Thomas A. Bailey

Thomas Andrew Bailey (December 14, 1902 – July 26, 1983) was a professor of history at his alma mater, Stanford University, and authored many historical monographs on diplomatic history, including the widely used American history textbook, The American Pageant.[2] He was known for his witty style and clever terms he coined, such as "international gangsterism." He popularized diplomatic history with his entertaining textbooks and lectures, the presentation style of which followed Ephraim Douglass Adams.[3] Bailey contended foreign policy was significantly affected by public opinion, and that current policymakers could learn from history.

Thomas A. Bailey
Thomas Andrew Bailey

December 14, 1902
DiedJuly 26, 1983 (aged 80)
Scientific career
Doctoral advisorEdgar Eugene Robinson
Other academic advisorsHerbert E. Bolton[1]
Doctoral studentsRaymond G. O'Connor, Betty Miller Unterberger, Alexander DeConde


Bailey received his B.A. (1924), M.A. (1925), and Ph.D (1927) from Stanford University, where he was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa. His doctoral work was in U.S. political history. He switched his emphasis towards diplomatic history while teaching at the University of Hawaii.[4] After three years at Hawaii, he taught American history for nearly 40 years at Stanford and also served as a visiting professor at Harvard, Cornell, the University of Washington, and the National War College in Washington, D.C. He retired in 1968.

Bailey authored a number of articles in the 1930s that indicated the historical techniques he would use throughout his career. While not groundbreaking, they remain noteworthy for the care with which Bailey systematically overturned received myths about U.S. diplomatic history by a careful reexamination of the underlying sources.[5] His first book was a study of the diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan during the Theodore Roosevelt administration over racial issues.[6] He delivered the Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History at Johns Hopkins on the Wilson administration's policy towards neutrals in 1917-1918, later published in 1942.[7] While the theme of the impact of public opinion on the making of foreign policy was a theme through most of his works, he laid it out most clearly in The Man in the Street, published in 1948.

Perhaps the harshest attack on Wilson's to diplomacy came from Bailey in two books that remain widely cited by scholars, Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace (1944) and Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (1945), Bailey:

contended that Wilson's wartime isolationism, as well as his peace proposals at war's end, were seriously flawed. Highlighting the fact that American delegates encountered staunch opposition to Wilson's proposed League of Nations, Bailey concluded that the president and his diplomatic staff essentially sold out, compromising important American ideals to secure mere fragments of Wilson's progressive vision. Hence, while Bailey primarily targeted President Wilson in these critiques, others, including House, did not emerge unscathed.[8]

He trained more than 20 doctoral students in his career.[9] One of Bailey's students from the 1940s, Betty Miller Unterberger, was elected president of the SHAFR in 1986, the first woman in the position at a time when the organization was 99 percent male. It was Bailey who introduced Unterberger to the subject of one of her prime interests, the Russian Civil War between 1918 and 1920.[10]

He was married to Sylvia Dean, daughter of a former University of Hawaii president.

Honors and awards

In 1960 he served as president of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association. In 1968, he was elected to the presidencies of both the Organization of American Historians and the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. The Commonwealth Club awarded him gold medals in 1940 for his Diplomatic History of the American People and 1944 for his Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace.[11]


  • Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese-American Crisis: An Account of the International Complications Arising from the Race Problems on the Pacific Coast (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1934).
  • The American Pageant (1956) (16 editions by 2015)
  • "The Sinking of the Lusitania." The American Historical Review, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Oct., 1935), pp. 54–73 in JSTOR
  • A Diplomatic History of the American People (1940, and reprinted through 10th edition in 1980)
  • The Policy of the United States Toward the Neutrals, 1917-1918 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1942)
  • The Man in the Street: The Impact of American Public Opinion on Foreign Policy (New York, 1948)
  • Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace (New York, 1944)
  • Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (New York, 1945) online free
  • Wilson and the Peacemakers (New York, 1947) [This single volume combined the two earlier Wilson volumes into one]
  • America Faces Russia: Russian-American Relations from Early Times to Our Day (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1950)
  • The Lusitania Disaster (1975) co-authored with Captain Paul B. Ryan
  • The American Pageant Revisited (1982) the autobiography of Thomas A. Bailey
  • Presidential Greatness (1966)
  • The Pugnacious Presidents (1980)


  1. ^ Lester D. Langley, "The Diplomatic Historians: Bailey and Bemis," The History Teacher, Vol. 6, No. 1 (November 1972): 52.
  2. ^ Archived 2015-06-15 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ DeConde, Alexander, "Thomas A. Bailey: Teacher, Scholar, Popularizer," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (May 1987): 166
  4. ^ DeConde, "Thomas A. Bailey," 174.
  5. ^ Langley, "The Diplomatic Historians," p. 52-54.
  6. ^ Bailey, Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese-American Crisis: An Account of the International Complications Arising from the Race Problems on the Pacific Coast (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1934).
  7. ^ Bailey, The Policy of the United States Toward the Neutrals, 1917-1918 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1942)
  8. ^ Scot D. Bruce, "Woodrow Wilson's House: The Hidden Hand of Wilsonian Progressivism" Reviews in American History 45#4 (2017) pp 623-24.
  9. ^ Alexander DeConde, "Thomas A. Bailey: Teacher, Scholar, Popularizer," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (May 1987): 161-193.
  10. ^ "Lee W. Formwalt, "From Scotland to India: A Conversation with American Historian Betty Unterberger." August 2005". Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  11. ^ "California Book Awards - Commonwealth Club".

