Thomas Friedman

Thomas Loren Friedman (/ˈfriːdmən/; born July 20, 1953) is an American political commentator and author. He is a three-time Pulitzer Prize winner. Friedman currently writes a weekly column for The New York Times. He has written extensively on foreign affairs, global trade, the Middle East, globalization, and environmental issues. He has been criticized for his staunch advocacy of the Iraq War[2] and unregulated trade[3] and his early support of Saudi Royal Prince Mohammed bin Salman.[4]

Thomas Friedman
Thomas Friedman 2005 (5)
Friedman in 2005
Thomas Loren Friedman

July 20, 1953 (age 65)
ResidenceBethesda, Maryland, U.S.
Alma materBrandeis University (BA)
St Anthony's College, Oxford (MPhil)
Spouse(s)Ann Bucksbaum [1]
ChildrenOrly and Natalie
RelativesMatthew Bucksbaum (father-in-law)


Thomas Friedman World Economic Forum 2013
Friedman during the WEF 2013

Friedman was born on July 20, 1953 in Minneapolis, Minnesota,[5] the son of Margaret Blanche (née Phillips) and Harold Abe Friedman.[6] Harold, who was vice president of a ball bearing company, United Bearing, died of a heart attack in 1973, when Tom was nineteen years old. Margaret, who served in the United States Navy during World War II and studied Home Economics at the University of Wisconsin, was a homemaker and a part-time bookkeeper. Margaret was also a Senior Life Master duplicate bridge player, and died in 2008. Friedman has two older sisters, Shelly and Jane.

From an early age, Friedman, whose father often took him to the golf course for a round after work, wanted to be a professional golfer. He played a lot of sports, and became serious about tennis and golf. He caddied at a local country club and in 1970 caddied for professional golfer Chi Chi Rodriguez when the US Open came to town.[7]

Friedman is Jewish.[8] He attended Hebrew school five days a week until his Bar Mitzvah,[9] then St. Louis Park High School, where he wrote articles for his school's newspaper.[10] He became enamored with Israel after a visit there in December 1968, and he spent all three of his high school summers living on Kibbutz HaHotrim, near Haifa.[11] He has characterized his high school years as "one big celebration of Israel's victory in the Six-Day War."[11]

Friedman studied at the University of Minnesota for two years, but later transferred to Brandeis University and graduated summa cum laude in 1975 with a degree in Mediterranean studies. Friedman later taught a class in economics at Brandeis in 2006, and was a commencement speaker there in 2007.[12]

After graduating from Brandeis, he attended St Antony's College at the University of Oxford as a Marshall Scholar, earning an M.Phil. in Middle Eastern studies.

Friedman's wife, Ann (née Bucksbaum), a native of Marshalltown, Iowa,[13] is a graduate of Stanford University and the London School of Economics.[14] She is the daughter of real estate developer Matthew Bucksbaum.[15] They were married in London on Thanksgiving Day 1978 and live in Bethesda, Maryland.[16] The couple has two daughters, Orly (b. 1985) and Natalie (b. 1988).[17][18]

Journalism career

Thomas Friedman, Columnist, The New York Times (15275914641)
Friedman speaking at the Chatham House in London in September 2014

Friedman joined the London bureau of United Press International after completing his master's degree. He was dispatched a year later to Beirut, where he lived from June 1979 to May 1981 while covering the Lebanon Civil War. He was hired by The New York Times as a reporter in 1981 and re-dispatched to Beirut at the start of the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. His coverage of the war, particularly the Sabra and Shatila massacre,[19] won him the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting (shared with Loren Jenkins of The Washington Post).[20] Alongside David K. Shipler he also won the George Polk Award for foreign reporting.[7]

In June 1984, Friedman was transferred to Jerusalem, where he served as the New York Times Jerusalem Bureau Chief until February 1988. That year he received a second Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, which cited his coverage of the First Palestinian Intifada.[20] He wrote a book, From Beirut to Jerusalem, describing his experiences in the Middle East,[21] which won the 1989 U.S. National Book Award for Nonfiction.[22]

Friedman covered Secretary of State James Baker during the administration of President George H. W. Bush. Following the election of Bill Clinton in 1992, Friedman became the White House correspondent for the New York Times. In 1994, he began to write more about foreign policy and economics, and moved to the op-ed page of The New York Times the following year as a foreign affairs columnist. In 2002, Friedman won the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary for his "clarity of vision, based on extensive reporting, in commenting on the worldwide impact of the terrorist threat."[23][24]

In February 2002, Friedman met Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah and encouraged him to make a comprehensive attempt to end the Arab–Israeli conflict by normalizing Arab relations with Israel in exchange for the return of refugees alongside an end to the Israel territorial occupations. Abdullah proposed the Arab Peace Initiative at the Beirut Summit that March, which Friedman has since strongly supported.[25]

Friedman received the 2004 Overseas Press Club Award for lifetime achievement and the same year was named to the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II.[26][27][28][29][30][31]

In May 2011, The New York Times reported that President Barack Obama "has sounded out" Friedman concerning Middle East issues.[32]

Views and opinions


Friedman has publicly expressed his support for the biometrics based Unique Identification program of India. When asked about the privacy concerns raised by the UID program in India he said[33]

I am a huge enthusiast of the UID platform. I feel that is going to be a platform for innovation. Societies require these platforms where people are integrated with a trusted ID. I think concerns about privacy are bogus. The platform doesn't store anything about you except your biometrics. It's not tracking you. Facebook is tracking you much more today. If you are worried about privacy, then you shouldn't be using Google, Facebook, Twitter, any of these things. They are tracking you so much more than the Indian government is tracking you. What's worse is that they are selling it [information about you] for profit. So, I think the privacy concern [around Aadhaar] is bogus.


