Third Position

Third Position is an ideology that was developed in the 20th century by political parties including Terza Posizione in Italy and Troisième Voie in France. It emphasizes opposition to both communism and capitalism. Advocates of Third Position politics typically present themselves as "beyond left and right" while syncretizing ideas from each end of the political spectrum, usually reactionary right-wing cultural views and radical left-wing economic views.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

History

The term "Third Position" was coined in Europe and the main precursors of Third Position politics were National Bolshevism (a synthesis of far-right Russian ultranationalism and far-left Bolshevik Communist socialism) and Strasserism (a radical, mass-action, worker-based, socialist form of Nazism, advocated by the "left-wing" of the Nazi Party by brothers Otto and Gregor Strasser, until it was crushed in the Night of the Long Knives in 1934). Neo-fascist, Neo-Nazi author Francis Parker Yockey had proposed an alliance between communists and fascists called Red-Brown Alliance (Red being the color of communism and Brown being the color of Nazism) which would have been anti-Semitic, anti-American, and anti-Zionist in nature. Yockey lent support to Third World liberation movements as well.

Argentina

At the peak of the Cold War, the former Argentine President Juan Perón (1946–1955; 1973–1974) defined the international position of his doctrine (Peronism) as a Third Position between capitalism and communism, a stance which became a precedent of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Until we proclaimed our doctrine, in front of us, capitalist individualism and communist collectivism rose triumphal, the shadow of their imperial wings extending in every path open to mankind… This way, Justicialism was born, under the supreme aspiration of a high ideal. The Justicialism, created by us and for our descendants, as a third ideological position aimed to liberate us from capitalism without making us fall into the oppressing claws of collectivism.

— Juan Domingo Peron addressing the Congress in 1952.[8]

France

During the 1930s and 1940s, a number of splinter groups from the radical left became associated with radical nationalism. Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party (from the French Communist Party) and Marcel Déat's National Popular Rally (from the French Section of the Workers' International). Third Position ideology gained some support in France, where in 1985 Jean-Gilles Malliarakis set up a "Third Way" political party, Troisième Voie (TV). Considering its main enemies to be the United States, communism and Zionism, the group advocated radical paths to national revolution. Associated for a time with the Groupe Union Défense, TV was generally on poor terms with Front National until 1991, when Malliarakis decided to approach them. As a result, TV fell apart and a radical splinter group under Christian Bouchet, Nouvelle Résistance, adopted National Bolshevik and then Eurasianist views.

Italy

In Italy, the Third Position was developed by Roberto Fiore, along with Gabriele Adinolfi and Peppe Dimitri, in the tradition of Italian neo-fascism. Third Position's ideology is characterized by a militarist formulation, a palingenetic ultranationalism looking favourably to national liberation movements, support for racial separatism and the adherence to a soldier lifestyle. In order to construct a cultural background for the ideology, Fiore looked to the ruralism of Julius Evola and sought to combine it with the desire for a cultural-spiritual revolution. He adopted some of the positions of the contemporary far-right, notably the ethnopluralism of Alain de Benoist and the Europe-wide appeal associated with such views as the Europe a Nation campaign of Oswald Mosley (amongst others). Fiore was one of the founders of the Terza Posizione movement in 1978. Third Position ideas are now represented in Italy by Forza Nuova, led by Fiore; and by the movement CasaPound, a network of far-right social centres.

United Kingdom

International Third Position (ITP) was a neo-fascist organisation formed by the breakaway faction of the British National Front,[9] led by Roberto Fiore, an ex-member of the Italian far-right movement Third Position.[10]

United States

In the United States, Political Research Associates argues that Third Position politics has been promoted by some white nationalist and neo-Nazi groups such as the National Alliance, American Front, Traditionalist Worker Party, and White Aryan Resistance, as well as some religious nationalist groups, such as the Nation of Islam, since the late 20th century.[1] In 2010, the American Third Position Party (later renamed American Freedom Party) was founded in part to channel the right-wing populist resentment engendered by the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and the policies of the Obama administration.[11]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Berlet, Chip (20 December 1990). "Right Woos Left: Populist Party, LaRouchite, and Other Neo-fascist Overtures To Progressives, And Why They Must Be Rejected". Political Research Associates. Retrieved 2010-02-01. revised 4/15/1994, 3 corrections 1999
  2. ^ Griffin, Roger (1995). Fascism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289249-5.
  3. ^ Coogan, Kevin (1999). Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International. Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-039-2.
  4. ^ Lee, Martin A. (1999). The Beast Reawakens: Fascism's Resurgence from Hitler's Spymasters to Today's Neo-Nazi Groups and Right-Wing Extremists. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92546-0.
  5. ^ Griffin, Roger (July 2000). "Interregnum or Endgame? Radical Right Thought in the 'Post-fascist' Era". Journal of Political Ideologies. 5 (2): 163–78. doi:10.1080/713682938. Retrieved 2010-12-27.
  6. ^ Antonio, Robert J. (2000). "After Postmodernism: Reactionary Tribalism". American Journal of Sociology. 106 (1): 40–87. doi:10.1086/303111. JSTOR 3081280.
  7. ^ Sunshine, Spencer (Winter 2008). "Rebranding Fascism: National-Anarchists". Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  8. ^ "Discurso de Juan D. Perón sobre «tercera posición»" Argentina Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Technology
  9. ^ Macrory, Patrick F. J.; Appleton, Arthur Edmond & Plummer, Michael G. (2005). The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis. Springer. p. 467. ISBN 0-387-22685-0.
  10. ^ Ryan, Nick (2004). Into a World of Hate: A Journey Among the Extreme Right. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 0-415-94922-X.
  11. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center (Spring 2010). "Prof Has New Job Running Racist Political Party: Academic Anti-Semitism". Retrieved 2010-04-28.

