Thomas Cushing III (March 24, 1725 – February 28, 1788) was an American lawyer, merchant, and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. Active in Boston politics, he represented the city in the provincial assembly from 1761 to its dissolution in 1774, serving as the lower house's speaker for most of those years. Because of his role as speaker, his signature was affixed to many documents protesting British policies, leading officials in London to consider him a dangerous radical. He engaged in extended communications with Benjamin Franklin who at times lobbied on behalf of the legislature's interests in London, seeking ways to reduce the rising tensions of the American Revolution.
Cushing represented Massachusetts in the First and Second Continental Congresses, but was voted out when he opposed independence. Despite this, he remained politically active after independence, continuing to serve in the state government. During the war he was a commissary responsible for provisioning the military, a position he used to enrich the family merchant business. He was elected the state's first Lieutenant Governor in 1780. Politically associated with fellow merchant and governor John Hancock, he remained lieutenant governor until his death in 1788, briefly serving as Acting Governor in 1785 between the resignation of Hancock and the election of James Bowdoin.
|Acting Governor of Massachusetts|
February 17, 1785 – May 27, 1785
|Preceded by||John Hancock|
|Succeeded by||James Bowdoin|
|1st Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts|
November 4, 1780 – February 28, 1788
|Governor||John Hancock (1780-1785)|
James Bowdoin (1785-1788)
|Preceded by||Thomas Oliver (as Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay)|
|Succeeded by||Benjamin Lincoln|
|Born||March 24, 1725|
Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bay
|Died||February 28, 1788 (aged 62)|
(m. 1747; died 1788)
Thomas was born in Boston, the capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay, on March 24, 1725, the second of at least seven children. The Cushing family, with deep roots in the province, descends from Deacon Matthew Cushing who emigrated from Norfolk, England, to Hingham in 1638. Thomas' father, also named Thomas (1694-1746), was one of the city's wealthiest merchants, a leading member of the Old South Church, and a city selectman. Thomas Sr. was a frequent moderator of town meetings, and accepted on behalf of the city of Boston the gift of Faneuil Hall (a large market building and public meeting space) from Peter Faneuil in 1742. He served in the General Court (colonial assembly) of Massachusetts from 1731 to 1747, and as its speaker after 1742. His mother, Mary (Bromfield) Cushing (1689–1746) was also from a prominent Boston family.
Thomas got his early education at the Boston Latin School, and then attended Harvard, where he graduated in 1744. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, after which he entered the family merchant business. On October 1, 1747, he married Deborah Fletcher (c. 1727–1790), with whom he had five children.
In 1753 Cushing entered politics, winning election as a Boston selectman. He continued in that office until 1763, and was also elected to the General Court in 1761. He became politically associated with Samuel Adams and John Hancock, in part through his attendance at political discussions in Boston's taverns. With Hancock in particular he eventually formed a lifelong relationship in which the charismatic Hancock was always seen to be the dominant political personality. He contributed financially to some of Hancock's political spending, although he preferred to stand in the background and let Hancock receive the credit. Because of this his (and Hancock's) political opponents in later years often characterized him as little more than Hancock's henchman or proxy.
When the French and Indian War came to an end in 1763 the British government sought to recover the costs of posting troops in the colonies by imposing taxes on the colonies. Cushing was an early opponent of these taxes, couching his opposition in economic terms, a reflection on his livelihood as a merchant. An astute observer of the trade ties binding the various parts of the British Empire, he wrote in 1763 that extant high duties on molasses (payment of which was widely flouted by New England merchants) would have significantly harmed the economies of Britain, North America, and the West Indies, in part by diverting significant quantities of scarce hard currency to those duties. John Adams wrote of Cushing that "[He] is steady and constant and busy in the interest of liberty and the opposition, and is famed for secrecy and his talent for procuring intelligence."