Secretary Kerry Sits With New York Times Columnist Friedman for a Conversation at the World Economic Forum in Davos (32368960855)
Friedman and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry at the World Economic Forum in Davos, January 17, 2017

Friedman first discussed his views on globalization in the book The Lexus and the Olive Tree (1999). In 2004, visits to Bangalore, India, and Dalian, China, led Friedman to write a follow-up analysis, The World Is Flat (2005). The book was on the New York Times Best Seller list from its April 2005 publication until May 2007.

Friedman believes that individual countries must sacrifice some degree of economic sovereignty to global institutions (such as capital markets and multinational corporations), a situation he has termed the "golden straitjacket".[34]

He has also expressed concern about the United States' lack of energy independence. He has stated, "First rule of oil—addicts never tell the truth to their pushers. We are the addicts, the oil producers are the pushers—we've never had an honest conversation with the Saudis."[35]

Friedman views American immigration laws as too restrictive and damaging to U.S. economic output: "It is pure idiocy that Congress will not open our borders—as wide as possible—to attract and keep the world's first-round intellectual draft choices in an age when everyone increasingly has the same innovation tools and the key differentiator is human talent."[36]


After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Friedman's writing focused more on the threat of terrorism and the Middle East. He was awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary "for his clarity of vision, based on extensive reporting, in commenting on the worldwide impact of the terrorist threat". These columns were collected and published in the book Longitudes and Attitudes. For a while, his reporting on post-9/11 topics led him to diverge from his prior interests in technological advances and globalization, until he began to research The World Is Flat.

After the 7/7 London bombings, Friedman called for the U.S. State Department to "shine a spotlight on hate speech wherever it appears", and to create a quarterly "War of Ideas Report, which would focus on those religious leaders and writers who are inciting violence against others".[37] Friedman said the governmental speech-monitoring should go beyond those who actually advocate violence, and include also those whom former State Department spokesperson Jamie Rubin calls "excuse makers".[37] In his July 22 column, Friedman wrote against the "excuses" made by terrorists or apologists who blame their actions on third-party influences or pressures. "After every major terrorist incident, the excuse makers come out to tell us ... why the terrorists acted. These excuse makers are just one notch less despicable than the terrorists and also deserve to be exposed. When you live in an open society like London, where anyone with a grievance can publish an article, run for office or start a political movement, the notion that blowing up a busload of innocent civilians in response to Iraq is somehow "understandable" is outrageous. "It erases the distinction between legitimate dissent and terrorism" Mr. Rubin said, "and an open society needs to maintain a clear wall between them."[37] As part of their response to this column, the editors at FAIR encouraged their readers to contact Friedman and inform him that "opponents of the Iraq War do not deserve to be on a government blacklist-even if they oppose the war because they believe it encourages terrorism".[38]

Kosovo War

During the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Friedman wrote the following in The New York Times on April 23, 1999: "Like it or not, we are at war with the Serbian nation (the Serbs certainly think so), and the stakes have to be very clear: Every week you ravage Kosovo is another decade we will set your country back by pulverizing you. You want 1950? We can do 1950. You want 1389? We can do 1389 too."[39]

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) labeled Freidman's remarks "war-mongering" and "crude race-hatred and war-crime agitation".[40] Steve Chapman, critical of the response taken by NATO, referred to Friedman as "the most fervent supporter of the air war" and ironically asked in the Chicago Tribune: "Why stop at 1389? Why not revive the idea, proposed but never adopted in Vietnam, of bombing the enemy all the way back to the Stone Age?"[41] Norman Solomon asserted in 2007 that "a tone of sadism could be discerned" in Friedman's article.[42]


Friedman supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, writing that the establishment of a democratic state in the Middle East would force other countries in the region to liberalize and modernize. In his February 9, 2003, column for The Wall Street Journal, Friedman also pointed to the lack of compliance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution regarding Iraq's weapons of mass destruction: "The French position is utterly incoherent. The inspections have not worked yet, says Mr. de Villepin, because Saddam has not fully cooperated, and, therefore, we should triple the number of inspectors. But the inspections have failed not because of a shortage of inspectors. They have failed because of a shortage of compliance on Saddam's part, as the French know. The way you get that compliance out of a thug like Saddam is not by tripling the inspectors, but by tripling the threat that if he does not comply he will be faced with a U.N.-approved war."[43] Since the invasion, Friedman has expressed alarm over the post-invasion conduct of the war by the George W. Bush administration. Nevertheless, until his piece dated August 4, 2006 (see below), his columns remained hopeful to the possibility of a positive conclusion to the Iraq conflict (although his optimism appeared to steadily diminish as the conflict continued). Friedman chided George W. Bush and Tony Blair for "hyping" the evidence, and stated plainly that converting Iraq to democracy "would be a huge undertaking, though, and maybe impossible, given Iraq's fractious history". In January 2004, he participated in a forum on Slate called "Liberal Hawks Reconsider the Iraq War", in which he dismisses the justification for war based on Iraq's lack of compliance with the U.N. Resolutions: "The right reason for this war.. was to oust Saddam's regime and partner with the Iraqi people to try to implement the Arab Human Development report's prescriptions in the heart of the Arab world. That report said the Arab world is falling off the globe because of a lack of freedom, women's empowerment, and modern education. The right reason for this war was to partner with Arab moderates in a long-term strategy of dehumiliation and redignification.[44]