Further reading

  • O'Connor, Raymond G., "Thomas A. Bailey: His Impact," Diplomatic History 1985 9(4): 303-309.
  • Langley, Lester D., "The Diplomatic Historians: Bailey and Bemis," The History Teacher, Vol. 6, No. 1 (November 1972): 51-70.
  • DeConde, Alexander, "Thomas A. Bailey: Teacher, Scholar, Popularizer," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (May 1987): 161-193.
  • DeConde, Alexander and Armin Rappaport, eds., Essays Diplomatic and Undiplomatic of Thomas A. Bailey (New York, 1969). This is the festschrift.

External links

Quotations related to Thomas A. Bailey at Wikiquote

Alabama Claims

The Alabama Claims were a series of demands for damages sought by the government of the United States from the United Kingdom in 1869, for the attacks upon Union merchant ships by Confederate Navy commerce raiders built in British shipyards during the American Civil War. The claims focused chiefly on the most famous of these raiders, the CSS Alabama, which took more than sixty prizes before she was sunk off the French coast in 1864.

After international arbitration endorsed the American position in 1872, Britain settled the matter by paying the United States $15.5 million, ending the dispute and leading to a treaty that restored friendly relations between Britain and the United States. That international arbitration established a precedent, and the case aroused interest in codifying public international law.

Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History

The Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History are annual lectures delivered at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The lectures were named after the benefactor, Albert Shaw of New York City who had received his Ph.D from Johns Hopkins University in history and who was editor of The American Review of Reviews. Shaw lecturers over the years have included the following:

1899: John H. Latané

1900: James Morton Callahan

1906: Jesse Siddall Reeves

1907: Elbert Jay Benton

1909: Ephraim Douglass Adams

1911: Charles O. Paullin

1912: Isaac Joslin Cox

1913: William R. Manning

1914: Frank A. Updyke

1916: Payson Jackson Treat

1921: Percy Alvin Martin

1924: Henry Merritt Wriston

1926: Samuel Flagg Bemis

1927: Bruce Williams

1928: J. Fred Rippy

1929: Joseph Byrne Lockey

1930: Víctor Andrés Belaúnde

1931: Charles C. Tansill


1933: Charles Seymour


1935: Frank A. Simonds

1936: Julius W. Pratt

1937: Dexter Perkins


1939: Albert K. Weinberg


1941: Thomas A. Bailey

1942: Wilfred H. Callcott




1946: Malbone Watson Graham







1953: Howard K. Beale

1954: Max Beloff


1956: Arthur S. Link


1958: Gordon A. Craig



1961: Herbert George Nicholas

1968: Robert A. Divine

1979: Bradford Perkins









1988: Akira Iriye

1998: Charles E. Neu, Brian Balogh, George C. Herring, Robert K. Brigham, and Robert S. McNamara

Alexander DeConde

Alexander DeConde (born November 13, 1920 in Utica, New York, died May 28, 2016 in Goleta, California) was a historian of United States diplomatic history. Raised in California, he attended San Francisco State College for his B.A. Following graduation in 1943, he attended the U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen School in Chicago, IL. He was assigned to the destroyer tender U.S.S. Whitney (AD-4), and was released from service in 1946. He received his M.A. and Ph.D from Stanford University, where we worked under the direction of Thomas A. Bailey. He taught at Stanford, Whittier College, and Duke University. From 1957 to 1961, he was professor of history at the University of Michigan. He subsequently joined the history department at the University of California at Santa Barbara, where he remained until his retirement in 1991. He helped to establish the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations together with Joseph P. O'Grady of LaSalle College (Philadelphia) and David M. Pletcher of Indiana University. DeConde served as the Society’s second president and remained actively involved in the organization for the rest of his career. He also held elected and committee roles in the Organization of American History, and served as vice president and president of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association.

Arsène Pujo

Arsène Paulin Pujo (December 16, 1861 – December 31, 1939), was a member of the United States House of Representatives best known for chairing the "Pujo Committee", which sought to expose an anticompetitive conspiracy among some of the nation's most powerful financial interests (trusts).

