Thomas Eagleton

Thomas Francis Eagleton (September 4, 1929 – March 4, 2007) was a United States Senator from Missouri, serving from 1968 to 1987. He is best remembered for briefly being the Democratic vice presidential nominee under George McGovern in 1972. He suffered from bouts of depression throughout his life, resulting in several hospitalizations, which were kept secret from the public. When they were revealed, it humiliated the McGovern campaign and Eagleton was forced to quit the race. He later became adjunct professor of public affairs at Washington University in St. Louis.

Tom Eagleton
ThomasEagleton
United States Senator
from Missouri
In office
December 28, 1968 – January 3, 1987
Preceded byEdward V. Long
Succeeded byKit Bond
38th Lieutenant Governor of Missouri
In office
January 11, 1965 – December 27, 1968
GovernorWarren E. Hearnes
Preceded byHilary A. Bush
Succeeded byWilliam S. Morris
35th Attorney General of Missouri
In office
January 9, 1961 – January 11, 1965
GovernorJohn M. Dalton
Preceded byJohn M. Dalton
Succeeded byNorman H. Anderson
Personal details
Born
Thomas Francis Eagleton

September 4, 1929
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
DiedMarch 4, 2007 (aged 77)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Barbara Smith
Children2
EducationAmherst College (BA)
University of Oxford
Harvard University (LLB)
Thomas F. Eagleton
Eagleton as Lieutenant Governor in 1965

Early life and political career

Eagleton was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Zitta Louise (Swanson) and Mark David Eagleton, a politician who had run for mayor. His paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, and his mother had Swedish, Irish, French, and Austrian ancestry.[1]

He graduated from St. Louis Country Day School, served in the U.S. Navy for two years, and graduated from Amherst College in 1950, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Sigma Chapter). He then attended Harvard Law School. Following his graduation in 1953, Eagleton practiced law at his father's firm and later became associated with Anheuser-Busch's legal department.[2]

Eagleton married Barbara Ann Smith of St. Louis on January 26, 1956. A son, Terence, was born in 1959, and a daughter, Christin, was born in 1963.

He was elected circuit attorney of the City of St. Louis in 1956. During his tenure, he appeared on the TV show What's My Line? (episode #355) as "District Attorney of St. Louis". (He stumped the panel.)[3][4] He was elected Missouri Attorney General in 1960, at the age of 31 (the youngest in the state's history). He was elected the 38th Lieutenant Governor of Missouri in 1964, and won a U.S. Senate seat in 1968 unseating incumbent Edward V. Long in the Democratic primary and narrowly defeating Congressman Thomas B. Curtis in the general election.

He was also known to have suffered from depression. Between 1960 and 1966, Eagleton checked himself into the hospital three times for physical and nervous exhaustion, receiving electroconvulsive therapy (shock therapy) twice.[5][6] He later received a diagnosis of bipolar II from Dr. Frederick K. Goodwin.[7]

The hospitalizations, which were not widely publicized, had little effect on his political aspirations, although the St. Louis Post-Dispatch was to note, in 1972, immediately after his vice presidential nomination: "He had been troubled with gastric disturbances, which led to occasional hospitalizations. The stomach troubles have contributed to rumors that he had a drinking problem."[6]

1972 presidential campaign

"Amnesty, abortion, and acid"

On April 25, 1972, George McGovern won the Massachusetts Democratic primary, and conservative journalist Robert Novak phoned Democratic politicians around the country. On April 27, 1972, Novak reported in a column his conversation with an unnamed Democratic senator about McGovern.[8][9]

Novak quoted the senator as saying "The people don't know McGovern is for amnesty, abortion, and legalization of pot. Once middle America — Catholic middle America, in particular — finds this out, he's dead."[8] Because of the column McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty, abortion, and acid."[10][11]

On July 15, 2007, several months after Eagleton's death, Novak said on Meet the Press that the unnamed senator was Eagleton.[11] Novak was accused in 1972 of manufacturing the quote, but stated that to rebut the criticism, he took Eagleton to lunch after the campaign and asked whether he could identify him as the source; the senator refused.[8] "Oh, he had to run for re-election", said Novak, "the McGovernites would kill him if they knew he had said that."[11] Political analyst Bob Shrum says that Eagleton would never have been selected as McGovern's running mate if it had been known at the time that Eagleton was the source of the quote.[11] "Boy, do I wish he would have let you publish his name. Then he never would have been picked as vice president", said Shrum.[11] "Because the two things, the two things that happened to George McGovern — two of the things that happened to him — were the label you put on him, number one, and number two, the Eagleton disaster. We had a messy convention, but he could have, I think in the end, carried eight or 10 states, remained politically viable. And Eagleton was one of the great train wrecks of all time."[11]

