Thomas Brackett Reed

Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902), occasionally ridiculed as Czar Reed, was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and also from 1895–1899. He was a powerful leader of the Republican Party, and during his tenure as Speaker of the House, he served with greater influence than any Speaker who came before, and he forever increased its power and influence for those who succeeded him in the position.

Born in Portland, Maine, Reed established a legal practice in Portland after graduating from Bowdoin College. He won election to both houses of the Maine Legislature and served as the state's attorney general. After a stint as Portland's city solicitor, Reed won election to the United States House of Representatives and served in that chamber from 1877 to 1899.

Reed won election as Speaker of the House in 1889, narrowly defeating fellow Republican Representative William McKinley in the election. He served as Speaker until 1891, when Democrats took control of the House. He regained the position of Speaker in 1895 when Republicans took control of the House. He increased the Speaker's power by instituting the "Reed Rules," which limited the ability of the minority party to prevent the establishment of a quorum. Reed helped pass the Lodge Bill, which sought to protect African American voting rights in the Southern United States, but the bill failed to pass in the Senate and never became law. He opposed the Spanish–American War and resigned from Congress in 1899.

Thomas Brackett Reed
Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy
32nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
In office
December 2, 1895 – March 3, 1899
Preceded byCharles F. Crisp
Succeeded byDavid B. Henderson
In office
December 4, 1889 – March 3, 1891
Preceded byJohn G. Carlisle
Succeeded byCharles F. Crisp
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1877 – September 4, 1899
Preceded byJohn H. Burleigh
Succeeded byAmos L. Allen
Maine Attorney General
In office
1870–1872
Preceded byWilliam P. Frye
Succeeded byHarris M. Plaisted
Member of the Maine Senate
In office
1870
Member of the Maine House of Representatives
In office
1868–1869
Personal details
BornOctober 18, 1839
Portland, Maine
DiedDecember 7, 1902 (aged 63)
Washington, D.C.
Political partyRepublican
Alma materBowdoin College
ProfessionLaw

Personal and political life

Reed was born in Portland, Maine, the son of Matilda Prince (Mitchell) and Thomas B. Reed.[1] Reed attended public school, including Portland High School, before graduating from Bowdoin College in 1860. He studied law. After college, he went on to become an acting assistant paymaster for the United States Navy from April 1864 to November 1865 and was admitted to the bar in 1865. He practiced in Portland and was elected to the Maine House of Representatives in 1868 and 1869. He served in the Maine Senate in 1870 but left to serve as the state's Attorney General from 1870 to 1872.[2] Reed became city solicitor of Portland from 1874 to 1877 before being elected as a Republican to the Forty-fifth and the eleven succeeding Congresses, serving from 1877, to September 4, 1899, when he resigned.[3]

OcrSusan P. Merrill
Susan P. Merrill

He married Susan P. Merrill, born at Center Harbor, on Lake Winnepesaukee, New Hampshire. Her father, the Rev. Samuel H. Merrill, a well-known Congregational clergyman, was pastor of a church in Center Harbor at the time of her birth. Six years afterwards he returned with his family to his native state, Maine. During the Civil War, Merrill served as chaplain of the First Maine Cavalry, and Susan also had a brother in this famous regiment. Merrill's pastorates, aside from his war experiences, were principally in Maine. Susan Merrill's mother was Hannah Prentis, a native of New Hampshire. Merrill had one brother, Edward P. Merrill, and one sister, who resided in Lowell, Massachusetts. Merrill and Reed were friends in childhood, attending school together in Portland. They married in 1871. Reed was then a member of the Maine Legislature, and the young couple went immediately to Augusta, the state capital. They had one daughter, Katherine.[4]

In House

Early service

He was known for his acerbic wit (asked if his party might nominate him for President, he noted, "They could do worse, and they probably will"). His size, standing at over 6 feet in height and weighing over 300 lbs (136 kg), was also a distinguishing factor for him. Reed was a member of the social circle that included intellectuals and politicians Henry Cabot Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Adams, John Hay and Mark Twain.

As a House freshman, Reed was appointed to the Potter Commission, which was to investigate voting irregularities in the presidential election of 1876, where his skill at cross examination forced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden to appear in person to defend his reputation. He chaired the Committee on the Judiciary (Forty-seventh Congress) and chaired the Rules Committee (Fifty-first, Fifty-fourth, and Fifty-fifth Congresses).