In his September 29, 2005, column in The New York Times, Friedman entertained the idea of supporting the Kurds and Shias in a civil war against the Sunnis: "If they the Sunnis won't come around, we should arm the Shiites and Kurds and leave the Sunnis of Iraq to reap the wind."[45]

Critics of Friedman's position on the Iraq War have noted his recurrent assertion that "the next six months" will prove critical in determining the outcome of the conflict. A May 2006 study by Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting cited 14 examples of Friedman's declaring the next "few months" or "six months" as a decisive or critical period, dating from in November 2003, describing it as "a long series of similar do-or-die dates that never seem to get any closer".[46]

The blogger Atrios coined the neologism "Friedman Unit" to refer to this unit of time in relation to Iraq, noting its use as a supposedly critical window of opportunity.[47][48]

In a live television interview aired June 11, 2006, on CNN, Howard Kurtz asked Friedman about the concept: "Now, I want to understand how a columnist's mind works when you take positions, because you were chided recently for writing several times in different occasions 'the next six months are crucial in Iraq.'" Friedman responded, "The fact is that the outcome there is unclear, and I reflected that in my column. And I will continue to reflect."[49] Responding to prodding from Stephen Colbert, Friedman said in 2007, "We've run out of six months. It's really time to set a deadline."[50]


Iran's Great Weakness May Be Its Oil, by Thomas Friedman, challenges and debates conflicts about oil. Friedman states,"The best tool we have for curbing Iran's influence is not containment or engagement, but getting the price of oil down in the long term with conservation and an alternative-energy strategy. Let's exploit Iran's oil addiction by ending ours".[51]

In Hot, Flat, and Crowded, he says that "any car company that gets taxpayer money must demonstrate a plan for transforming every vehicle in its fleet to a hybrid-electric engine with flex-fuel capability, so its entire fleet can also run on next generation cellulosic ethanol".[52]

In a Fresh Dialogues interview, Friedman described his motivations for writing the book: "My concern is about America.... Demand for clean energy, clean fuel and energy efficiency is clearly going to explode; it's going to be the next great global industry. I know that as sure as I know that I'm sitting here at De Anza College talking to you. By being big in the next big thing, we'll be seen by the rest of the world as working on the most important problem in the world."[53]

Some of Friedman's environmental critics question his support of still-undeveloped coal pollution mitigation technology ("clean coal") and coal mining as emblematic of Friedman's less than "green" commitment to renewable energy.[54] While Friedman supports the elimination of coal-based power, he believes improving coal technology is necessary in the short term.[55] Others criticize his environmental credentials while he maintains a home five times the size of the average American house.


Friedman has been criticized by organizations such as Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting for defending Israeli airstrikes in Lebanon as a form of "educating" Israel's opponents; according to FAIR, Friedman was explicitly endorsing terrorism by Israel against Lebanese and Palestinians.[56] Journalist Glenn Greenwald and professor Noam Chomsky also accused Friedman of endorsing and encouraging terrorism by Israeli forces.[57][58]

Political reporter Belen Fernandez heavily critiques Friedman's commentary regarding Israel. Among other criticisms, Fernandez singles out Friedman's suggestion that Israeli forces were unaware that their allied Lebanese militias carried out the Sabra and Shatila massacre while under their guard, contradicting the assessments of other journalists and observers; his encouragement of strong-armed force by the Israeli army against Palestinians; and his opposition to settlements only on the grounds that they are counter-productive, rather than because they violate international law or cause suffering for Palestinians. Fernandez suggests that Friedman is most worried about successfully maintaining Israel's Jewish ethnocracy and actively opposing a "one-man, one-vote" system of democracy.[59]

Friedman has also come under criticism from supporters of Israel. In an op-ed, Yitzhak Benhorin criticized Friedman's alleged suggestion that Israel relinquish territory it had occupied in the 1967 Middle Eastern War.[60]

Friedman sparked criticism for writing that congressional ovations for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu were "bought and paid for by the Israel lobby."[61] A letter from the American Jewish Committee objected that "Public opinion polls consistently show a high level of American ... support for and identification with Israel. This indicates that the people's elected representatives are fully reflecting the will of the voters." [62] Friedman responded to criticism by writing: "In retrospect I probably should have used a more precise term like 'engineered' by the Israel lobby – a term that does not suggest grand conspiracy theories that I don't subscribe to."[63]


In September 2009, Friedman wrote an article praising China's one-party autocracy, saying that it was "led by a reasonably enlightened group of people"[64] and that China's leaders are "boosting gasoline prices" and "overtaking us in electric cars, solar power, energy efficiency, batteries, nuclear power and wind power."[65] The article was in turn subject to critical analysis: Matt Lewis who wrote, "Friedman's apparent wish for a 'benign' dictator is utopian, inasmuch as it ignores Lord Acton's warning that 'absolute power corrupts absolutely.'"[66] and William Easterly who quotes Friedman's one-party autocracy assertions[67] as part of his academic paper in which he concluded that, "Formal theory and evidence provides little or no basis on which to believe the benevolent autocrat story" and that, "economists should retain their traditional skepticism for stories that have little good theory or empirics to support them."[68] However, in a July 2012 article in the NYT,[65] he also wrote that the current Chinese leadership has not used its surging economic growth to also introduce gradual political reform and that, "Corruption is as bad as ever, institutionalized transparency and rule of law remain weak and consensual politics nonexistent."[69] When asked if he had "China envy" during a Fresh Dialogues interview, Friedman replied, "You detect the envy of someone who wants his own government to act democratically with the same effectiveness that China can do autocratically."[70] Likewise, in a 2011 interview with the BBC Friedman says that he wants his children to live in a world where "there's a strong America counterbalancing a strong and thriving China, and not one where you have a strong and rising China and an America that is uncertain, weak and unable to project power economically and militarily it historically did."[71]