Big Stick ideology

Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy: "speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far." Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as "the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis."The idea is negotiating peacefully but also having strength in case things go wrong. Simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military, ties in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies a pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals. It is comparable to gunboat diplomacy, as used in international politics by imperial powers.

David M. Kennedy (historian)

David Michael Kennedy (born July 22, 1941 in Seattle, Washington) is an American historian specializing in American history. He is the Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History Emeritus at Stanford University and the former Director of the Bill Lane Center for the American West. Professor Kennedy's scholarship is notable for its integration of economic analysis and cultural analysis with social history and political history.

Kennedy is responsible for the recent editions of the popular history textbook The American Pageant. He is also the current editor (since 1999) of the Oxford History of the United States series. This position was held previously by C. Vann Woodward. Earlier in his career, Kennedy won the Bancroft Prize for his first book Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger (1970), and was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for his book World War I, Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1980). He was the Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Professor of American History in 1995-6. He won the 2000 Pulitzer Prize for History for Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (1999).

Declaration by United Nations

Declaration by United Nations was the main treaty that formalized the Allies of World War II; the declaration was signed by 47 national governments between 1942 and 1945. The original signatories on 1–2 January 1942, at the Arcadia Conference in Washington, D.C. On New Year's Day 1942, the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China) signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures.The twenty-two other original signatories in the next day (2 January 1942) were: the four Dominions of the British Commonwealth (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa); eight European governments-in-exile (Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia); nine countries in The Americas (Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama); and one non-independent government, the British-appointed Government of India.

Declaration by United Nations became the basis of the United Nations (UN), which was formalized in the United Nations Charter signed by 50 countries on 26 June 1945.

Dollar diplomacy

Not to be confused with Checkbook diplomacy.

Dollar diplomacy of the United States—particularly during President William Howard Taft's term— was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Historian Thomas A. Bailey argues that dollar diplomacy was nothing new, as the use of diplomacy to promote commercial interest dates from the early years of the Republic. However, under Taft, the State Department was more active than ever in encouraging and supporting American bankers and industrialists in securing new opportunities abroad. Bailey finds that dollar diplomacy was designed to make both people in foreign lands and the American investors prosper. The term was originally coined by previous President Theodore Roosevelt, who did not want to intervene between Taft and Taft's secretary of state.

The concept is relevant to both Liberia, where American loans were given in 1913, and Latin America. Latin Americans tend to use the term "dollar diplomacy" disparagingly to show their disapproval of the role that the U.S. government and U.S. corporations have played in using economic, diplomatic and military power to open up foreign markets,

Ephraim Douglass Adams

Ephraim Douglass Adams (December 18, 1865 in Decorah, Iowa – September 1, 1930 in Stanford, California) was an American educator and historian, regarded as an expert on the American Civil War and British-American relations. He was known as a great teacher, with the ability to inspire teachers and researchers, and his presentation style was copied by Stanford historian Thomas A. Bailey.

Born in Iowa in 1865, he graduated from the University of Michigan in 1887, earning a Ph.D. in 1890. In the same year he was appointed special agent in charge of street railways for the 11th (1890 U.S. Census). His earlier work was done at the University of Kansas, where he became assistant professor (1891) and associate professor (1894) of history and sociology, and in 1899 professor of European history. In 1902 he was made associate professor of history in Leland Stanford Junior University, and in 1906, full professor of history at Stanford University. His work is widely cited.

He is best known for The Power of Ideals in American History (1913).

Knickerbocker Group

The Knickerbocker Group was a somewhat indistinct group" of writers, notably Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant, who were American pioneers in the literary fields of general literature, novels, and poetry and journalism, respectively. Other talented poets, playwrights, writers, novelists, journalists, and editors joined this writer's club, dubbed the "Knickerbocker Group" after Irving's Knickerbocker's History of New York and pen name, "Diedrich Knickerbocker".

Other members of this group included James Kirke Paulding, Fitz-Greene Halleck, Joseph Rodman Drake, Robert Charles Sands, Lydia Maria Child, Gulian Crommelin Verplanck, and Nathaniel Parker Willis. Many were frequent contributors to the literary magazine The Knickerbocker under editor Lewis Gaylord Clark.

This group's characteristic was to write in a sophisticated way about heroic or epic stories. They used parody, satire and loved beauty of landscapes which inspired them. The Knickerbocker Group lived in New-York City.

Organization of American Historians

The Organization of American Historians (OAH), formerly known as the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, is the largest professional society dedicated to the teaching and study of American history. OAH's members in the U.S. and abroad include college and university professors; historians, students; precollegiate teachers; archivists, museum curators, and other public historians; and a variety of scholars employed in government and the private sector. The OAH publishes the Journal of American History. Among its various programs, OAH conducts an annual meeting each spring, and has a robust roster on its OAH Distinguished Lecturership Program.The organization's mission is to promote excellence in the scholarship, teaching, and presentation of American history, and encourage wide discussion of historical questions and equitable treatment of all practitioners of history. Membership is open to all who wish to support its mission.