As Speaker

Reed was first elected Speaker after an intense fight with William McKinley of Ohio. Reed gained the support of young Theodore Roosevelt; his influence as the newly appointed Civil Service Commissioner was the decisive factor. Reed served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1889 to 1891 and then from 1895 to 1899, as well as being Chairman of the powerful Rules Committee.

Rules

During his time as Speaker, Reed assiduously and dramatically increased the power of the Speaker over the House; although the power of the Speaker had always waxed (most notably during Henry Clay's tenure) and waned, the position had previously commanded influence rather than outright power. Reed set out to put into practical effect his dictum, "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." That was accomplished by carefully studying the existing procedures of the US House, most dating to the original designs, written by Thomas Jefferson. In particular, Reed sought to circumscribe the ability of the minority party to block business by way of its members refusing to answer a quorum call, which, under the rules, prevented a member from being counted as present even if they were physically in the chamber, thus forcing the House to suspend business. That is popularly called the disappearing quorum.

Reed's solution was enacted on January 28, 1890 in what has popularly been called the "Battle of the Reed Rules".[5] That came about when Democrats attempted to block the inclusion of a newly elected Republican from West Virginia, Charles Brooks Smith.[6] The motion to seat him passed by a tally of 162–1; however, at the time, a quorum consisted of 165 votes, and when voting closed Democrats shouted, "No quorum," triggering a formal House quorum count. Reed began the roll call; when members who were present in the chamber refused to answer, Reed directed the Clerk to count them as present anyway.[7] Startled Democrats protested heatedly, issuing screams, threats, and insults at the Speaker. James B. McCreary, a Democrat from Kentucky, challenged Reed's authority to count him as present; Reed replied, "The Chair is making a statement of fact that the gentleman from Kentucky is present. Does he deny it?"[7]

Thomas Brackett Reed by John Singer Sargent
Portrait of Speaker Reed by John Singer Sargent, Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Unable to deny their presence in the chamber, Democrats then tried to flee the chamber or hide under their desks, but Reed ordered the doors locked. (Texas Representative Constantine B. Kilgore was able to flee by kicking his way through a door.)[8]

The conflict over parliamentary procedure lasted three days, with Democrats delaying consideration of the bill by introducing points of order to challenge the maneuver and then appealing Reed's rulings to the floor. Democrats finally dropped their objections on January 31, and Smith was seated on February 3 by a vote of 166–0. Six days later, with Smith seated, Reed won a vote on his new "Reed Rules," eliminating the disappearing quorum and lowering the quorum to 100 members. Though Democrats reinstated the disappearing quorum when they took control of the House the following year, Reed as minority leader proved so adroit at using the tactic against them that Democrats reinstated Reed Rules in 1894.[9]

Civil rights

In 1889 and 1890, Republicans undertook one last stand in favor of federal enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment to protect the voting rights of blacks in the Solid South. Reed took a special interest in the project. Using his new rules vigorously, he won passage of the Lodge Bill in the House in 1890. The bill was later defeated in a filibuster in the Senate when Silver Republicans in the West traded it away for the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.[10]

End of political career and death

Reed sought the Republican nomination for President in 1896, but Mark Hanna secured the nomination for Ohio Governor William McKinley.

In 1898, Reed joined McKinley in efforts to head off war with Spain. When McKinley switched to supporting the war, Reed, refusing to change his position, opposed him and then resigned from both the speakership and his seat in Congress in 1899, returning to private law practice.[11]

In early December 1902, Reed was in Washington on legal business with the United States Supreme Court. On December 2, Reed visited his former colleagues in the Ways and Means Committee room. Later that day, he became ill while in another room of the Capitol and was rushed to the nearby Arlington Hotel. In the Arlington, Reed was diagnosed with Bright's disease complicated by appendicitis; he died five days later at 12:10am on December 7 with his wife and daughter at his bedside. A Gridiron Club dinner was occurring at the same time in the same hotel as Reed's death. When news broke of Reed's passing, "the diners rose to drink a silent toast to a man who had so often been among them".[12]

Henry Cabot Lodge eulogized him as "a good hater, who detested shams, humbugs and pretense above all else." Mark Twain wrote of him, "He was transparently honest and honorable, there was no furtiveness about him, and whoever came to know him trusted him and was not disappointed. He was wise, he was shrewd and alert, he was a clear and capable thinker, a logical reasoner, and a strong and convincing speaker."[13]