In May 1766 Cushing was chosen to be speaker of the assembly. The assembly first chose James Otis, but Governor Bernard rejected this choice, and Cushing was named as a compromise candidate. During his tenure as speaker he was a frequent correspondent with the assembly's agent in London, Benjamin Franklin, who was given the job in late 1770. In addition to official correspondence such as petitions, the two men exchanged opinions on political developments in their respective areas, and were broadly in agreement on the need for moderation in dealing with the British government. In 1772 Franklin acquired letters written by several royal appointees, including Governor Thomas Hutchinson when he was still lieutenant governor. Seeking to deflect colonial blame for matters away from the British government and onto the royal governor, Franklin forwarded these letters to Cushing, with specific instructions that they only be shown to a few people. Those who saw them included the radical Samuel Adams, who engineered their eventual publication in 1773. In the letters, Hutchinson and Lieutenant Governor Andrew Oliver made highly inflammatory suggestions that colonial rights needed to be abridged. The resulting scandal inflamed political tensions on both sides of the Atlantic, prompted a petition from the assembly that Hutchinson be recalled, and brought about Franklin's resignation as colonial agent and conversion to a pro-independence view after he was publicly lambasted for his role in the affair.
Cushing held the post of speaker until the assembly was dissolved in October 1774 by Governor and British Army General Thomas Gage, who succeeded Hutchinson. The assembly's members then met without the governor's permission and formed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress. This body would constitute the de facto government of Massachusetts until its state constitution was adopted in 1780.
Despite his opposition to British policies Cushing did not at first strongly support the revolution. In 1772, he (along with Hancock, who was also then moderate in his views) refused to serve when named to one of the Boston Committees of Correspondence. Despite his lack of revolutionary ardor he was elected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774, and to the second in 1775. He became associated with the radical cause by London political figures in part because, as Massachusetts speaker, his signature was affixed to all of its petitions. As a result, orders issued to General Gage in April 1775 for the arrest of radical leaders included Cushing's name. Gage did not pursue such orders for the arrest of leaders, and Cushing was never detained.
Cushing continued to maintain a weak attitude toward independence through 1775, which cost him his seat in the Continental Congress in December 1775. After a heated election campaign Cushing was defeated by Elbridge Gerry, who was committed to independence. The loss, which decisively handed pro-independence forces a majority in the Massachusetts delegation, propelled Cushing firmly into Hancock's camp. Cushing continued to oppose independence upon his return to Massachusetts, orchestrating delays in the polling process by which the state formally called for a declaration of independence.
Hancock, then the president of the Continental Congress, rewarded Cushing's loyalty by securing for him the appointment as a commissioner of marine affairs. In this role Cushing oversaw the procurement of two 32-gun frigates for the Continental Navy. He was also appointed the chief commissary responsible for supplying Massachusetts troops, a post he held for several years. In 1780 he was appointed as one of the chief commissaries responsible for supplying the French troops at Newport, Rhode Island. Cushing, in behavior that was similar to that of other merchants involved in military supply, used these positions to substantially enrich the family merchant business by granting it favorably priced supply contracts. He was also involved in regional conventions that attempted to stem the inflationary decline in value of the Continental dollar by setting wage and price controls; these attempts failed because states refused to implement convention recommendations.
In 1778 Cushing was involved in an unsuccessful attempt to create a new constitution for the state. This effort was rejected by the state's eligible voters for a variety of reason, although there continued to be calls from the towns demanding a new constitution. Cushing was not involved in the detailed drafting of the state constitution that was adopted in 1780. He was a charter member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780).
Cushing was elected to the Massachusetts Senate the 1780 election. As several districts failed to elect senators and several others refused to serve, there were only nineteen senators sworn in for the first Senate session of 1780. On October 25, 1780, of the nineteen senators who had been sworn in, fourteen voted for Cushing, and Cushing was elected the first President of the Massachusetts Senate. Cushing resigned as President of the Massachusetts Senate on November 4, 1780 in order to become the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts.