Friedman's work is popular in China. His book The World is Flat was a bestseller in the country, although criticism of China in the book was removed when it was published in the country.[72] A translated version of his article from The New York Times, "China Needs Its Own Dream", has been credited with popularizing the phrase "Chinese Dream" in China, a term that was later adopted as a slogan by Xi Jinping.[72] Friedman, in the magazine Foreign Policy, has attributed the phrase to Peggy Liu and her environmental NGO JUCCCE.[73]


As the Iran nuclear deal agreement reached between Iran and a group of world powers (the P5+1). In Friedman's interview, he mentioned that "Our view of the Middle East is deeply colored by Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey and they all have their own interest. 15 of the 19 hijackers on 911 were from Saudi Arabia, none from Iran! Iranians had a spontaneous demonstration to support Americans on 911." He added, "What strikes you most about Iran (vs. Saudi Arabia) is that Iran has real politics... A country of 85 million people, a great civilization, many educated men and women, if they want to get a bomb WILL get it. They have demonstrated they could do it under the most severe sanctions... Show me where Iranians have acted reckless [like Saddam Hussein]. These are survivors." [74]

Radical centrism

In the 2010s, Friedman wrote several columns supporting the politics of radical centrism. In one he stated that, if the "radical center wants to be empowered, it can't just whine. It needs its own grass-roots movement".[75] In another column Friedman promoted Americans Elect, an organization trying to field a radical-centrist candidate for the 2012 U.S. presidential election. That column decried "the two-party duopoly that has dominated American political life".[76] Friedman's radical-centrist columns received a considerable amount of criticism, particularly from liberals.[77]


American journalist and former civil rights litigator Glenn Greenwald, writing for Salon on July 25, 2012, commented: "His status among American elites is the single most potent fact for understanding the nation's imperial decline."[78]

Some critics have derided Friedman's idiosyncratic prose style, with its tendency to use mixed metaphors and analogies. Walter Russell Mead described his prose as being "an occasionally flat Midwestern demotic punctuated by gee-whiz exclamations about just how doggone irresistible globalization is – lacks the steely elegance of a Lippmann, the unobtrusive serviceability of a Scotty Reston or the restless fireworks of a Maureen Dowd and is best taken in small doses."[79] Similarly, journalist Matt Taibbi has said of Friedman's writing that, "Friedman came up with lines so hilarious you couldn't make them up even if you were trying – and when you tried to actually picture the 'illustrative' figures of speech he offered to explain himself, what you often ended up with was pure physical comedy of the Buster Keaton/Three Stooges school, with whole nations and peoples slipping and falling on the misplaced banana peels of his literary endeavors."[80]

In a column for the New York Press, Alexander Cockburn wrote: "Friedman exhibits on a weekly basis one of the severest cases known to science of Lippmann's condition, named for the legendary journalistic hot-air salesman, Walter Lippmann, and alluding to the inherent tendency of all pundits to swell in self-importance to zeppelin-like dimensions". Cockburn said Friedman's hubris allowed him to pass off another war correspondent's experience in Beirut as his own.[81] In December, 2017, Hamid Dabashi wrote about Friedman: "Thomas Friedman is an ignorant fool - and I do not mean that as an insult. I mean it as a clinical diagnosis of an almost-illiterate man who has been cheated out of a proper undergraduate education, sold as a liberal Zionist to the highest bidder, and thus has managed to ramble and blabber his way up as a top-notch New York Times columnist."[82]

In April 2018, Barrett Brown criticized Friedman for "his serial habit of giving the benefit of the doubt to whoever happens to hold power",[83] such as Friedman's column supporting Vladimir Putin as a modernizing reformer, in which he urged Americans to "keep rootin' for Putin".[84][83] Brown also used this phrase in the title of his 2014 book "Keep Rootin' for Putin: Establishment Pundits and the Twilight of American Competence".[85]


Friedman[86] has hosted several documentaries for the Discovery Channel from several locations around the world. In Straddling the Fence (2003), he visited the West Bank and spoke to Israelis and Palestinians about the Israeli West Bank barrier and its impact on their lives. Also in 2003, Thomas L. Friedman Reporting: Searching for the Roots of 9/11[87] aired on the Discovery Times Channel. This program investigated how the Sept. 11th attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon were viewed in the Muslim world.

In The Other Side of Outsourcing (2004),[88] he visited a call centre in Bangalore, interviewing the young Indians working there, and then travelled to an impoverished rural part of India, where he debated the pros and cons of globalization with locals (this trip spawned his later book The World is Flat).

In Does Europe Hate Us? (2005), Friedman travelled through Britain, France and Germany, talking with academics, journalists, Marshall and Rhodes scholars, young Muslims and others about the nature of the strained relationship between Europe and the United States.