He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Portland, Maine. His will was executed by his good friend, the financier Augustus G. Paine, Sr..[14] He left his family an estate of $200,000.[15]

His daughter, Katherine Reed Balentine, started a monthly magazine in San Francisco called The Yellow Ribbon, which promoted women's suffrage.[16]

Landmarks

Western Prom and Brackett Reed Statue
Statue of Reed on Portland, Maine's Western Promenade in September 2011

There is a Reed House at Bowdoin College.[17]

His home town of Portland, Maine, erected a statue of him at the corner of Western Promenade and Pine Street[18] in a ceremony on August 31, 1910.[19] His last home in Portland has been designated a National Historic Landmark in his honor.

In 1894, he published his handbook on parliamentary procedure, titled Reed's Rules: A Manual of General Parliamentary Law, which was, at the time, a very popular text on the subject and is still in use in the legislature of the State of Washington.

Biographies

Biographies of the life of Thomas Brackett Reed have been written by Samuel McCall (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914), William A. Robinson (Dodd, Mead & Company, 1930), and Richard Stanley Offenberg (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1963). Most recently, finance writer James Grant wrote the biography entitled, Mr. Speaker! The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed: the Man who Broke the Filibuster.[20] One chapter of Barbara Tuchman's The Proud Tower is substantially devoted to Reed.

References

  1. ^ "GENEALOGICAL AND FAMILY HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MAINE". dunhamwilcox.net.
  2. ^ Chase, Henry (1893), Representative Men of Maine: A Collection of Portraits with Biographical Sketches of Residents of the State, Who Have Achieved Success And are Prominent in the Commercial, Industrial, Professional and Political Life, To which is Added the Portraits and Sketches of All the Governors Since the Formation of the State, Portland, Maine: Lakeside Press, p. 11.
  3. ^ Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1924) ch 1–3
  4. ^ Hinman, Ida (1895). The Washington Sketch Book. HardPress Publishing. ISBN 978-1313841986. (reproduction from January 28, 2013)
  5. ^ Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1914) pp 152–72; among scholars in parliamentary law, the battle is quoted by G. Buonomo (2001). "La questione del quorum muto nella prassi parlamentare italiana e comparata". Rassegna parlamentare (in Italian) (2 ed.)..
  6. ^ Price, Douglas H. "The Congressional Career—Then and Now," in Nelson Polsby, ed., Congressional Behavior (New York: Random House, 1971), p. 19.
  7. ^ a b Representative Thomas B. Reed, remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 61, Jan. 29, 1890, p. 948.
  8. ^ Roger Place Butterfield, The American Past (1966) p. 254
  9. ^ House Document No. 108-204: The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership
  10. ^ Wendy Hazard, "Thomas Brackett Reed, Civil Rights, and the Fight for Fair Elections," Maine History, March 2004, Vol. 42 Issue 1, pp 1–23
  11. ^ Samuel W. McCall, Thomas B. Reed (1914) pp 231–39
  12. ^ Grant, James (2012-05-15). Mr. Speaker!: The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed - The Man Who Broke the Filibuster. Simon and Schuster. p. 373. ISBN 9781416544944. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  13. ^ Twain, Mark (December 20, 1902). "Thomas Brackett Reed". Harper's Weekly: 1979. via: Charles Neider, ed. (1963). The Complete Essays of Mark Twain. New Jersey: Doubleday. pp. 311–312. and "Tribute to Thomas Brackett Reed by Mark Twain". Thomas Brackett Reed. Robert Klotz, University of Southern Maine. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  14. ^ "Obituary Augustus G. Paine". New York Times. March 27, 1915. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
  15. ^ "Reed's Estate Trebles". Sacramento Union (Volume 112, Number 59). 22 October 1906. p. 2. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  16. ^ Grant, James (2012-05-15). Mr. Speaker!: The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed - The Man Who Broke the Filibuster. Simon and Schuster. p. 374. ISBN 9781416544944. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Reed House". Reed House formerly Alpha Eta of Chi Psi was dedicated on September 28, 2007 in memory of Thomas Brackett Reed (1839–1902)
  18. ^ Robert Klotz. "Portland Locations with National Political Significance". Portland Political Trail. Accessed April 21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2009-04-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Anon. Exercises at the Unveiling of the Statue of Thomas Brackett Reed, at Portland, Maine, August Thirty-First, Nineteen Hundred and Ten. Read Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4086-6921-1.
  20. ^ Grant, James (2011). Mr. Speaker!. Simon & Schuster.