Cushing stood for election as lieutenant governor in the 1780 election. The vote was indecisive (no candidate received a majority of the votes cast), and the choice was given to the General Court to decide. Its first candidate, James Bowdoin, refused the post, as did the second choice, James Warren, and the choice went to Cushing on the third ballot. He then served in the post, most of the time serving under his friend John Hancock, until his death in 1788. In early 1785 Hancock offered his resignation to the legislature, partly as a political maneuver (although he claimed to be suffering a particularly bad case of gout at the time). The legislature did not insist that Hancock remain in office, resulting in Hancock actually resigning. Cushing became Acting Governor and served out the last few months of the term. The 1785 election for governor was highly political and divisive; Cushing was portrayed by his opponents (principally Bowdoin and his supporters) as little more than a creature of Hancock who would do Hancock's bidding. The election was again undecided by the electorate; Bowdoin prevailed in the General Court's decision-making, and Cushing again won the lieutenant governor's office. Bowdoin served two terms, which were dominated by Shays' Rebellion, an uprising caused in part by Bowdoin's harsh fiscal policies and poor economic conditions in the rural parts of the state. In 1787 Hancock returned to politics, trouncing Bowdoin. In each of these elections Cushing was reelected as lieutenant governor.
During their time in office Hancock and Cushing funded the rebuilding of Boston, which had been devastated by the British occupation in 1775–76. Although Hancock was given most of the credit for this effort, it is known that Cushing played a significant role in the rebuilding effort.
|New office|| Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
| Acting Governor of Massachusetts
Events from the year 1788 in the United States.Blood and Sand (1922 film)
Blood and Sand is a 1922 American silent drama film produced by Paramount Pictures, directed by Fred Niblo and starring Rudolph Valentino, Lila Lee and Nita Naldi. It was based on the 1909 Spanish novel Sangre y arena (Blood and Sand) by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and the play version of the book by Thomas Cushing.Boston Board of Selectmen
The Boston Board of Selectmen was the governing board for the town of Boston from the 17th century until 1822. Selectmen were elected to six-month terms early in the history of the board, but later were elected to one-year terms.
In colonial days selectmen included William Clark. At the time of the American Revolution, the selectmen were John Hancock, Joseph Jackson, Samuel Sewall, William Phillips, Timothy Newell, John Ruddock, John Rowe and Samuel Pemberton.Continental Association
The Continental Association, often known simply as the "Association", was a system created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain. Congress hoped that, by imposing economic sanctions, they would pressure Britain into addressing the grievances of the colonies, in particular repealing the Intolerable Acts passed by Parliament. The Association aimed to alter Britain's policies toward the colonies without severing allegiance.
The boycott began on December 1, 1774. The Association was fairly successful while it lasted. Trade with Britain fell sharply, and the British responded with the New England Restraining Act of 1775. The outbreak of the American Revolutionary War effectively superseded the need to boycott British goods.Dominick Daly
Sir Dominick Daly (11 August 1798 – 19 February 1868) was the Governor of Prince Edward Island from 11 July 1854 to 25 May 1859 and later Governor of South Australia from 4 March 1862 until his death on 19 February 1868.
He was born in Ardfry, County Galway, Ireland in 1798 and studied in Birmingham. In 1823, he came to Lower Canada as secretary to Lieutenant-Governor Sir Francis Nathaniel Burton. In 1827, he was appointed provincial secretary for Lower Canada. He was a member of the Special Council of Lower Canada from 1840 to 1841. After the Act of Union in 1840, it became a prerequisite for his post that he be elected and he ran successfully in the Canada East riding of Mégantic in 1841. In 1841, he was appointed provincial secretary of Canada East and a member of the Executive Council. When the council resigned en masse in November 1843 in a dispute with Governor Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, Daly chose to remain, which was viewed as a betrayal by Reformers. This left Daly as acting head of government for several weeks. In 1844, he became provincial secretary for both Canada East and Canada West. In March 1845, he was challenged to a duel by Reformer Thomas Cushing Aylwin; shots were fired but no one was injured. Daly was removed from the Executive Council in 1848 when Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine came to power; he returned to England and served on a commission of inquiry.
In 1852, Daly was appointed lieutenant-governor of Tobago; he was next appointed to the same post in Prince Edward Island. In 1858, he announced his resignation and departed the following year.