Selection as vice-presidential candidate

In 1972, Richard Nixon appeared unbeatable. When McGovern won the Democratic nomination for President, virtually all of the high-profile Democrats, including Ted Kennedy, Walter Mondale, Hubert Humphrey, Edmund Muskie,[12] and Birch Bayh, turned down offers to run on the ticket. McGovern had been convinced that Kennedy would join the ticket. Kennedy ended up refusing. McGovern campaign manager Gary Hart suggested Boston Mayor Kevin White. McGovern called White, and received "an emphatic yes", but the leader of the Massachusetts delegation, Ken Galbraith, said the Massachusetts delegation would walk out if the announcement was made to the Convention that McGovern had chosen White as his vice-presidential candidate, as White had backed Muskie during the Massachusetts primary. Massachusetts ended up being the only state (along with the District of Columbia) that McGovern would carry in the Electoral College on election day.

McGovern then asked Senator Gaylord Nelson to be his running mate. Nelson declined but suggested Tom Eagleton, whom McGovern ultimately chose, with only a minimal background check. Eagleton made no mention of his earlier hospitalizations, and in fact decided with his wife to keep them secret from McGovern while he was flying to his first meeting with the Presidential nominee.

Replacement on the ticket

McGovern said he would back Eagleton "1000 percent". Subsequently, McGovern consulted confidentially with preeminent psychiatrists, including Eagleton's own doctors, who advised him that a recurrence of Eagleton's depression was possible and could endanger the country should Eagleton become president.[13][14][15][16][17] On August 1, 19 days after being nominated, Eagleton withdrew at McGovern's request and, after a new search by McGovern, was replaced by Kennedy in-law Sargent Shriver.[18]

A Time magazine poll taken at the time found that 77 percent of the respondents said "Eagleton's medical record would not affect their vote." Nonetheless, the press made frequent references to his 'shock therapy', and McGovern feared that this would detract from his campaign platform.[19]

McGovern's failure to properly vet Eagleton and his subsequent handling of the controversy gave occasion for the Republican campaign to raise serious questions about his judgment. In the general election, the Democratic ticket won only Massachusetts and the District of Columbia.

Re-election to Senate

Missouri returned Eagleton to the Senate in 1974; he won 60% of the popular vote against Thomas B. Curtis, who had been his opponent in 1968. In 1980, he was re-elected by a closer-than-expected margin over St. Louis County Executive Gene McNary.

During the 1980 election, Eagleton's niece Elizabeth Eagleton Weigand and lawyer Stephen Poludniak were arrested for blackmail after they threatened to spread false accusations that Eagleton was bisexual.[20][21] Eagleton told reporters that the extorted money was to be turned over to the Church of Scientology.[22] Poludniak and Weigand appealed the conviction all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, arguing that they could not have gotten a fair trial because of "the massive publicity surrounding this case, coupled with the pre-existing sentiment in favor of Sen. Eagleton". The Court turned down the appeal.

Eagleton did not seek a fourth term in 1986. He was succeeded by former Republican Governor Kit Bond, who served four terms. The seat is now held by Republican Roy Blunt.

Senate career

In the Senate, Eagleton was active in matters dealing with foreign relations, intelligence, defense, education, health care, and the environment. He was instrumental to the Senate's passage of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act, and sponsored the amendment that halted the bombing in Cambodia and effectively ended American involvement in the Vietnam War.

Eagleton was one of the authors of The Hatch-Eagleton Amendment, introduced in the Senate on January 26, 1983 with Sen. Orrin Hatch (R), which stated that "A right to abortion is not secured by this Constitution".

Post-Senate career

In 1987, Eagleton returned to Missouri as an attorney, political commentator, and professor at Washington University in St. Louis, where until his death he was professor of public affairs. Throughout his Washington University career, Eagleton taught courses in economics with former chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors Murray Weidenbaum and with history professor Henry Berger on the Vietnam War. Eagleton selected research assistants from among his students.

On July 23, 1996, Eagleton delivered a warm introductory speech for McGovern during a promotional tour for McGovern's book, Terry: My Daughter's Life-and-Death Struggle with Alcoholism, at The Library, Ltd., in St. Louis, Missouri. At that time, McGovern spoke favorably about Eagleton and reminisced about their short-lived presidential ticket in 1972.[23]

During the 2000s, Eagleton served on the Council of Elders for the George and Eleanor McGovern Center for Leadership and Public Service at Dakota Wesleyan University.[24]

In January 2001, he joined other Missouri Democrats to oppose the nomination of former governor and senator John Ashcroft for United States Attorney General. Eagleton was quoted in the official Judiciary Committee record: "John Danforth would have been my first choice. John Ashcroft would have been my last choice."[25]

In 2005 and 2006, he co-taught a seminar on the US presidency and the Constitution with Joel Goldstein at Saint Louis University School of Law. He was also a partner[26] in the St. Louis law firm Thompson Coburn and was a chief negotiator for a coalition of local business interests that lured the Los Angeles Rams football team to St. Louis. Eagleton authored three books on politics. Eagleton also strongly supported Democratic Senate candidate Claire McCaskill in 2006; McCaskill won, defeating incumbent Jim Talent.

