1652 or later) was an early settler and official of the Plymouth Colony who arrived there before late 1632. He served as Messenger of the Court of Plymouth from 1638 to 1645 or later, and in that office carried out one of the first executions in the colony.
Holmes was baptized 22 February 1603 in St. Nicholas, Colchester, the only son of Thomas Holmes, a maltster and the keeper of the Essex county gaol in Colchester Castle. He married a woman named Sarah, surname unknown. Their son Thomas was baptized in St. Runwald in 1628. Holmes witnessed the will of his brother in law Tobias Moreton in October 1629; this is the last known record of Holmes in England, although son Thomas appears to have grown up in England in the household of Tobias's widow, John's sister Susan.Holmes's first appearance in the Plymouth records was on 16 October 1632. He served in 1638 on the jury that sentenced Arthur Peach, Thomas Jackson, and Richard Stinnings to death for robbery and murder. Peach's lover, Stephen Hopkins's indentured servant Dorothy Temple, was pregnant at the time, and when Hopkins refused to honor her contract, Holmes bought out her servitude.
On 4 December 1638 Holmes was sworn in as Messenger, succeeding Joshua Pratt. Among the duties entailed in this office were those of bailiff, jailkeeper, and executioner. In the latter capacity on 8 September 1642 Holmes hanged Thomas Granger, a teenager convicted of bestiality. It was the first execution of a juvenile in the territory of what was to become the United States.
Holmes had two known children in Plymouth, John (ca. 1636–1697) and Nathaniel (ca. 1643–1727), via whom he had numerous descendants to the present day including John Haynes Holmes (1879–1964), American churchman and pacifist, and Newland Howard Holmes (1891–1965), President of the Massachusetts Senate. Holmes's wife died in 1650, and the last record of John Holmes in Plymouth was 7 October 1651. The will of Susan Morton implies he was alive in June 1652, and the wording suggests the possibility he had returned to England by that time, but the date and place of his death are unknown.John Lyford
The Reverend John Lyford (c. 1580 – 1634) was a controversial figure during the early years of the Plymouth Colony. After receiving degrees from Oxford University (A.B. 1597, A.M. 1602), he became pastor at Leverlegkish, near Laughgaid, Armagh, Ireland. He was the first ordained minister to come to the Plymouth Colony. He arrived in 1624 aboard the Charity and pretended to be sympathetic to the Separatist movement there, while in reality he was allied with the Church of England. In the months ahead, the leaders of the colony discovered that Lyford had been writing letters to England disparaging the Separatist movement at Plymouth. Governor William Bradford seized some of these letters before they were sent, opened them, and confronted Lyford about their contents. Lyford apologized, but later wrote another similar letter that was also intercepted. After the second incident, Lyford was sentenced to banishment.
Before he was banished, Lyford's wife, Sarah, came forward with further charges. Lyford had fathered a child out of wedlock with another woman before his marriage, and after his marriage, he was constantly engaging in sexual relationships with his housemaids. In his famous history, Of Plymouth Plantation, Bradford wrote that Sarah Lyford came forward and explained
how he (Lyford) had wronged her, as first he had a bastard by another before they were married, and she having some inkling of some ill cariage that way, when he was a suitor to her, she tould him what she heard, and deneyd him; but she not certainly knowing the thing, other wise then by some darke and secrete muterings, he not only stifly denied it, but to satisfie her tooke a solemne oath ther was no shuch matter. Upon which she gave consente, and married with him; but afterwards it was found true, and the bastard brought home to them. She then charged him with his oath, but he prayed pardon, and said he should els not have had her. And yet afterwards she could keep no maids but he would be medling with them, and some time she hath taken him in the maner, as they lay at their beds feete, with shuch other circumstances as I am ashamed to relate.
Later, the real reason why Lyford came to New England was revealed. While giving pre-marital counseling to a girl in his parish back in Ireland, Lyford raped her; and when she later told the matter to her husband, he and his friends hunted Lyford down, which resulted in Lyford's departure to Plymouth Colony. Bradford's account of the rape and what followed is rather vivid:
some time after marriage the woman was much troubled in mind, and afflicted in conscience, and did nothing but weepe and mourne, and long it was before her husband could get of her what was the cause. But at length she discovered the thing, and prayed him to forgive her, for Lyford had overcome her, and defiled her body before marriage, after he had commended him unto her for a husband, and she resolved to have him, when he came to her in that private way. The circumstances I forbear, for they would offend chast ears to hear them related, (for though he satisfied his lust on her, yet he indeavored to hinder conception.) These things being thus discovered, the womans husband tooke some godly friends with him, to deale with Liford for this evill. At length he confest it, with a great deale of seeming sorrow and repentance, but was forst to leave Irland upon it, partly for shame, and partly for fear of further punishmente, for the godly withdrew them selves from him upon it; and so coming into England unhapily he was light upon and sente hither.