Addicted to Oil (2006)[89][90] premiered at the Silverdocs Documentary Festival at 5:30 PM on June 16, 2006, and aired on June 24, 2006, on the Discovery Times Channel. In it he examined the geopolitical, economic, and environmental consequences of petroleum use and ways that green technologies such as alternative fuels and energy efficiency and conservation can reduce oil dependence.

In Green: The New Red, White and Blue (2007),[91] Friedman elaborates on the green technologies and efforts touched on in Addicted to Oil and in doing so, attempts to redefine green energy as geostrategic, geoeconomic, capitalistic and patriotic. He explores efforts by companies and individuals to reduce their carbon footprint and save money with conservation, efficiency, and technologies such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and clean coal.

In 2014, Friedman served as a correspondent for Years of Living Dangerously, a documentary show about climate change. For the show's first season, he traveled to cover the role climate change has played in conflicts in the region.[92] He also interviewed U.S. President Barack Obama. For the show's second season in 2016, he traveled to Africa.[93]

Personal life

Friedman is married to Ann Bucksbaum, a teacher and daughter of the founder of a shopping mall empire, Matthew Bucksbaum.[1] He was one of the founding members of Kol Shalom, a synagogue in Rockville, Maryland.[94]

Friedman supported Hillary Clinton for President of the United States in the 2016 election.[95]

Published works

Awards and recognition

Friedman has won the Pulitzer Prize three times:

  • 1983: for his coverage of the war in Lebanon. A distinguished example of international reporting[97]
  • 1988: for coverage of Israel: a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs[98]
  • 2002: for his commentary illuminating the worldwide impact of the terrorist threat[99]

Additionally, in 2005 he was elected as a member of the Pulitzer Prize Board.[100]

See also


  1. ^ a b O'Connell, Jonathan (January 25, 2017). "Philanthropist Ann Friedman picked to turn D.C.'s Franklin School into 'Planet Word.'". Washington Post. Washington DC. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  2. ^ Retrieved 2018-12-17. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Retrieved 2018-12-17. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Retrieved 2018-12-17. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-02. Retrieved 2016-09-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-01-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ a b "Why the World Is Flat". Wired. May 2005. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  8. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (2011-12-14). "Newt, Mitt, Bibi and Vladimir". Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  9. ^ From Beirut to Jerusalem. 1990, page 4
  10. ^ The Echo Archived April 28, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b From Beirut to Jerusalem. 1990, page 5
  12. ^ "Brandeis University :: News". Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  13. ^ Iowa state University Plaza of Heroines: "Ann Bucksbaum Friedman" retrieved September 24, 2017
  14. ^ "College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University". Archived from the original on October 18, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  15. ^ Forbes: "Thomas Friedman is On Top of the World" by Garrett M. Graff Archived November 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine July 1, 2006
  16. ^ "Thomas Friedman's World Is Flat Broke". Vanity Fair. November 2008.
  17. ^ College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University Archived from the original on 2008-10-18. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ "Notable Names DataBase".
  19. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (September 26, 1982). "article by Thomas Friedman on Beirut massacre". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  20. ^ a b "International Reporting: Past winners & finalists by category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  21. ^ "Thomas L. Friedman – Bio". University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  22. ^ a b "National Book Awards – 1989". National Book Foundation. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  23. ^ "Commentary: Past winners & finalists by category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
  24. ^ "The 2002 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Commentary: Works". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 25, 2012. [(List of ten 2001 articles.)]
  25. ^ Akiva Eldar. "What Arab initiative?". Haaretz.
  26. ^ "'The world is fast' by Thomas L. Friedman | Events".
  27. ^ Thomas L. Friedman, "179 Ideas" (March 11, 2009). "Official Website". Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  28. ^ "Columns for The New York Times". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  29. ^ "People: Thomas Friedman". NNDB.
  30. ^ "Around the Table Biography of Thomas Friedman". Washington Week. Archived from the original on August 9, 2004.
  31. ^ "Interview with Oliver Burkeman". The Guardian. 2003.
  32. ^ Landler, Mark (11 May 2011). "Obama Seeks Reset in Arab World". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  33. ^ Gupte, Masoom (2018-02-02). "Facebook is tracking you more than anything, not Aadhaar: Thomas Friedman". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  34. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (1999). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 87–88.
  35. ^ "US Has 'Lost Its Leverage' in the World: Friedman".
  36. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (May 27, 2007). "Laughing and Crying". Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  37. ^ a b c Friedman, Thomas L. (July 22, 2005). "Giving the Hatemongers No Place to Hide". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  38. ^ Editors (July 27, 2005). "A New Blacklist for 'Excuse Makers'". FAIR. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  39. ^ Thomas Friedman (23 April 1999). "Stop the Music". The New York Times.
  40. ^ "CPJ Declares Open Season on Thomas Friedman". FAIR.
  41. ^ Steve Chapman (April 29, 1999). "A War Against All Of The Serbs". Chicago Tribune.
  42. ^ Norman Solomon (September 6, 2007). "Thomas Friedman: Hooked on War". The Huffington Post.
  43. ^ "Vote France Off the Island". February 9, 2003. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  44. ^ Friedman, Thomas (January 12, 2004). "Liberal Hawks Reconsider the Iraq War: Four Reasons To Invade Iraq". Retrieved December 7, 2006.
  45. ^ The Endgame in Iraq Archived December 16, 2005, at the Wayback Machine Sep 29. 2005
  46. ^ Tom Friedman's Flexible Deadlines: Iraq's 'decisive' six months have lasted two and a half years Archived October 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine May 16, 2006
  47. ^ Black, Duncan (May 21, 2006). "The Six Monthers". Blogspot. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  48. ^ The Huffington Post cited it as the "Best New Phrase" of 2006."Media Winners of 2006: Honorable Mentions (Rapid-Fire Round II)". The Huffington Post. January 2, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  49. ^ White House Mounts Media Blitz After Killing of Zarqawi Archived October 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine June 11, 2006
  50. ^ Corley, Matt (2007-09-25). "No more 'Friedmans' for Friedman". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
  51. ^ "Economist's View: Thomas Friedman: Iran's Great Weakness May Be Its Oil". 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
  52. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (November 12, 2008). "How to Fix a Flat". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  53. ^ "Fresh Dialogues interview with Alison van Diggelen, September 10, 2009". September 18, 2009. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  54. ^ The NYT's Thomas Friedman Archived January 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine January 2007
  55. ^ Hot, Flat, and Crowded
  56. ^ "Terrorism on the New York Times Op-Ed Page". 14 January 2009.
  57. ^ Greenwald, Glenn. "Tom Friedman offers a perfect definition of "terrorism"".
  58. ^ ""Exterminate all the Brutes": Gaza 2009".
  59. ^ Fernandez, Belen. The Imperial Messenger: Thomas Friedman at Work. Verso Books, 2011, p 99-107
  60. ^ "Go figure Tom Friedman". February 14, 2011.
  61. ^ Thomas L. Friedman: Newt, Mitt, Bibi and Vladimir Archived March 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine New York Times 13 December 2011.
  62. ^ New York Times Columnist Tom Friedman Crossed a Line Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Jerusalem Post, 19 December 2011.
  63. ^ Friedman responds to criticism over ‘bought and paid for’ jab at Congress Archived April 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine JTA, December 20, 2011.
  64. ^
  65. ^ a b EDT (September 13, 2009). "New York Times columnist Tom Friedman hails China's one-party autocracy". Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
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External links