Eagleton led a group, Catholics for Amendment 2, composed of prominent Catholics that challenged church leaders' opposition to embryonic stem cell research and to a proposed state constitutional amendment that would have protected such research in Missouri. The group e-mailed a letter to fellow Catholics explaining reasons for supporting Amendment 2.[27] The amendment ensures that any federally approved stem cell research and treatments would be available in Missouri. "[T]he letter from Catholics for Amendment 2 said the group felt a moral obligation to respond to what it called misinformation, scare tactics and distortions being spread by opponents of the initiative, including the church."[27]

Death

Eagleton died in St. Louis on March 4, 2007, of heart and respiratory complications. Eagleton donated his body to medical science at Washington University.[28] He wrote a farewell letter to his family and friends months before he died, citing that his dying wishes were for people to "go forth in love and peace — be kind to dogs — and vote Democratic".[29]

Honors and awards

The 8th Circuit federal courthouse in St. Louis is named after Eagleton. Dedicated on September 11, 2000, it is named the Thomas F. Eagleton Building.

Eagleton has been honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.[30]

References

  1. ^ Noble, Barnes &. "Call Me Tom: The Life of Thomas F. Eagleton". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  2. ^ "C0674 Eagleton, Thomas F. (1929-2007), Papers, 1944-1987" (PDF). The State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  3. ^ TV.com. "What's My Line?: EPISODE #355". TV.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  4. ^ What's My Line? (8 January 2014). "What's My Line? - Mamie Van Doren; Melvyn Douglas [panel] (Mar 24, 1957)". YouTube. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  5. ^ Clymer, Adam (5 March 2007). "Thomas F. Eagleton, 77, a Running Mate for 18 Days, Dies". The New York Times.
  6. ^ a b "St. Louis Post-Dispatch". Stltoday.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  7. ^ Altman, Lawrence K. (July 23, 2012). "Hasty and Ruinous 1972 Pick Colors Today's Hunt for a No. 2". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Kraske, Steve (28 July 2007). "With another disclosure, Novak bedevils the dead". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007.
  9. ^ Ganey, Terry (19 August 2007). "A slice of history: Biographers of the late U.S. Sen. Thomas Eagleton of Missouri will find some vivid anecdotes when they comb through his large collection of journals, letters and transcripts housed in Columbia". Columbia Tribune. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013.
  10. ^ Riesel, Victor (6 July 1972). "Coalition Breaking". Rome News-Tribune. Rome, Georgia.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Interview with Robert Novak", Meet the Press, MSNBC, 15 July 2007
  12. ^ "George McGovern, Help Wanted", The New York Times, August 29, 2008
  13. ^ McGovern, George S., Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern, New York: Random House, 1977, pp. 214-215
  14. ^ McGovern, George S., Terry: My Daughter's Life-and-Death Struggle with Alcoholism, New York: Random House, 1996, pp. 97
  15. ^ Marano, Richard Michael, Vote Your Conscience: The Last Campaign of George McGovern, Praeger Publishers, 2003, pp. 7
  16. ^ The Washington Post, "George McGovern & the Coldest Plunge", Paul Hendrickson, September 28, 1983
  17. ^ The New York Times, "'Trashing' Candidates" (op-ed), George McGovern, May 11, 1983
  18. ^ Theodore White, The Making of the President, 1972 (1973)
  19. ^ Garofoli, Joe (26 March 2008). "Obama bounces back – speech seemed to help". The San Francisco Chronicle.
  20. ^ Kohn, Edward (20 October 1980). "Eagleton's Reelection Bid Interrupted By Trial of Niece on Extortion Charge". Washington Post.
  21. ^ "Around the Nation; Convictions Upheld In Eagleton Extortion". New York Times. 15 August 1981.
  22. ^ Noble, Alice (23 October 1980). "A niece of Sen. Thomas F. Eagleton, D-Mo., testified..." UPI.
  23. ^ Video regarding My Daughter's Struggle with Alcoholism, St. Louis, Missouri: C-SPAN Video Library, 23 July 1996
  24. ^ Council of Elders, McGovern Center for Leadership and Public Service, Dakota Wesleyan University
  25. ^ Woods, Harriett (19 January 2001), Testimony For The Judiciary Committee Hearing On The Nomination of John Ashcroft, US Senate, archived from the original on 29 March 2007
  26. ^ "Thomas F. Eagleton Scholarship - Thompson Coburn LLP". www.thompsoncoburn.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  27. ^ a b "Catholic group fights church leaders on stem cell research". CNN. 5 November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 November 2006.
  28. ^ "The Record - The Source - Washington University in St. Louis". Record.wustl.edu. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  29. ^ "Final wish: Be kind to dogs, vote Democratic". MSNBC.com. Associated Press. 10 March 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  30. ^ St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved 25 April 2013.