Bibliography

  • Hazard, Wendy. "Thomas Brackett Reed, Civil Rights, and the Fight for Fair Elections," Maine History, March 2004, Vol. 42 Issue 1, pp 1–23
  • McCall, Samuel W. (1914). The Life of Thomas Brackett Reed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  • Strahan, Randall (2007). Leading Representatives: The Agency of Leaders in the Politics of the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8691-0.
  • Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1996). The proud tower: a portrait of the world before the war, 1890–1914. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-40501-2.
  • Thomas, Evan. The War Lovers, Little, Brown and Co, 2010

Primary sources

  • Roosevelt, Theodore; Reed, Thomas B. "'Dear Tom,' 'Dear Theodore': The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas B. Reed," edited by R. Hal Williams, Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal, July 1994, Vol. 20 Issue 3/4, pp3–22, 20p. 23 letters from 1888–1902 discuss the Republican Party and its leaders, foreign policy, the gold and silver issues, New York State politics, and TR's activity as police commissioner of New York City.

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
William P. Frye
Maine Attorney General
1870–1872
Succeeded by
Harris M. Plaisted
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
John H. Burleigh
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 1st congressional district

March 4, 1877 – September 4, 1899
Succeeded by
Amos L. Allen
Political offices
Preceded by
John G. Carlisle
Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
December 2, 1889 – March 4, 1891
Succeeded by
Charles F. Crisp
Preceded by
Charles F. Crisp
Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
December 2, 1895 – March 4, 1897;
March 15, 1897 – March 4, 1899
Succeeded by
David B. Henderson
1896 Republican National Convention

The 1896 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in a temporary structure south of the St. Louis City Hall in Saint Louis, Missouri, from June 16 to June 18, 1896.

Former Governor William McKinley of Ohio was nominated on the first ballot with 661½ votes to 84½ for House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine, 61½ votes for Senator Matthew S. Quay of Pennsylvania, 58 votes for Governor Levi P. Morton of New York who was Vice President (1889–1893) under President Benjamin Harrison. New Jersey banker Garret A. Hobart was nominated for Vice President over Henry Clay Evans of Tennessee. Joseph B. Foraker of Ohio placed McKinley's name in nomination.

The convention was originally slated for the St. Louis Exposition and Music Hall. However it was determined that repairs and upgrading the Hall could not be done in time and so a temporary wood convention hall was built in 60 days at a cost of $60,000 on the lawn south of City Hall which was under construction. At the conclusion of the convention, both the temporary building as well as the original Exposition Hall were torn down and a new Coliseum was built.

The 1896 Convention was held in St. Louis less than a month after the infamous 1896 tornado that devastated a large swath of the city and killed at least 255 people. There was speculation that it might be unfeasible to hold the convention in the city, but, after a concerted cleanup effort was undertaken, the convention went ahead as planned.

Arlington Hotel (Washington, D.C.)

The Arlington Hotel was a hotel in Washington, D.C. which stood from 1868 to 1912. It was considered the most opulent hotel in the District of Columbia during the post-Civil War era, a "distinctive but low-keyed example of the Second Empire style." It was built in 1868 and expanded in 1889. It was the Washington residence of many Senators and Congressmen, including three-term speaker Thomas Brackett Reed. Reed died in the Arlington Hotel in December 1902 of Bright's disease.The Arlington Hotel was also a resting place for international notables such as Albert I of Belgium, Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia and Pedro II of Brazil as well as industrialists and financial magnates Andrew Carnegie and J. P. Morgan.In 1899, The Successful American magazine recognized the Arlington Hotel as "one of the foremost hotels of the country" and that the hotel had "sheltered every preeminent American for years and has been the temporary home of every potentate..." visiting Washington, D.C. in the era.The Hotel was demolished in 1912 in order to build a larger hotel. However, financing fell through for the new building and the land was sold to the U.S. government in 1918, which built what became the offices of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

Burr Churchill Miller

Burr Churchill Miller (September 16, 1870 - January 14, 1925), known professionally as Burr C. Miller, was an American sculptor remembered for his memorial statues of General Nicholas Herkimer in Herkimer, New York and Thomas Brackett Reed in Portland, Maine. He was born in Herkimer, New York, the son of Senator Warner Miller, died in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, and is buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery in Herkimer. Miller was a student of Paul Wayland Bartlett and won an Honorable Mention in the Paris Salon of 1907.