Aramex (Arabic: ارامكس ’arāmeks) is an international express, mail delivery and logistics services company based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The company was founded by Jordanian Fadi Ghandour and Bill Kingson in 1982. It is the first Arab-based company to be listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. Aramex is listed on the Dubai Financial Market. Bashar Obeid serves as the company's CEO. Aramex has approximately 13,800 employees in 54 countries and a network consisting of 40 independent express companies.Thomas Friedman profiled the company in his book, The World Is Flat.

Arjan El Fassed

Arjan El Fassed (born August 5, 1973 in Vlaardingen) is director of Open State Foundation. He is a former Dutch politician and human rights activist as well as development aid worker. As a member of GreenLeft (GroenLinks) he was an MP from June 17, 2010 to September 19, 2012. He focused on matters of development aid, foreign policy, digital rights, open data and transparency.

Asharq Al-Awsat

Asharq al-Awsat (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط‎, meaning "The Middle East") is an Arabic international newspaper headquartered in London. A pioneer of the "off-shore" model in the Arabic press, the paper is often noted for its distinctive green-tinted pages.The New York Times in 2005 called Asharq al-Awsat "one of the oldest and most influential in the region". Although published under the name of a private company, the Saudi Research and Marketing Group, the paper was founded with the approval of the Saudi royal family and government ministers, and is noted for its support of the Saudi government. The newspaper is owned by Faisal bin Salman, a member of the Saudi royal family.Launched in London in 1978, and printed on four continents in 14 cities. The paper is often billed as "the leading Arab daily newspaper", and calls itself "the premier pan-Arab daily newspaper" based on the fact that past estimates of its circulation have given it the largest circulation of the off-shore Pan-Arab dailies, a category including its chief competitor Al-Hayat. However, reliable estimates are available only from the early 2000s, before rival Al-Hayat launched a massive effort to increase circulation in Saudi Arabia.Asharq Al-Awsat covers events through a network of bureaus and correspondents throughout the Arab World, Europe, United States, and Asia. The paper also has copyright syndications with the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and Global Viewpoint, permitting it to publish Arabic translations of columnists like Thomas Friedman and David Ignatius.

Carbon Nation

Carbon Nation is a 2010 documentary film by Peter Byck about technological- and community-based energy solutions to the growing worldwide carbon footprint. The film is narrated by Bill Kurtis. ASIN: B0055T46LA (Rental) and B0055T46G0 (Purchase).

Rather than highlighting the problems with use of fossil fuels, Carbon Nation presents a series of ways in which the 16 terawatts of energy the world consumes can be met while reducing or eliminating carbon-based sources. It contains optimistic interviews with experts in various fields, business CEOs, and sustainable energy supporters to present a compelling case for change while having a neutral, matter-of-fact explanation.Among those interviewed are Richard Branson, former CIA Director R. James Woolsey, Earth Day founder Denis Hayes and environmental advocate Van Jones.Much of the content of the film consists of interviews, some are listed above. The list of interviewees also includes