Further reading

  • Bormann, Ernest G. "The Eagleton affair: A fantasy theme analysis." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59.2 (1973): 143-159.
  • Dickerson, John "One of the Great Train Wrecks of All Time" Slate online magazine podcast 6/10/15
  • Giglio, James N. Call Me Tom: The Life of Thomas F. Eagleton (University of Missouri Press; 2011) 328 pages
  • Giglio, James N. "The Eagleton Affair: Thomas Eagleton, George McGovern, and the 1972 Vice Presidential Nomination", Presidential Studies Quarterly, (2009) 39#4 pp 647–676
  • Glasser, Joshua M. Eighteen-Day Running Mate: McGovern, Eagleton, and a Campaign in Crisis (Yale University Press, 2012). comprehensive scholarly history
  • Hendrickson, Paul. "George McGovern & the Coldest Plunge", The Washington Post, September 28, 1983
  • Strout, Lawrence N. "Politics and mental illness: The campaigns of Thomas Eagleton and Lawton Chiles." Journal of American Culture 18.3 (1995): 67-73.
  • Trent, Judith S., and Jimmie D. Trent. "The rhetoric of the challenger: George Stanley McGovern." Communication Studies 25#1 (1974): 11-18.
  • White, Theodore. The Making of the President, 1972 (1973)
  • "McGovern's First Crisis: The Eagleton Affair" Time August 7, 1972, cover story
  • "George McGovern Finally Finds a Veep" Time August 14, 1972, cover story

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
John M. Dalton
Attorney General of Missouri
1961–1965
Succeeded by
Norman H. Anderson
Political offices
Preceded by
Hilary A. Bush
Lieutenant Governor of Missouri
1965–1968
Succeeded by
William S. Morris
Party political offices
Preceded by
Edward V. Long
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Missouri
(Class 3)

1968, 1974, 1980
Succeeded by
Harriett Woods
Preceded by
Edmund Muskie
Democratic nominee for Vice President of the United States
Withdrew

1972
Succeeded by
Sargent Shriver
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Edward V. Long
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Missouri
1968–1987
Served alongside: Stuart Symington, John Danforth
Succeeded by
Kit Bond
1000 percent

"1000 percent" or "1000%" in a literal sense means to multiply by 10. This article deals with its use in American English as a metaphor meaning very high emphasis, or enthusiastic support. It was used in the 1972 U.S. presidential election by presidential candidate George McGovern who endorsed his running mate, Thomas Eagleton , "1000 percent" following a scandal, then soon after dropped him. Communication experts Judith Trent and Jimmy Trent agree with journalist Theodore H. White who called it, "possibly the most damaging single faux pas ever made by a presidential candidate."

1972 Democratic National Convention

The 1972 Democratic National Convention was the presidential nominating convention of the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential election. It was held at Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida, on July 10 – 13, 1972. Lawrence F. O'Brien served as permanent chairman of the convention, while Yvonne Braithwaite Burke served as vice-chair, becoming the first African American and the first woman of color to hold that position. On the last day of the convention, Lawrence F. O'Brien departed and Burke was left to preside for about fourteen hours.The convention nominated Senator George McGovern of South Dakota for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri for Vice President. Eagleton withdrew from the race just 19 days later after it was disclosed that he had previously undergone mental health treatment, including electroshock therapy, and he was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver of Maryland, a Kennedy in-law.

The convention, which has been described as "a disastrous start to the general election campaign", was one of the most unusual—perhaps the most contentious in the history of the Democratic Party since 1924—with sessions beginning in the early evening and lasting until sunrise the next morning. Previously excluded political activists gained influence at the expense of elected officials and traditional core Democratic constituencies such as organized labor. A protracted vice presidential nominating process delayed McGovern's acceptance speech (which he considered "the best speech of his life") until 2:48 a.m.—after most television viewers had gone to bed. Hunter S. Thompson covered this convention in detail in several articles and in Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72.