In October 1861, he was appointed the Governor of South Australia, becoming the first Catholic govornor ever
in Australia, notably in a colony with smaller proportion of Catholics amongst its population than any other of the Australian provinces. He died in office just after noon on 19 February 1868 in Adelaide after unexpectedly falling ill on the morning of the same day.Edward Carter (Canadian politician)
Edward Carter, (1 March 1822 – 27 September 1883) was a Canadian lawyer, professor and politician. Carter was a member of the House of Commons of Canada for the Brome electoral district in Quebec. He also represented Montréal-Centre in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1867 to 1871. His name appears as Edward Brock Carter in some sources.
Born in Trois-Rivières, Lower Canada (now Quebec), the son of George Carter and Mary Ann Short, he was educated in Trois-Rivières and at the Collège de Nicolet. He worked as a manager in a commercial establishment from 1838 to 1840, then articled in law with Edward Short, Thomas Cushing Aylwin, F.W. Primrose and John Rose, was called to the Lower Canada bar in 1845 and set up practice in Montreal. Carter was crown clerk and associate clerk of the peace for Montreal district from 1862 to 1866. In 1862, he was named Queen's Counsel. Carter was an associate professor of criminal law and later professor emeritus at McGill University. He published A Treatise on the Law and Practice on Summary Convictions and Orders by Justices of the Peace in Upper and Lower Canada in 1856.Carter was defeated in Montréal-Centre and in Châteauguay when he ran for reelection to the Quebec assembly in 1871. He served in the 1st Canadian Parliament for the Conservative party from 17 November 1871, replacing Christopher Dunkin. He was re-elected in the 1872 federal election and left politics after serving his full term in the 2nd Canadian Parliament.
He was a governor for Bishop's College and served as solicitor for the Montreal diocese of the Anglican church. In 1850, he married Mary Jane Kerr. Carter died in Montreal at the age of 61.Edward Short (Canadian judge)
Edward Short (June 10, 1806 – June 5, 1871) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Quebec.
He was born in Bristol, England in 1806, the son of John Quirk Short and the grandson of Robert Quirk Short, and came to Canada with his family. He studied law in Trois-Rivières and was called to the Bar of Quebec in 1826. He had practices in Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Quebec City, where he was a partner of Thomas Cushing Aylwin. He settled in Sherbrooke in 1830. In 1839, Short married Ann Brown. He was appointed to the Court of the Sessions of the Peace in Saint-François district.
He was elected to the 4th Parliament of the Province of Canada representing the town of Sherbrooke in 1851. In November 1852, he was appointed a justice of the Quebec Superior Court, Saint-François district, and became a judge in the Seigneurial Court in 1854.
He died in Sherbrooke in 1871.
Short Street in Sherbrooke was named after him.Governor of Massachusetts
The Governor of Massachusetts is the head of the executive branch of the Government of Massachusetts and serves as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth's military forces. The current governor is Charlie Baker.James Bowdoin
James Bowdoin II (; August 7, 1726 – November 6, 1790) was an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution and the following decade. He initially gained fame and influence as a wealthy merchant. He served in both branches of the Massachusetts General Court from the 1750s to the 1770s. Although he was initially supportive of the royal governors, he opposed British colonial policy and eventually became an influential advocate of independence. He authored a highly political report on the 1770 Boston Massacre that has been described by historian Francis Walett as one of the most influential pieces of writing that shaped public opinion in the colonies.
From 1775 to 1777 he served as president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress' executive council, the de facto head of the Massachusetts government. He was elected president of the constitutional convention that drafted the state's constitution in 1779, and ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1780, losing to John Hancock. In 1785, following Hancock's resignation, he was elected governor. Due to the large debts of Massachusetts, incurred from the Revolutionary War, Bowdoin ran on a platform of fiscal responsibility. During his two years in office the combination of poor economic conditions and his harsh fiscal policy laid down by his government led to the uprising known as Shays' Rebellion. Bowdoin personally funded militia forces that were instrumental in putting down the uprising. His high-handed treatment of the rebels may have contributed to his loss of the 1787 election, in which the populist Hancock was returned to office.