Bibliography

  • Cheles, L.; Ferguson, R.; and Vaughan, M. (1992) Neo-Fascism in Europe. London: Longman.
  • Cingolani, Giorgio (1996) La destra in armi. Editori Riuniti. (in Italian).
  • Copsey, N. (2004) Contemporary British Fascism: The British National Party and the Quest for Legitimacy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Flamini, Gianni (1989) L’ombra della piramide. Teti. (in Italian).
  • International Third Position (1997) The Third Position Handbook. London: Third Position.

External links

American Freedom Party

The American Freedom Party (formerly the American Third Position Party or A3P) is a Third Position American political party that promotes white nationalism. In November 2009 it filed papers to get on a ballot in California, and was launched in January 2010. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, it was created to channel the right-wing populist resentment engendered by the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and the policies of the Obama administration.

Black Front

The Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (German: Kampfgemeinschaft Revolutionärer Nationalsozialisten, KGRNS), more commonly known as the Black Front (German: Schwarze Front), was a political group formed by Otto Strasser after his expulsion from the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in 1930.Strasser believed the original anti-capitalist nature of the NSDAP had been betrayed by Adolf Hitler. The Black Front was composed of former radical members of the NSDAP, who intended to cause a split in the main party. Strasser's organisation published a newspaper, The German Revolution. The Black Front adopted the crossed hammer and sword symbol which is still used by several Strasserite groupings today.

The organisation was unable to oppose the NSDAP effectively and Hitler’s rise to power proved to be the final straw. Strasser spent the years of the Third Reich in exile, first in Czechoslovakia and later in Canada. The social fascist wing of the NSDAP itself was eradicated in 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives in which Gregor Strasser, Otto's elder brother, was killed.

German Social Union (West Germany)

For the East German opposition group see German Social Union (East Germany)German Social Union (German: Deutsch-Soziale Union) was a Neo-Nazi political party founded in Germany in 1956 by Otto Strasser. It was dissolved in 1962.

International Third Position

For another party by the name "England First", see England First Party.International Third Position (ITP) was a neo-fascist organisation formed by the breakaway faction of the British National Front, led by Roberto Fiore, an ex-member of the Italian far-right movement Third Position.

Justicialist Party

The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, IPA: [paɾˈtiðo xustisjaˈlista]), or PJ, is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement.It is currently the main opposition party. Former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner have been elected from this party. Justicialists have been the largest party in the Congress covering nearly the entire period since 1987.

The Justicialist Party is the largest party in the Congress; however, this does not reflect the divisions within the party over the role of Kirchnerism, the left-wing populist faction of the party, which is opposed by the dissident Peronists, the right-wing conservative faction of the party.

Michael Kühnen

Michael Kühnen (21 June 1955 – 25 April 1991) was a leader in the German neo-Nazi movement. He was one of the first post-World War II Germans to openly embrace Nazism and call for the formation of a Fourth Reich. He enacted a policy of setting up several differently named groups in an effort to confuse German authorities, who were attempting to shut down neo-Nazi groups. Kühnen's homosexuality was made public in 1986, and he died of HIV-related complications in 1991.

National-anarchism

National-anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist and anti-statist ideology. National-anarchists advocate a post-capitalist stateless society in which communities of different ethnic or racial groups would be free to develop separately in their own autonomous tribal communes. These national autonomous zones would be directly democratic, mutualistic and self-sufficient.

The term national-anarchism dates back as far as the 1920s. The few scholars who have studied national-anarchism conclude that it represents a further evolution in the thinking of the radical right rather than an entirely new dimension. National-anarchism has elicited skepticism and outright hostility from both left- and right-wing critics. Some accuse national-anarchists of being white nationalists who promote ethnic and racial separatism while others argue they want the militant chic of calling themselves anarchists without the historical and philosophical baggage that accompanies such a claim.The National-Anarchist Movement was propounded since the late 1990s by Troy Southgate.

National Revival of Poland

National Rebirth of Poland (Polish: Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski), abbreviated to NOP, is an ultranationalist national-revolutionary far-right/Third Positionist political party in Poland registered by the District Court in Warsaw and National Electoral Commission. As of the 2015 election, the party had no seats in the Polish parliament. It was a member of the European National Front.

National syndicalism

National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism. National syndicalism developed in France, and then spread to Italy, Spain, Portugal ,Romania and Japan.