1972 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1972 election. Coming into the 1972 Democratic National Convention, South Dakota Senator George McGovern had the delegate lead, but did not have the presidential nomination locked up. After winning the Democratic nomination for president on July 13, McGovern looked for a running mate. McGovern's first choice for vice president was Ted Kennedy, but Kennedy refused to join the ticket; Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson, and Connecticut Senator Abraham A. Ribicoff also declined. McGovern offered the position to Missouri Senator Thomas Eagleton, who appealed to labor groups and Catholics, two groups that McGovern had alienated during the primary campaign. The ticket of McGovern and Eagleton was nominated by the 1972 Democratic National Convention. Following the convention, it was revealed that Eagleton had received treatment for depression. Though McGovern considered keeping Eagleton on the ticket, he ultimately chose to replace Eagleton with former Ambassador Sargent Shriver. The McGovern-Shriver ticket lost the presidential election to the Nixon-Agnew ticket. After the controversy surrounding Eagleton, future campaigns spent much more time vetting vice presidential candidates.

1972 United States presidential election

The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

Nixon easily swept aside challenges from two Republican congressmen in the 1972 Republican primaries to win re-nomination. McGovern, who had played a significant role in reforming the Democratic nomination system after the 1968 election, mobilized the anti-war movement and other liberal supporters to win his party's nomination. Among the candidates he defeated were early front-runner Edmund Muskie, 1968 nominee Hubert Humphrey, and Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American to run for a major party's presidential nomination.

Nixon emphasized the strong economy and his success in foreign affairs, while McGovern ran on a platform calling for an immediate end to the Vietnam War, and the institution of a guaranteed minimum income. Nixon maintained a large and consistent lead in polling. Separately, Nixon's reelection committee broke into the Watergate Hotel to wiretap the Democratic National Committee's headquarters, a scandal that would later be known as "Watergate". McGovern's campaign was further damaged by the revelation that his running mate, Thomas Eagleton, had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy as a treatment for depression. Eagleton was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver.

Nixon won the election in a landslide, taking 60.7% of the popular vote and carrying 49 states, and he was the first Republican to sweep the South. McGovern took just 37.5% of the popular vote, while John G. Schmitz of the American Independent Party won 1.4% of the vote. Nixon received almost 18 million more votes than McGovern, and he holds the record for the widest popular vote margin in any United States presidential election. The 1972 presidential election was the first since the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Within two years of the election, both Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office, the former due to Watergate and the latter to a separate corruption charge, and Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford.

1972 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1972 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 7, 1972, as part of the 1972 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 14 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts voted for the Democratic nominee, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota, over incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon of California. McGovern's running mate was U.S. Ambassador Sargent Shriver of Maryland, who had replaced Senator Thomas Eagleton during the campaign, while Nixon ran with incumbent Vice President Spiro Agnew of Maryland.

McGovern carried Massachusetts with 54.20 percent of the vote to Nixon’s 45.23 percent, a Democratic victory margin of 8.97 percentage points.

In the midst of a massive nationwide Republican landslide in which Richard Nixon had carried 49 states, Massachusetts proved to be the only state in the nation that would cast its electoral votes for George McGovern, joined by the District of Columbia. McGovern also carried the state by a surprisingly comfortable nine-point margin, making the state a whopping 32 percent more Democratic than the national average in the 1972 election.

McGovern, a staunch liberal Democrat best known for his strong principled opposition to the Vietnam War, was painted by the Nixon campaign as an extremist too far to the left of the American mainstream at the time, and this paid off in delivering Nixon a nationwide re-election landslide. Massachusetts would be the only state to ultimately vote for McGovern.

Prior to 1972, Massachusetts had been a Democratic-leaning state since 1928, and a Democratic stronghold since 1960. But McGovern’s comfortable victory in 1972 still stands out, as many other traditional Democratic strongholds abandoned the Democrats in 1972. For example, Nixon took neighboring Rhode Island by six points, even though it normally voted similarly to Massachusetts.

On the county map, McGovern carried nine of the state's fourteen counties, including the most heavily populated parts of the state. The state's capital and largest city, Boston, would prove to be a McGovern stronghold; voters in Suffolk County, where Boston is located, cast 66 percent of the vote for McGovern. Boston is one of the few areas in the country where McGovern actually outperformed Jimmy Carter’s performance four years later in 1976; while Carter won narrow popular and electoral victories nationally, he carried Suffolk County with only 61%. On the other hand, this election remains the last time Dukes County, which had never voted Democratic before Lyndon B. Johnson’s landslide in 1964, has voted Republican.The results in 1972 made Massachusetts the only state which Richard Nixon never carried in any of his three presidential campaigns. It voted for its native son John F. Kennedy when he defeated Nixon in 1960, and Hubert Humphrey when he lost to Nixon in 1968.