In addition to his political activities, Bowdoin was active in scientific pursuits, collaborating with Benjamin Franklin in his pioneering research on electricity. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and was a founder and first president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, to whom he bequeathed his library. Bowdoin College in Maine was named in his honor after a bequest by his son James III.James T. Cushing
James Thomas Cushing (; 4 February 1937 – 29 March 2002) was an American theoretical physicist and philosopher of science. He was professor of physics as well as professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.Joseph Badger
Joseph Badger (c. 1707–1765) was a portrait artist in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 18th century. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, to tailor Stephen Badger and Mercy Kettell. He "began his career as a house-painter and glazier, and ... throughout his life continued this work, besides painting signs, hatchments and other heraldic devices, in order to eke out a livelihood when orders for portraits slackened." In 1731 he married Katharine Felch; they moved to Boston around 1733. He was a member of the Brattle Street Church. He died in Boston in May, 1765, when "taken with an apoplectic fit as he was walking in his garden, and expired in a few minutes after." Works by Badger are in the collections of the Worcester Art Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, and Historic New England's Phillips House, Salem, Mass.Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts. The constitutional honorific title for the office is His, or Her, Honor.
The Massachusetts Constitution provides that when a governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the office of governor remains vacant for the rest of the 4-year term. The lieutenant governor discharges powers and duties as Acting Governor and does not actually assume the office of governor. The first time this came into use was five years after the constitution's adoption in 1785, when Governor John Hancock resigned his post five months before the election and inauguration of his successor, James Bowdoin, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most recently, Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci.The lieutenant governor serves in place of the governor when he or she is outside the borders of Massachusetts. Historically a one-year term, the office of lieutenant governor now carries a four-year term, the same as that of the governor. The lieutenant governor is not elected independently, but on a ticket with the governor. The 1780 constitution required a candidate for either office to have lived in Massachusetts for at least seven years immediately preceding election, own at least £1,000 worth of real property and to "declare himself to be of the Christian religion". However, only the residency requirement remains in effect, and both men and women have served in the office. Amendment Article LXIV (1918) changed the election from every year to every two years, and Amendment Article LXXXII (1966) changed it again to every four years.
The office is currently held by Karyn Polito, who was inaugurated in January 2015.List of Speakers of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
This is a list of Speakers of the Massachusetts House of Representatives.Louis Plamondon (lawyer)
Louis Plamondon (April 29, 1785 – January 1, 1828) was an author, lawyer, militia officer and office holder in Lower Canada.
Plamondon was born in L'Ancienne-Lorrette in the Province of Quebec. He was taken in charge by a local parish priest at age six, and was taught to read and write. He attended the Petit Séminaire de Québec and planned to enter the priesthood himself, but later chose to become a lawyer. He published a short work entitled Almanach des dames pour l’année 1807, par un jeune Canadien while still a legal scholar, and was licensed as an advocate, barrister, attorney, and solicitor on August 1, 1811. It is estimated that Plamondon earned at least ₤500 per year. He also trained young legal scholars, including Thomas Cushing Aylwin.
Plamondon was a founding member of the Literary Society of Quebec, and served for a time as its secretary. It was in this capacity that he delivered a speech praising King George III of the United Kingdom in 1809. He later served as a militia captain in the War of 1812. He was a founding member of the Quebec Education Society in 1821, and was one of the few francophone members of the Quebec Library.