Lester R. Brown President, Earth Policy Institute

Sean Casten President & CEO, Recycled Energy Development

Ralph Cavanagh Lead Attorney, NRDC

Bob Fox, Partner Cook+Fox Architects

Thomas Friedman, Author & NY Times Columnist

Eban Goodstein Economic Professor, Lewis and Clark College

Gary Hirshberg Chairman, President, and CEO of Stonyfield Farm

Sadhu Aufochs Johnston Chief Environmental Officer, City of Chicago

Amory B. Lovins Chairman & Chief Scientist, Rocky Mountain Institute

Joel Makower Executive Director,

Edward Mazria Executive Director, Solar Richmond

Arthur H. Rosenfeld Commissioner, California Energy Commission

John Rowe (CEO) Exelon Chairman & CEO, Exelon Corporation

Chinese Dream

The Chinese Dream (simplified Chinese: 中国梦; traditional Chinese: 中國夢; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mèng) is a term popularized after 2013 within Chinese society that describes a set of personal and national ethos and ideals in China and the Government of China. It is used by journalists, government officials, and activists to describe the role of the individual in Chinese society as well as the goals of the Chinese nation.The phrase is closely associated with Xi Jinping, who is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (Paramount leader). Xi began promoting the phrase as a slogan in a high-profile visit to the National Museum of China in November 2012 after taking the office of general secretary. Since then, use of the phrase has become widespread in official announcements and the embodiment of the political ideology of the leadership under Xi Jinping. Xi said that young people should "dare to dream, work assiduously to fulfill the dreams and contribute to the revitalization of the nation". According to the party's theoretical journal Qiushi, the Chinese Dream is about Chinese prosperity, collective effort, socialism, and national glory. The relationship between the phrase and the American Dream has been debated.

Conspiracy theories in the Arab world

Conspiracy theories are a prevalent feature of Arab culture and politics. Prof. Matthew Gray writes they "are a common and popular phenomenon." "Conspiracism is an important phenomenon in understanding Arab Middle Eastern politics ..." Variants include conspiracies involving colonialism, Zionism, superpowers, oil, and the war on terrorism, which may be referred to as a War against Islam. Roger Cohen theorizes that the popularity of conspiracy theories in the Arab world is "the ultimate refuge of the powerless", and Al-Mumin Said noted the danger of such theories in that they "keep us not only from the truth but also from confronting our faults and problems..."Gray points out that actual conspiracies such as the British-French-Israeli 1956 Suez Crisis encourage speculation and creation of imagined conspiracies. After the 1967 war, conspiracy theories became popular. The war was perceived as a conspiracy by Israel and the US—or its opposite: a Soviet plot to bring Egypt into the Soviet sphere of influence. Thomas Friedman notes the numerous conspiracy theories concerning the Lebanese civil war. They "were usually the most implausible, wild-eyed conspiracy theories one could imagine ... Israelis, the Syrians, the Americans, the Soviets, or Henry Kissinger—anyone but the Lebanese—in the most elaborate plots to disrupt Lebanon's naturally tranquil state."

Echo Hill Ranch

Echo Hill Ranch is a summer ranch camp of about 400 acres (1.6 km²) in the Texas Hill Country. The ranch was founded in 1953 by Dr. S. Thomas Friedman and Minnie Samet Friedman. It is located south of Kerrville near Medina. Echo Hill was founded as a noncompetitive, child-centered ranch camp for boys and girls ages 6–14. Echo Hill Ranch is the current residence of Texas musician/writer/gubernatorial candidate Kinky Friedman. July 24, 2013 the camp announced via their Facebook page that it would not reopen for summer of 2014.

After the death of the founders of the ranch, the property was inherited by their three children, Richard Samet ("Kinky") Friedman, Marci Friedman and Roger Friedman.

Friedman Unit

The Friedman Unit, or simply Friedman, is a tongue-in-cheek neologism. One Friedman Unit is equal to six months, specifically the "next six months", a period repeatedly declared by New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman to be the most critical of the then-ongoing Iraq War even though such pronouncements extended back over two and a half years.

Hot, Flat, and Crowded

Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—And How It Can Renew America is a book by New York Times Foreign Affairs columnist Thomas Friedman, proposing that the solutions to global warming and the best method to regain the United States' economic and political stature in the world are to embrace the clean energy and green technology industries. The title derives from the convergence of Hot (global warming), Flat (globalization, as discussed in Friedman's book The World Is Flat) and Crowded (population growth).

The book was released on September 8, 2008, by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The audiobook was released simultaneously by Macmillan Audio. The cover art is taken from Hieronymus Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights.

Release 2.0 Updated and Expanded was published in November 2009.

Livingston Award

The Livingston Awards at the University of Michigan are American journalism awards issued to media professionals under the age of 35 for local, national, and international reporting. They are the largest, all-media, general reporting prizes in America. Popularly referred to as the Pulitzer for the Young, the awards have recognized the early talent of journalists, including Michele Norris, Christiane Amanpour, David Remnick, Ira Glass, J. R. Moehringer, Thomas Friedman, Rick Atkinson, David Isay, Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy, Tom Ashbrook, Nicholas Confessore, C. J. Chivers, Michael S. Schmidt and Charles Sennot.

Matthew Bucksbaum

Matthew Bucksbaum (February 20, 1926 – November 24, 2013) was an American businessman and philanthropist. Matthew and his brothers Martin and Maurice co-founded General Growth Properties (NYSE: GGP).

Oliver Wyman (actor)

Oliver Wyman is an American voice actor, who has worked on many animated features, television shows, and video games. He has also narrated over 150 audiobooks. He is an award-winning narrator that has won three Audie Awards from the Audio Publisher's Association, fifteen Earphone Awards from AudioFile Magazine, and two Listen Up Awards from Publishers Weekly.