1980 United States Senate election in Missouri

The 1980 United States Senate election in Missouri was held on November 4, 1980. Incumbent Democrat Thomas Eagleton defeated Republican nominee Gene McNary with 52.00% of the vote.

1986 United States Senate election in Missouri

The 1986 United States Senate election in Missouri was held on November 3, 1986. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Tom Eagleton decided to retire instead of seeking a fourth term. Republican Governor Kit Bond won the open seat.

Eagleton (surname)

Eagleton is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Aileen Eagleton (1902–1984), English artist

Christophe Eagleton (b. 1982), American composer

Florence Peshine Eagleton (1870–1956), women's suffrage advocate

Nathan Eagleton (born 1978), Australian-rules footballer

Stephen Eagleton (born 1976), Australian soccer player

Terry Eagleton (born 1943), English literary critic and philosopher

Thomas Eagleton (1929–2007), American politician

William L. Eagleton (1926–2011), American writer and diplomat

Edward V. Long

Edward Vaughn Long (July 18, 1908 – November 6, 1972) was a United States Senator from Missouri and a member of the Democratic Party. He served in the United States Senate from 1960 until 1968. One of his most notable accomplishments as a US Senator was the honor and privilege of writing the final draft of the Freedom of Information Act which passed in 1966 after 11 years of research, creation, and fight by the "Father of the Freedom of Information Act", Representative John E. Moss (D) of Sacramento, California.

Born in rural Lincoln County, Missouri near Whiteside, he was educated at Culver-Stockton College and the University of Missouri.

After holding various local offices in Bowling Green and Pike County, Long was elected to the Missouri State Senate, where he served from 1945 to 1955; he was elected majority floor leader in 1952 and President pro tempore in 1955.

In his first statewide race, he was elected the Lieutenant Governor of Missouri in 1956, serving from 1957 until his appointment in 1960 by Governor James T. Blair, Jr. to the Senate seat made vacant by the death of Thomas C. Hennings, Jr.. He won election to the Senate in his own right in 1962, but lost a primary challenge to Thomas Eagleton in 1968, and resigned his seat on December 27 of that year, resuming his law practice in Missouri.

Long is buried in Grand View Burial Park, Hannibal, Missouri.

Jack Buck Award

Jack Buck Award is an award named after former St. Louis broadcaster Jack Buck and presented by the Missouri Athletic Club. This award was established in 1987 and is presented to individuals in recognition of enthusiastic and dedicated support of sports in the city of St. Louis, Missouri.

1987 – August A. Busch, Jr., former brewer, prominent sportsman, and owner of the St. Louis Cardinals

1988 – Ben Kerner, Bing Devine

1989 – Joe Garagiola and Yogi Berra, national baseball figures and former catchers originally from St. Louis

1990 – Robert Hyland

1991 – Michael Shanahan, NFL football coach

1992 – Ozzie Smith, St. Louis Cardinal Hall of Famer

1993 – Michael Roarty, Anheuser-Busch marketing executive

1994 – Stan Musial, St. Louis Cardinal Hall of Famer

1995 – Thomas Eagleton, United States Senator from Missouri

1996 – Bill DeWitt, Fred Hanser, Drew Baur, St. Louis Cardinals owners and executives

1997 – Martin L. Mathews, co-founder the Mathews-Dickey Boys' Club

1998 – Red Schoendienst, St. Louis Cardinal Hall of Famer

1999 – Charles Nash

2000 – Mr. and Mrs. Mike Jones, former St. Louis Rams who made the tackle that ended Super Bowl XXXIV

2001 – Flint Fowler

2002 – Walt Jocketty, St. Louis Cardinals general manager (1994-2007)

2003 – Jerry Clinton, boxing aficionado who helped St. Louis regain an NFL team

2004 – Tony LaRussa, St. Louis Cardinal Hall of Famer

2005 – Jay Randolph, sportscaster

2006 – St. Louis Cardinals

2007 – John Davidson, St. Louis Blues president of hockey operations and former goaltender

2008 – Kelly Chase, former St. Louis Blues player

2010 – Ernie Hays, former St. Louis Cardinals organist

2012 – Steven Jackson, former St. Louis Rams Pro Bowl running back

2013 – Aeneas Williams, former St. Louis Rams All-Pro cornerback

2015 – Dave Peacock, former president of Anheuser-Busch

List of African-American United States presidential and vice presidential candidates

The following is a list of African-American United States presidential and vice-presidential nominees and candidates for nomination. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed are those African Americans who achieved ballot access for the national election in at least one state. They may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the major parties, or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.

Not included in the first two tables are African Americans who lost campaigns in nominating conventions or primary elections for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates.