Charles A. Boutelle

Charles Addison Boutelle (February 9, 1839 – May 21, 1901) was an American seaman, shipmaster, naval officer, Civil War veteran, newspaper editor, publisher, conservative Republican politician, and nine-term Representative to the U.S. Congress from the 4th Congressional District of Maine. He remains the second longest-serving U.S. Representative from Maine, the first being his colleague Thomas Brackett Reed.

Constantine B. Kilgore

Constantine Buckley Kilgore (February 20, 1835 – September 23, 1897) was a U.S. Representative from Texas.

Born in Newnan, Georgia, Kilgore moved with his parents to Rusk County, Texas, in 1846.

He received a common-school and academic training.

He studied law.

During the Civil War Kilgore entered the Confederate States Army as a private and by 1862 had attained the rank of adjutant general of Ector's brigade, Army of the Tennessee.

He was admitted to the bar and practiced in Rusk County, Texas.

Kilgore was elected Justice of the Peace in 1869.

He served as a member of the State constitutional convention in 1875.

Kilgore was elected to the State senate in 1884 for a term of four years.

He was chosen president of that body in 1885 for two years.

He resigned from the State senate in 1886, having been elected to Congress.

Kilgore was elected as a Democrat to the Fiftieth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1895). At one point he kicked his way through a locked door of the House of Representatives in order to escape a quorum call (see Thomas Brackett Reed#Rules for context).

He was appointed by President Cleveland United States judge for the southern district of Indian Territory March 20, 1895, and served until his death in Ardmore, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), September 23, 1897.

He was interred in White Rose Cemetery, Wills Point, Texas.

Dean of the United States House of Representatives

The Dean of the United States House of Representatives is the longest continuously serving member of the House. The current Dean is Don Young, a Republican Party representative from Alaska who has served since 1973, and is the first Republican Dean in more than eighty years, as well as the first from Alaska. The Dean is a symbolic post whose only customary duty is to swear in a Speaker of the House after he or she is elected. (This responsibility was first recorded in 1819 but has not been observed continuously - at times, the Speaker-elect was the current Dean or the Speaker-elect preferred to be sworn in by a member of his own party when the Dean belonged to another party.) The Dean comes forward on the House Floor to administer the oath to the Speaker-elect, before the new Speaker then administers the oath to the other members.While the Dean does swear in newly elected Speakers, he or she does not preside over the election of a Speaker, as do the Father of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom and the Dean of the Canadian House of Commons.

Because of other privileges associated with seniority, the Dean is usually allotted some of the most desirable office space, and is generally either chair or ranking minority member of an influential committee.

It is unclear when the position first achieved concrete recognition, though the seniority system and increasing lengths of service emerged in the early 20th century. As late as 1924, Frederick H. Gillett was Dean, and also Speaker, before becoming a Senator. Modern Deans move into their positions so late in their careers that a move to the Senate is highly unlikely. When Ed Markey broke Gillett's record for time in the House before moving to the Senate in 2013 he was still decades junior to the sitting Dean.

The Deanship can change hands unexpectedly. In the 1952 election, Adolph J. Sabath became the first Representative elected to a 24th term, breaking the record of 23 terms first set by former Speaker Joseph Gurney Cannon, whose service had been discontinuous, whereas Sabath's was not. North Carolina's Robert L. Doughton had not contested that election as he was retiring at the age of 89 years and two months, a House age record broken in 1998 by Sidney R. Yates, and again by Ralph Hall in 2012. Claude Pepper, who died early in his final term in 1989, held the record for oldest winner of a House election until Hall broke it in 2012. However, Sabath died before the new term began and Doughton was Dean for the old term's final months before Speaker Sam Rayburn became Dean in the new Congress.

In 1994, Texas Democrat Jack Brooks was defeated by Steve Stockman in the year he was expected to succeed Jamie Whitten as Dean.

Deering Street Historic District

The Deering Street Historic District is a historic district in the Downtown and Parkside neighborhoods of Portland, Maine. Encompassing all of Deering Street and much of State Street, as well as adjacent portions of Congress and Mellen Streets, it is a cohesive collection of high quality architect-designed buildings from the second half of the 19th century, that were originally predominantly residential in nature. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.