In 2010 its individual membership is approximately 8,000 and its institutional membership approximately 1,250. For its 2009 fiscal year ending June 30, 2009, the organization's operating budget was approximately $2.9 million.

Red Scare

A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism. The term is most often used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States with this name. The First Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War I, revolved around a perceived threat from the American labor movement, anarchist revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War II, was preoccupied with the perception of national or foreign communists infiltrating or subverting U.S. society or the federal government.

Republic of Hawaii

The Republic of Hawaiʻi was the formal name of the nation of Hawaiʻi between July 4, 1894, when the Provisional Government of Hawaii ended, and August 12, 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory of the United States. The Territory of Hawaii was formally established as part of the U.S. on June 14, 1900.

The Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown in 1893 in a mostly bloodless revolt against Queen Liliʻuokalani who rejected the constitution then in effect put there by popular force, commonly called the Bayonet Constitution. American officials immediately recognized the new government and U.S. Marines were sent by the US Ambassador to aid in the overthrow. The Queen's supporters charged the Marines' presence frightened the Queen and thus enabled the revolution. The new Republic of Hawaii was led by men of European ancestry, like Sanford B. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston, who were native-born subjects of the Hawaiian kingdom and speakers of the Hawaiian language, but had strong financial, political, and family ties to the United States. Dole was a former member of the Kingdom legislature from Koloa, Kauai, and Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court, and he appointed Thurston—who had served as Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua—to lead a lobbying effort in Washington, D.C., to secure Hawaii's annexation by the United States.

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U.S. territories. The party originally subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; under his leadership and the leadership of a Republican Congress, slavery was banned in the United States in 1865. The Party was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, and the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right.The liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic. White voters increasingly identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism. The Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North.The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing. The GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative.

Rowley, Massachusetts

Rowley is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 5,856 at the 2010 census.Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Rowley.

Spain and the American Revolutionary War

Spain's role in the independence of the United States was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Spain declared war on Britain as an ally of France, itself an ally of the American colonies, and provided supplies and munitions to the American forces.

Beginning in 1776, it jointly funded Roderigue Hortalez and Company, a trading company that provided critical military supplies. Spain also provided financing for the final Siege of Yorktown in 1781 with a collection of gold and silver in Havana, Cuba. Spain was allied with France through the Bourbon Family Compact and also viewed the Revolution as an opportunity to weaken its enemy Great Britain, which had caused Spain substantial losses during the Seven Years' War. As the newly appointed Prime Minister, José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca, wrote in March 1777, "the fate of the colonies interests us very much, and we shall do for them everything that circumstances permit".

The American Pageant

The American Pageant, initially published by Thomas A. Bailey in 1956, is an American high school history textbook often used for AP United States History, AICE American History as well as IB History of the Americas courses. Since Bailey's death in 1983, the book has been updated by historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen, and it is now in its sixteenth edition.

Thomas Bailey

Thomas Bailey or Tom Bailey may refer to:

Tom Bailey (U.S. politician), Libertarian Party member from North Carolina

Thomas A. Bailey (1902–1983), historian and textbook author

Thomas Bailey (priest) (died 1657), 17th century religious controversialist

Thomas Bailey (topographer) (1785–1856), topographer and writer

Thomas H. Bailey, founder of mutual fund Janus

Thomas Jennings Bailey (1867–1963), U.S. federal judge

Thomas L. Bailey (1888–1946), American politician, Governor of Mississippi, 1944–1946

Thomas P. Bailey (1867–1949), American educator

Tom Bailey (American football) (1949–2005), American football player

Tom Bailey (author) (born 1961), American author and editor

Tom Bailey (baseball) (born 1992), Australian baseball player

Tom Bailey (cricketer) (born 1991), cricketer

Tom Bailey (EastEnders), character in EastEnders

Tom Bailey (footballer) (born 1888), footballer who played for Lincoln City and Stoke

Tom Bailey (musician) (born 1956), English musician

Tom Bailey (singer), English singer and producer

Thomas Bailey, the father of Will Bailey, character on U.S. TV series The West Wing

Treaty of Paris (1898)

The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino: Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898; Spanish: Tratado de París (1898)) was a treaty signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, that ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The Treaty of Paris came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged.The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Spanish Empire (apart from some small holdings in Northern Africa as well as several islands and territories around the Gulf of Guinea, also in Africa). It marked the beginning of the age of the United States as a world power. Many supporters of the war opposed the treaty, and it became one of the major issues in the election of 1900 when it was opposed by Democrat William Jennings Bryan because he opposed imperialism. Republican President William McKinley upheld the treaty and was easily reelected.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.