Plamondon died on January 1, 1828. The Dictionary of Canadian Biography reports that his death was "reputedly from the effects of his excesses as a bon vivant".Massachusetts Convention of Towns
The Massachusetts Convention of Towns (September 22–29, 1768) was an extralegal assembly held in Boston in response to the news that British troops would soon be arriving to crack down on anti-British rioting. Delegates from 96 Massachusetts towns gathered in Faneuil Hall to discuss their options. The more militant faction, led by James Otis Jr., Samuel Adams, and John Hancock, wanted to organize an armed resistance. The more conservative faction, led by convention chairman Thomas Cushing, preferred to lodge a written complaint. The conservatives won out, and the delegates endorsed a series of mild resolutions before disbanding.Salem Gazette
The Salem Gazette is a newspaper that has been published since 1790 through today. It serves the Salem, Massachusetts area. The Salem Gazette used to be known as the Salem Mercury, and briefly The American Eagle. The first issue of the Salem Gazette is technically the only issue of The American Eagle published.Thomas Cushing was the original publisher of the Salem Gazette, however he relinquished the publication to William Carleton on October 14, 1794. The next issue of the Gazette contains a few words from the new publisher, and a special section from Rev. William Bentley, an outspoken columnist known at the time for his eccentric, but unspotted character in writing.
In June, 1796, the Gazette was published as a semi-weekly paper, on Tuesday and Friday.
On July 25, 1797, Thomas Cushing resumed publication of the Gazette, however no reason was given for the change, however since the change William Bentley's columns were never published again, most likely due to political tensions between Cushing and Carleton.
In 1822, Thomas Cushing left the paper due to poor health to Caleb Cushing and Ferdinand Andrews, and died on September 28, 1824 at the age of 60. He was from Hingham, MA.
In 1827, Caleb Cushing left the paper to Ferdinand Andrews alone, until he sold his interest in it to Caleb Foote.In 2006 the Salem Gazette was resurrected under the banner of GateHouse Media, and currently operates as a free weekly newspaper focusing on culture, daily life and human interest in Salem. New editions of the paper are distributed on Fridays. The paper prints approximately 13,000 copies per week. The first editor of the new Salem Gazette was Bill Woolley, followed by Lisa Guerriero, current editor of the Melrose Free Press. Since 2011, the editor of the Salem Gazette has been Sarah Thomas.Thomas Cushing Aylwin
Thomas Cushing Aylwin (January 5, 1806 – October 14, 1871) was a Quebec lawyer, judge and political figure.
He was born in Quebec City in 1806, the grandson of Thomas Aylwin. Aylwin studied at Harvard University, then articled in law and was called to the bar in 1827. He entered the practice of law in partnership with Edward Short. In 1841, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada for Portneuf; he was reelected in 1844 and 1848 for Quebec City. Aylwin served as solicitor general for Canada East from 1842 to 1843, resigning to protest Governor Sir Charles Metcalfe's refusal to consult the Executive Council on patronage appointments, and served again in the same post in 1848. Later in 1848, he resigned his seat to accept an appointment as judge in the Court of Queen’s Bench. Aylwin resigned from the bench in 1868 after suffering a stroke.
He died in Montreal in 1871. Aylwin was buried at Mount Hermon Cemetery in Sillery, on October 17, 1871.
Aylwin Township in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada, was named in his honour in 1858 (but was renamed to Kazabazua in 1976).Thomas Cushing II
Thomas Cushing II (1694 – April 1746) was an American merchant, lawyer and politician who served as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1742 to 1745.William Locker Pickmore Felton
William Locker Pickmore Felton, (April 6, 1812 – November 12, 1877) was a lawyer and political figure in Canada East.
He was born at Mahón, Menorca in 1812, the son of William Bowman Felton, and came to Lower Canada with his family in 1815. They settled near Sherbrooke. Felton studied law at Quebec City with Andrew Stuart and Henry Black, was called to the bar in 1834 and set up practice at Quebec. In 1835, he married Clara, the daughter of Thomas Lloyd, a surgeon in the British army. Felton served as crown attorney for Saint-François district from 1853 to 1861 and was bâtonnier for the district from 1861 to 1875. In 1854, he was named Queen's Counsel. In 1854, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada for the united counties of Sherbrooke and Wolfe as a Liberal-Conservative. He defended the system of separate schools in the province when Joseph Papin proposed a non-denominational school system. His wife Clara helped establish the Collège Mont-Notre-Dame at Sherbrooke.
He died at Sherbrooke in 1877.
His sister Eliza Margaret married Thomas Cushing Aylwin, who also served in the legislative assembly and was later named a judge.