List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution. The Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, after the vice president and ahead of the president pro tempore of the United States Senate.

Unlike some Westminster system parliaments, in which the office of speaker is considered non-partisan, in the United States, the Speaker of the House is a leadership position and the office-holder actively works to set the majority party's legislative agenda. The speaker is traditionally the majority party's leader in the chamber, although unlike other House leadership, there is no constitutional requirement that the speaker be an elected member of the House (every speaker to date has been an elected member of the House). The speaker usually does not personally preside over debates, instead delegating the duty to members of the House from the majority party. The speaker usually does not participate in debate and rarely votes. Aside from duties relating to heading the House and the majority political party, the speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and represents his or her Congressional district.

In the modern era, the speaker is elected at the beginning of each new Congress by a majority vote of the House membership from among candidates separately chosen by the conference of each party in the House. Members may vote for one of the nominated candidates (or for another individual). Members predominantly vote for the candidate nominated by their own party conferences, as the outcome of the election effectively determines which party has the majority and consequently will organize the House. In cases where a vacancy in the speakership arises during a Congress a new speaker is elected by a majority vote of the House from candidates previously chosen by the majority and minority parties. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of all the votes cast for individuals (i.e. the number needed to win might be less than a majority of the full membership of the House due to vacancies, absentees, or members present but not voting). If no candidate wins such a majority, then the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. There have been 14 instances of Speaker elections requiring multiple ballots.In most recent election for Speaker of the House, held January 3, 2019, the first day of the 116th Congress, members elected Nancy Pelosi to the office. Pelosi, who previously led the House from January 2007 to January 2011, is the only female to have served as speaker, and also the highest-ranking elected woman in American political history.Since the office was created in 1789, 54 individuals, from 23 of the 50 states, have served as Speaker of the House. The number from each state are:

One: Alabama, California, Connecticut, Iowa, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Washington, and Wisconsin;

Two: Maine, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina;

Three: Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas;

Four: Kentucky and Virginia;

Eight: Massachusetts.One speaker, James K. Polk, subsequently served as President of the United States, and two, Schuyler Colfax and John Nance Garner, later became vice president. The longest serving speaker was Sam Rayburn – 17 years, 53 days. Elected 10 times, he led the House: September 1940 to January 1947; January 1949 to January 1953; and January 1955 to November 1961. Tip O'Neill had the longest uninterrupted tenure as speaker – 9 years, 350 days. Elected five times, he led the House from January 1977 to January 1987. Theodore M. Pomeroy had the shortest tenure; elected speaker on March 3, 1869, he served one day.

Lodge Bill

The Lodge Bill or Federal Elections Bill or Lodge Force Bill of 1890 was a bill drafted by Representative Henry Cabot Lodge (R) of Massachusetts, and sponsored in the Senate by George Frisbie Hoar; it was endorsed by President Benjamin Harrison. The bill would have authorized the federal government to ensure that elections were fair. In particular, it would have allowed federal circuit courts (after being petitioned by a small number of citizens from any precinct) to appoint federal supervisors of congressional elections. Said supervisors would have many duties, including: attending elections, inspecting registration lists, verifying doubtful voter information, administering oaths to challenged voters, stopping illegal aliens from voting, and certifying the vote count.The bill was created primarily to enforce the ability of blacks, predominantly Republican at the time, to vote in the South, as provided for in the constitution. The Fifteenth Amendment already formally guaranteed that right, but white southern Democrats had passed laws related to voter registration and electoral requirements, such as requiring payment of poll taxes and literacy tests (often waived if the prospective voter's grandfather had been a registered voter, the "grandfather clause"), that effectively prevented blacks from voting. That year Mississippi passed a new constitution that disfranchised most blacks, and other states would soon follow the "Mississippi plan".

After passing the House by just six votes, the Lodge bill was successfully filibustered in the Senate, with little action by the President of the Senate, Vice President Levi P. Morton, because Silver Republicans in the West traded it away for Southern support of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and Northern Republicans traded it away for Southern support of the McKinley Tariff.Julius Caesar Chappelle (1852–1904) was among the earliest black Republican legislators in the United States, representing Boston and serving from 1883–1886. In 1890, Chappelle gave a political speech for the right of blacks to vote at an "enthusiastic" meeting at Boston's Faneuil Hall to support the federal elections bill. He was featured in a front page article in The New York Age newspaper covering his support of the Lodge bill. (The Republican Party had been founded by abolitionists and other slavery opponents called Free Soilers, explaining why black voters were overwhelmingly Republican in this era.)