The third table includes African Americans who ran for their party's presidential nomination but who were not nominated, as well as those who are currently pursuing their party's presidential nomination (when applicable).

Barack Obama became the first African-American candidate to be nominated by a major party, and the first to win, for either president or vice president when he became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 2008 election and was elected. He was re-elected in the 2012 election.

List of United States Senators from Missouri

Missouri was admitted to the Union on August 10, 1821. Its current U.S. Senators are Republicans Roy Blunt (Class 3, serving since 2011) and Josh Hawley (Class 1, serving since 2019).

List of lieutenant governors of Missouri

The Lieutenant Governor of Missouri is the first person in the order of succession of the U.S. state of Missouri's executive branch, thus serving as governor in the event of the death, resignation, removal, impeachment, absence from the state, or incapacity due to illness of the governor of Missouri. He or she also serves, ex officio, as president of the Missouri Senate. The lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor, and therefore may be of a different party than the governor.

The current Lieutenant Governor is Mike Kehoe.

Political party strength in Missouri

The following table indicates the party of elected officials in the U.S. state of Missouri:

The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:

For years in which a presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes.

The parties are as follows: Democratic (D), Democratic-Republican (DR), Liberal Republican (LR), no party (N), National Republican (NR), National Union (NU), Republican (R), Whig (W), and a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.

Robert Boyd (journalist)

Robert Skinner Boyd (born January 11, 1928) is an American journalist who spent most of his career working for the Knight Newspaper Group, spending two decades as the group's Washington bureau chief. He and Clark Hoyt won a Pulitzer Prize in 1973 for uncovering the fact that Senator Thomas Eagleton, George McGovern's choice for vice president, had had severe psychiatric problems and undergone three shock treatments. Instead of publishing their scoop, they disclosed their findings to McGovern's top advisor, and Eagleton withdrew as the Democratic nominee.

Sargent Shriver

Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (; November 9, 1915 – January 18, 2011) was an American diplomat, politician and activist. As the husband of Eunice Kennedy Shriver, he was part of the Kennedy family. Shriver was the driving force behind the creation of the Peace Corps, and founded the Job Corps, Head Start, and other programs as the "architect" of the 1960s "War on Poverty." He was the Democratic Party's nominee for vice president in the 1972 presidential election.

Born in Westminster, Maryland, Shriver pursued a legal career after graduating from Yale Law School. An opponent of U.S. entry into World War II, he helped establish the America First Committee but volunteered for the United States Navy before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During the war, he served in the South Pacific, participating in the naval Battle of Guadalcanal. After being discharged from the navy, he worked as an assistant editor for Newsweek and met Eunice Kennedy, marrying her in 1953.

He worked on the 1960 presidential campaign of his brother-in-law, John F. Kennedy, and helped establish the Peace Corps after Kennedy's victory. After Kennedy's assassination, Shriver served in the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson and helped establish several anti-poverty programs as director of the Office of Economic Opportunity from October 16, 1964 to March 22, 1968. He also served as the United States Ambassador to France from 1968 to 1970. In 1972, Democratic vice presidential nominee Thomas Eagleton resigned from the ticket, and Shriver was chosen as his replacement. The Democratic ticket of George McGovern and Shriver lost in a landslide election defeat to Republican President Richard Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew. Shriver briefly sought the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination but dropped out of the race after the first set of primaries.

After leaving office, he resumed the practice of law, becoming a partner with Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson. He also served as president of the Special Olympics and was briefly a part-owner of the Baltimore Orioles. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 2003 and died in Bethesda, Maryland in 2011.

The Delegates

The Delegates were a novelty song group who scored a hit in the United States in 1972. The "band" was actually Bob DeCarlo, the morning disc jockey at KQV in Pittsburgh, Penn. Bob was approached by Nick Cenci and Nick Kousaleous, local Pittsburgh record moguls, to make a novelty record. Bob and the two record men assembled "Convention '72," a "break-in" record which consisted of Bob "imitating" several popular television reporters of the day, including Walter Cronkite ("Walter Klondike"), Chet Huntley ("Sidney Bruntley" as a flamboyantly gay reporter - for some reason), David Brinkley ("David Stinkley"), and Harry Reasoner ("Larry Reasoning") asking questions of current politicians involved in that year's presidential election (such as Thomas Eagleton, Sargent Shriver, Spiro Agnew, Richard Nixon, Edward Kennedy, George McGovern, Martha Mitchell, Jane Fonda and Henry Kissinger) at a joint national "Get Together" convention of Republicans and Democrats, with the responses given as lines from popular songs of the day (in a manner analogous to that made famous by Dickie Goodman). The tunes sampled in "Convention '72" were (with the artist on the recording):