New Triumph Party

Partido Nuevo Triunfo (New Triumph Party) was a small far-right political party in Argentina banned on 17 March 2009 by ruling of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice.

Official National Front

The Official National Front (ONF) was one of two far-right groups to emerge in the United Kingdom in 1986 following a split within the National Front. Following ideological paths that were mostly new to the Far right in the United Kingdom, the ONF stood opposed to the more traditionalist Flag Group.

Peronism

Peronism (Spanish: peronismo) or Justicialism (justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón.

The Peronist Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista) derives its name from the concept of social justice (Spanish: justicia social).

Since its inception in 1946, Peronist candidates have won nine of the 12 presidential elections from which they have not been banned. As of 2018, Juan Domingo Perón was the only Argentine to have been elected president three times.

Political Soldier

Political Soldier is a political concept associated with the Third Position. It played a leading role in Britain's National Front from the late 1970s onwards under young radicals Nick Griffin, Patrick Harrington and Derek Holland of the Official National Front. The term was used to indicate an almost fanatical devotion to the cause of nationalism, which its supporters felt was needed to bring about a revolutionary change in society.

A faction within the National Front called for the building of a fresh ethos within society and for the emergence of a new man, to be known as the Political Soldier, who would reject materialism and devote himself to the nationalist struggle with religious zeal. Basing their ideas on those of Julius Evola, an Italian philosopher who sought the creation of a new elite to combat the decadence of modern bourgeois society, Political Soldiers rejected traditional British nationalism in favour of a European outlook and a racialist equality of separate races.

Rights and Equality Party

The Rights and Equality Party (Turkish: Hak ve Eşitlik Partisi, HEPAR) is a political party in Turkey, founded on 4 September 2008 by Osman Pamukoğlu, a former army general known for his military successes against the Kurdistan Workers' Party in the 1990s during the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.The party's main manifest is the setting sovereignty, own based economical development and peace for Turkish citizens. The party has 8,273 members as of 2014.The party claims their ideology as being neither on the right nor left, above all with populist, nationalist aiming social justice for Turkish citizens. The party chairman Osman Pamukoğlu often mentions Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's quote as "Our target is being a merged society with no classes and privileges."The party has gained 121,814 votes during the 2011 elections, comprising 0.28% of the votes.

Socialist Reich Party

The Socialist Reich Party (German: Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands) was a West German Strasserist political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly neo-Nazi oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP). The SRP was the first party to be banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952.

Strasserism

Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.

Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.

Third (curling)

In curling, a third (alternatively, vice, vice-skip or mate) is the team member who delivers the second-to-last pair of a team's stones in an end. The third is in charge of calling, strategy and directing the sweepers when the skip is delivering their stones, but sweeps for the lead and second. The vices of each team are responsible for determining and recording the score after each end, and in most clubs, will determine by lot which team begins a game with the hammer and what colour stones each team will use. The third position requires a curler adept at executing shots with a high degree of accuracy, especially draws and other finesse shots, as the third needs to set up the house for the skip's stones.

Troy Southgate

Troy Southgate (born 22 July 1965) is a British far-right political activist and a self-described national-anarchist. He has been affiliated with far-right and fascist groups, such as National Front and International Third Position, and is the founder and editor-in-chief of Black Front Press. Southgate's movement has been described as working to "exploit a burgeoning counter culture of industrial heavy metal music, paganism, esotericism, occultism and Satanism that, it believes, holds the key to the spiritual reinvigoration of western society ready for an essentially Evolian revolt against the culturally and racially enervating forces of American global capitalism."

Tsagaan Khas

Tsagaan Khas (Mongolian: Цагаан Хас; meaning white swastika) or Dayar Mongol is a Mongolian nationalist organisation that claims to have 3,000 members, though other sources claim the organisation to have "more than 1000 members". It was founded by Ariunbold Altankhuum. Its co-founder, who goes by the alias "1984 Big Brother", has described his group's mission thus: "Adolf Hitler was someone we respect. He taught us how to preserve national identity .... We don't agree with his extremism and starting the Second World War. We are against all those killings, but we support his ideology. We support nationalism rather than fascism." The group's members dress in typical Nazi attire and make use of the "sieg heil" greeting, Nazi colors, and the Nazi eagle. They have justified their use of Nazi imagery by pointing out that the swastika has Asian origins.1984 Big Brother has claimed that the group does not promote crime and that it expels "criminal elements" from its membership, as well as requiring all members to have a good education. One of the group's leaders is an interior designer. He has also claimed that the group works closely with other ultra-nationalist groups in the Republic of Mongolia.The group's members are characterized by their extreme anti-Chinese sentiment and opposition to interracial marriage. One follower of the group has expressed the view that, "We have to make sure that as a nation our blood is pure. That's about our independence... If we start mixing with Chinese, they will slowly swallow us up. Mongolian society is not very rich. Foreigners come with a lot of money and might start taking our women." The group has been accused of promoting violence against interracial couples and others.

In 2013, they tried to shift their focus to fighting pollution in Mongolian mines.

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