Maine's 1st congressional district

Maine's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Maine. The geographically smaller of the two congressional districts in the state, the district covers the southern coastal area of the state. The district consists of all of Cumberland, Knox, Lincoln, Sagadahoc and York counties and most of Kennebec County. Located within the district are the cities of Portland, Augusta, Brunswick and Saco.

The district is currently represented by Democrat Chellie Pingree.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Portland, Maine

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Portland, Maine.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Portland, Cumberland County, Maine, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in an online map.There are 233 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Cumberland County, including 11 National Historic Landmarks. 142 of these properties and districts, including 4 National Historic Landmarks, are located outside of Portland, and are listed separately, while the 91 properties and districts in Portland are listed here. Two properties in Portland were once listed but have been removed.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 8, 2019.

Reed House

Reed House may refer to:

in the United States(by state then city)

William Reed House, Birmingham, Alabama, listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in Birmingham

Will Reed Farm House, Alleene, Arkansas, NRHP-listed in Little River County

Reed House (Leipsic, Delaware), NRHP-listed in Kent County

Jehu Reed House, Little Heaven, Delaware, NRHP-listed in Kent County

Mrs. Kersey Coates Reed House, Lake Forest, Illinois, NRHP-listed in Lake County

Reed-Dossey House, Brownsville, Kentucky, NRHP-listed in Edmonson County

Frederick Reed House, Falmouth, Kentucky, NRHP-listed in Pendleton County

Newdigate-Reed House, Maysville, Kentucky, NRHP-listed in Mason County

Reed Farmstead Log Dependencies, Husser, Louisiana, NRHP-listed in Tangipahoa Parish

G. W. Reed Travellers Home, Benton, Maine, NRHP-listed in Kennebec County

Philo Reed House, Fort Fairfield, Maine, NRHP-listed in Aroostook County

Thomas Brackett Reed House, Portland, Maine, NRHP-listed in Cumberland County

Robert Reed House, Woolrich, Maine, NRHP-listed in Sagadahoc County

Col. Isaac G. Reed House, Waldoboro, Maine, NRHP-listed in Lincoln County

Reed's Creek Farm, Centreville, Maryland, NRHP-listed in Queen Anne's County

Fowle-Reed-Wyman House, Arlington, Massachusetts, NRHP-listed in Middlesex County

Reed-Wood Place, Littleton, Massachusetts, NRHP-listed in Middlesex County

Reed and Barton Complex, Taunton, Massachusetts, NRHP-listed in Bristol County

Frank Reed Three-Decker, Worcester, Massachusetts, NRHP-listed in Worcester County

Timothy Reed House, Quincy, Massachusetts, NRHP-listed in Norfolk County

Pleasant Reed House, Biloxi, Mississippi, NRHP-listed in Harrison County

Reed Log House, Eminence, Missouri, NRHP-listed in Shannon County

Wilber T. Reed House, Auburn, Nebraska, NRHP-listed in Nemaha County

Mary Reed House, Omaha, Nebraska, listed as an Omaha Landmark

Isaac Reed House, Newport, New Hampshire, NRHP-listed in Sullivan County

Samuel Harrison Reed House, Asheville, North Carolina, NRHP-listed in Buncombe County

James Reed House, Fredericktown, Ohio, NRHP-listed in Knox County

Henry Reed, Jr., House, Maumee, Ohio, NRHP-listed in Lucas County

C.A. Reed House, Ravenna, Ohio, NRHP-listed in Portage County

Reed-Wells House, Portland, Oregon, NRHP-listed in Multnomah County

Rosamond Coursen and Walter R. Reed House, Portland, Oregon, NRHP-listed in Multnomah County

Samuel G. Reed House, Portland, Oregon, NRHP-listed in Multnomah County

Charles Manning Reed Mansion, Erie, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed in Erie County

Reed House, now called Davis Memorial Hall at Washington & Jefferson College, in Washington, Pennsylvania