He is also known under the alias of Pete Zarustica. In anime and video games, Oliver is known as the voice of Drew from the Pokémon anime series, Morty Oyamada, Hang Zang-Ching and Boris Tepes Dracula from Shaman King, and Big the Cat in the Sonic the Hedgehog franchise.

Patient capital

Patient capital is another name for long term capital. With patient capital, the investor is willing to make a financial investment in a business with no expectation of turning a quick profit. Instead, the investor is willing to forgo an immediate return in anticipation of more substantial returns down the road.

Although patient capital can be considered a traditional investment instrument, it has gained new life with the rise in environmentally and socially responsible enterprises. In these cases, it may take the form of equity, debt, loan guarantees or other financial instruments, and is characterized by:

Willingness to forgo maximum financial returns for social impact, and an unwillingness to sacrifice the interests of the end customer for the sake of shareholders

Greater tolerance for risk than traditional investment capital

Longer time horizons for return of capital

Intensive support of management as they grow their enterpriseThe source of capital may be philanthropy, investment capital, or some combination of the two. Patient capital is not a grant, it is an investment intended to return its principal plus (often below market-rate) interest. It does not seek to maximize financial returns to investors; it seeks to maximize social impact and to catalyze the creation of markets to combat poverty. On the spectrum of capital available to both non-profits and for-profits, patient capital sits between traditional venture capital and traditional philanthropy, between development aid and foreign direct investment.

Thomas Friedman of the New York Times describes patient capital as having "all the discipline of venture capital – demanding a return, and therefore rigor in how it is deployed – but expecting a return that is more in the 5 to 10 percent range, rather than the 35 percent that venture capitalists look for." Jacqueline Novogratz of Acumen adds: patient capital "takes the best of the markets as well as philanthropy and aid. Patient capital is money invested in entrepreneurs building companies and organizations that solve tough problems like healthcare, water, housing, alternative energy."

Singapore civil service

The Singapore civil service is the set of civil servants working for the government of Singapore. Many of its principles were inherited from the administrative system left by the British civil service, as Singapore was once a British colony. The group, a subset of the Public Service of Singapore, employs about 84,000 officers in the government ministries as of 2017.Thomas Friedman of the New York Times considers the Singapore civil service to be one of the most efficient and uncorrupt bureaucracies in the world, with a high standard of discipline and accountability. Some consider it a key contributor to the success of Singapore since independence. While others contend that the long-time dominance of the People's Action Party (PAP) on civil office can lead to complacency and groupthink, with the supporting ministries being resistant to alternative views and fundamentally unprepared for a change of government.

Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership

Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership is an educational center in Chicago, Illinois. Not affiliated with any single branch of Judaism, Spertus offers learning opportunities that are "rooted in Jewish wisdom and culture and open to all." Graduate programs and workshops "train leaders and engage individuals in exploration of Jewish life." Public programs include films, speakers, seminars, concerts, and exhibits — at the Institute’s main campus at 610 S. Michigan Avenue, as well as in the Chicago suburbs and online.

Spertus offers graduate degrees in Jewish Professional Studies, Jewish Studies, and until 2016, Nonprofit Management — accredited by North Central Association of Colleges and Schools — as well as professional workshops and a range of public educational and cultural programs.

Well-known presenters have included Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, author Jonathan Safran Foer, architect Moshe Safdie, hip-hop artist Y-Love, pianist/actor/playwright Hershey Felder, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman, Psychologist Dr. Tal Ben-Shahar, and statistician Nate Silver.Honorary degree recipients from 1949 to 2011 have included Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, former Israeli Ambassador to the United States Abba Eban, Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, author and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Elie Wiesel, author and Nobel Literature Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer, feminist author Betty Friedan, actor Leonard Nimoy, and Hazzan Alberto Mizrahi.

St. Louis Park High School

St. Louis Park High School is a four-year public high school located in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. St. Louis Park High School is ranked by Newsweek as #290 in their "List of the 1500 Top High Schools in America," #3 among Minnesota schools on the list in 2012. In 2001, the high school began participation in the International Baccalaureate program and has since been decreasing the number of Advanced Placement classes offered in the curriculum.

Tahara plant

The Tahara plant (Japanese: 田原工場) is an automobile plant in Tahara, Aichi, Japan owned by Toyota Motor Corporation. It was opened in January 1979. It is the most computerized and robotized automotive plant in the world and produces Lexus brand vehicles, including the Lexus IS, Lexus GS, Lexus LS, Lexus GX, and Lexus LX models. Several Toyota vehicles have been assembled there as well, including the Celica, Land Cruiser, Land Cruiser Prado, RAV4/Vanguard, WISH, and 4Runner. Employees look through 4000 details for every car produced. The plant creates a Lexus every 87 seconds, equal to 675 Lexus models per day.

When employees enter the factory floor, they pass through an air shower to remove dust. They are required to exercise and perform other physical activities such as holding and rolling golf balls in their palms. These motor exercises keep staff sharp, and Toyota believes these behaviors are essential to help retain the standards necessary to produce flawless vehicles.The New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman visited the plant in the early 1990s, and described the experience as an example of globalization in his best-selling 1999 book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree. In his book, Friedman detailed the precise installation of windshield rubber seals by the factory's robots, along with human quality controls.

The New York Times Non-Fiction Best Sellers of 2005

This is a list of adult non-fiction books that topped The New York Times Non-Fiction Best Seller list in 2005.

Tom Friedman

Tom Friedman may refer to:

Tom Friedman (artist), American sculptor

Thomas Friedman, journalist and author


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