"Troglodyte (Cave Man)" (Jimmy Castor Bunch)

"I Gotcha" (Joe Tex)

"Lean on Me" (Bill Withers)

"Sealed with a Kiss" (Bobby Vinton)

"The Happiest Girl in the Whole U.S.A." (Donna Fargo)

"Jungle Fever" (The Chakachas)

"Alone Again (Naturally)" (Gilbert O'Sullivan)

"Coconut" (Nilsson)

"A Horse with No Name" (America)

"Take It Easy (In Your Mind)" (Jerry Reed)

"(If Loving You Is Wrong) I Don't Want to Be Right" (Luther Ingram)

"Back Stabbers" (The O'Jays)

"Liar" (Three Dog Night)

"How Can You Mend a Broken Heart" (Bee Gees)

"Mr. Big Stuff" (Jean Knight)

"Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves" (Cher)

"(Last Night) I Didn't Get to Sleep at All" (The 5th Dimension)

"Double Barrel" (Dave and Ansell Collins)

"The Candy Man" (Sammy Davis Jr.)

"I Don't Know How to Love Him" (Yvonne Elliman)"Convention '72" was a one-hit wonder that year, peaking at #8 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart on Nov. 18, 1972. Bob later recorded an album by "The Delegates" which included the hit single as well as a cover of the Frank Sinatra hit "My Way" and a segment called "Interviews with Your Favorite Politicians."

Thomas B. Curtis

Thomas Bradford Curtis (May 14, 1911 – January 10, 1993) was a U.S. Representative from Missouri.Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Curtis attended the public schools of Webster Groves, Missouri. He attended Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire where he was a member of Phi Sigma Kappa, earning an A.B. in 1932. He was admitted to the bar in 1934 and commenced the practice of law in St. Louis. He received an LL.B. degree from Washington University in St. Louis in 1935. He received an M.A. from Dartmouth in 1951, and a J.D. from Westminster College in 1964.

He served as member of the Board of Election Commissioners of St. Louis County in 1942. He served in the United States Navy from April 8, 1942, until discharged as a lieutenant commander December 21, 1945. He served as member of the Missouri State Board of Law Examiners in 1947–1950.

Curtis was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-second and to the eight succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1969).

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 originated in Curtis' office in 1962, and it was mainly Republican pressure from Curtis and his fellow Republican Judiciary Committee member William McCulloch of Ohio that forced John F. Kennedy to make his first, hesitant message on civil rights in April 1963. Curtis' defense of civil rights was rooted partly in the Lincoln tradition of the GOP, but more simply in the belief that civil rights were at the base of the American philosophy of government and Judeo-Christian morality and that their defense was "the most fundamental issue that confronts any government at any time," as he wrote in 1952.[1]

He was not a candidate for reelection in 1968 to the House of Representatives but was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate, losing to Democrat Thomas Eagleton by a 51% to 49% margin.

Mr. Curtis was a noted economist, considered by most Republicans and some Democrats to be the most knowledgeable and insightful economist in Washington during his tenure as a Member of Congress.

He served as delegate to the Republican National Convention, 1964, 1976 and 1980. He served as vice president and general counsel, Encyclopædia Britannica, from 1969 to 1973. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States Senate in 1974, winning only 39% of the vote against incumbent Thomas Eagleton. He served as chairman of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting from 1972 to 1973. He served as chairman of the Federal Election Commission from April 1975 to May 1976. He was a consultant for the National Association of Technical and Trade Schools.

He was a resident of Pier Cove, Michigan, until his death in Allegan, Michigan, on January 10, 1993.

Wild Honey (band)

Wild Honey are a indie rock band formed in Sydney, Australia in 2015. The band consists of Thom Moore (Lead vocals, Guitar), Adam Della-Grotta (Lead Guitar), Sam Barron (Bass Guitar, Keys), Jackson Love (Keys, Vocals), Thomas Eagleton (Vocals, Drums).

The debut self-titled EP was written and recorded by Moore almost entirely in his Bondi bedroom. Incredibly, the lead single ‘Eye To Eye’ became one of the most played Australian songs of the 2015/2016 summer on Triple J, leading to support slots for bands such as The Delta Riggs, The Belligerents, Hinds, and Twin Peaks. The band went on to play over 60 shows across Australia in 2016.

The band were handpicked by Jet to open for them at their sold out Taronga Zoo show in February 2017 In April 2017, the band announced they had finished recording their debut album, working with producer Jack Moffitt (The Preatures) and Doug Boehm (Girls, Dr. Dog, Guided by Voices).

Their full-length debut'In Your Head' was released in November 2017 on the bands own Spillway Records.

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