Brame-Reed House, Shelbyville, Tennessee, NRHP-listed in Bedford County

Thomas B. Reed House, Houston, Texas, NRHP-listed in Harris County

Walter Reed Birthplace, Belroi, Virginia, NRHP-listed in Gloucester County

Senator Reed

Senator Reed may refer to:

Members of the United States Senate:

Philip Reed (1760–1829), Democratic-Republican Senator from Maryland from 1806 to 1813

Thomas Buck Reed (1787–1829), Jacksonian Senator from Mississippi from 1826 to 1827 and again in 1829

James A. Reed (1861–1944), Democratic Senator from Missouri from 1911 to 1929

Clyde M. Reed (1871–1949), Republican Senator from Kansas from 1939 to 1949

David A. Reed (1880–1953), Republican Senator from Pennsylvania from 1922 to 1935

Jack Reed (politician) (born 1949), Democratic Senator from Rhode Island since 1997Members of state senates in the United States:

Levi Reed (1814–1869), member of the Massachusetts Senate from 1860 to 1861

Joseph Rea Reed (1835–1925), member of the Iowa Senate in 1866 and 1868

Thomas Brackett Reed (1839–1902), Republican member of the Maine Senate in 1870

John H. Reed (1921–2012), Republican member of the Maine Senate in the 1950s

Greg Reed (born 1965), Republican member of the Alabama Senate since 2010

Kasim Reed (born 1969), Democratic member of the Georgia Senate from 2003 to 2009

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution. The Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker usually does not personally preside over debates. That duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker regularly participate in floor debates.

The Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi previously served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011. She has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, and is also the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955.

The Congress (1988 film)

The Congress is a 1988 documentary film directed by the Emmy Award-winning director Ken Burns. The Florentine Films production, which focuses on the United States Congress, aired on PBS in 1989. Narrated by David McCullough, the documentary features use of photographs, paintings, and film from sessions of Congress, in its implementation of the Ken Burns Effect. Scenes from the Academy Award-winning Frank Capra film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington are also used. The work features numerous interviews from writers and historians including Charles McDowell, David McCullough, Cokie Roberts, George Tames, David Broder, James MacGregor Burns, Barbara Fields, and Alistair Cooke. Many congressmen are specifically referred to, including Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Jefferson Davis, Thomas Brackett Reed, Joseph Gurney Cannon, George William Norris, Jeannette Rankin, and Everett Dirksen. The film also includes focus on the Congress' work during pivotal periods in United States history, including the Civil War, Civil Rights Movement, and Women's suffrage. The documentary was released by PBS, on DVD in 2004. Footage of the Capitol from the film was later incorporated into Burns' later masterpiece, The Civil War.

Thomas Brackett Reed House

The Thomas Brackett Reed House is a historic brick duplex house at 30–32 Deering Street in Portland, Maine. Built in 1876, the house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1975 for its association with Thomas Brackett Reed (1839–1902), Speaker of the House of Representatives (1889–1891 and 1895–1899). Reed owned and occupied number 32 from 1888 until his death in 1902. He was notable for significantly increasing the power of the House Speaker, introducing a set of rules known as the Reed Rules that still govern debate in that body today.

Thomas Reed

Thomas Reed may refer to:

Thomas Buck Reed (1787–1829), senator from Mississippi

Thomas Reed (British Army officer) (1796–1883), British general

Thomas German Reed (1817–1888), English actor, composer, and theatrical manager

Thomas Reed (architect) (1817–1878), Danish architect

Thomas Brackett Reed (1839–1902), Speaker of the House of Representatives from Maine

Tom Reed (screenwriter) (1901–1961), American screenwriter

Tom Reed (bishop) (1902–1995), Anglican Archbishop of Adelaide

Thomas C. Reed (born 1934), American Secretary of the Air Force and nuclear weapons designer

Tom Reed (American football) (born 1945), American football coach

Tom Reed (politician) (born 1971), representative for the state of New York

Tom Reed (judoka) (born 1986), British judoka

Timeline of Portland, Maine

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Portland, Maine, USA.

Western Promenade

The Western Promenade is a historic promenade, an 18.1-acre (7.3 ha) public park and recreation area in the West End neighborhood of Portland, Maine. Developed between 1836 and the early 20th century, it is one Portland's oldest preserved spaces, with landscaping by the Olmsted Brothers, who included it in their master plan for the city's parks. The promenade was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

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