Accordingly, Lyford was expelled from Plymouth Colony, went to Nantasket, then Cape Ann, and finally moved to Virginia, where he died. Because of his immoral behavior, Lyford is grouped with several other men that the Pilgrims considered detrimental to their project of settling a "godly" community in America; among these were Thomas Granger, Thomas Morton, and John Billington.
Following Lyford's death on March 8, 1649, his widow Sarah remarried Edmund Hobart Sr., a prominent early settler of Hingham, Massachusetts.Meredith Hanmer
Meredith Hanmer (1543–1604) was a Welsh clergyman, known as a controversialist, historian, and translator. He was considered embittered, by the Lord-Deputy William Russell, 1st Baron Russell of Thornhaugh; but he appears now as a shrewd observer of the Protestant and nonconformist life of Ireland as founded around Trinity College, Dublin.Morley Tunnel
Morley Tunnel is a railway tunnel in West Yorkshire, England, situated between Morley and Batley railway stations on the Huddersfield Line. From its northern end (53.7490°N 1.5927°W / 53.7490; -1.5927), it extends 3,369 yards (3,081 m), passing beneath Morley town centre, to its southern end (53.7260°N 1.6192°W / 53.7260; -1.6192).Newland H. Holmes
Newland Howard Holmes (born August 30, 1891, died January 27, 1965) was a Massachusetts politician who served as President of the Massachusetts Senate from 1957 to 1958. Born in Brockton, Massachusetts, he was a descendent of John Holmes, gentleman of Colchester, Essex, Messenger of the General Court of Plymouth Colony and the executioner of Thomas Granger. He was a cousin of John Haynes Holmes.
Holmes was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from five years before moving to the Senate in 1929. He was the Senate Majority Leader from 1955 to 1956.In 1956, Richard I. Furbush did not run for re-election and Holmes sought to succeed him as Senate President. At the Republican caucus held before the floor vote, Holmes lost to Senator Philip A. Graham fifteen votes to six. However, Holmes chose not to abide by the caucus decision and ran against Graham and Democratic leader John E. Powers for the Senate Presidency.On the first ballot, Powers received the vote of all nineteen Democrats while the Republican vote was split between Graham (sixteen votes) and Holmes (five votes). Powers preferred Holmes to Graham and after a lengthy caucus with the Democrats, he was able to convince fifteen Democrats to support Holmes. On the second ballot, Holmes won the Presidency with twenty votes to Graham's sixteen and Powers' four.Holmes remained President until the Republicans lost their majority following the 1958 election. He remained in the Senate until he was defeated by William Weeks, the son of former United States Secretary of Commerce and United States Senator Sinclair Weeks, in 1964. Holmes' thirty-six year tenure in the Massachusetts Senate is the longest in that body's history.Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement served as the capital of the colony and developed as the town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of Massachusetts.
Plymouth Colony was founded by a group of Puritan Separatists initially known as the Brownist Emigration, who came to be known as the Pilgrims. It was one of the earliest successful colonies to be founded by the English in America, along with Jamestown and other settlements in Virginia, and was the first permanent English settlement in the New England region. The colony was able to establish a treaty with Wampanoag Chief Massasoit which helped to ensure its success; in this, they were aided by Squanto, a member of the Patuxet tribe. Plymouth played a central role in King Philip's War (1675–78), one of several Indian Wars, but the colony was ultimately merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other territories in 1691 to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Despite the colony's relatively short existence, Plymouth holds a special role in American history. A significant proportion of the citizens of Plymouth were fleeing religious persecution and searching for a place to worship as they saw fit, rather than being entrepreneurs like many of the settlers of Jamestown in Virginia. The social and legal systems of the colony became closely tied to their religious beliefs, as well as to English custom. Many of the people and events surrounding Plymouth Colony have become part of American folklore, including the American tradition of Thanksgiving and the monument of Plymouth Rock.Primer (film)
Primer is a 2004 American science fiction film about the accidental discovery of time travel. The film was written, directed, produced, edited and scored by Shane Carruth, who also stars.
Primer is of note for its extremely low budget, experimental plot structure, philosophical implications, and complex technical dialogue, which Carruth, a college graduate with a degree in mathematics and a former engineer, chose not to simplify for the sake of the audience. The film collected the Grand Jury Prize at the 2004 Sundance Film Festival, before securing a limited release in the United States, and has since gained a cult following.Ramism
Ramist redirects here. It may also refer to followers of the composer Jean-Philippe Rameau.
Ramism was a collection of theories on rhetoric, logic, and pedagogy based on the teachings of Petrus Ramus, a French academic, philosopher, and Huguenot convert, who was murdered during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in August 1572.According to British historian Jonathan Israel:
"[Ramism], despite its crudity, enjoyed vast popularity in late sixteenth-century Europe, and at the outset of the seventeenth, providing as it did a method of systematizing all branches of knowledge, emphasizing the relevance of theory to practical applications [...]"Thomas Colpitts Granger
Thomas Colpitts Granger (1802 – 13 August 1852) was a British Radical politician and barrister.Admitted to Inner Temple in 1830, Granger was later elected Radical MP for City of Durham at the 1841 general election and held the seat until his death in 1852.