Third Cinema

Third Cinema (Spanish: Tercer Cine) is a Latin American film movement that started in the 1960s–70s which decries neocolonialism, the capitalist system, and the Hollywood model of cinema as mere entertainment to make money. The term was coined in the manifesto Hacia un tercer cine (Toward a Third Cinema), written in the late 1960s by Argentine filmmakers Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino, members of the Grupo Cine Liberación and published in 1969 in the cinema journal Tricontinental by the OSPAAAL (Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America[1]).

Definition

Solanas and Getino's manifesto considers 'First Cinema' to be the Hollywood production model that idealizes bourgeois values to a passive audience through escapist spectacle and individual characters. 'Second Cinema' is the European art film, which rejects Hollywood conventions but is centred on the individual expression of the auteur director. Third Cinema is meant to be non-commercialized, challenging Hollywood's model. Third Cinema rejects the view of cinema as a vehicle for personal expression, seeing the director instead as part of a collective; it appeals to the masses by presenting the truth and inspiring revolutionary activism. Solanas and Getino argue that traditional exhibition models also need to be avoided: the films should be screened clandestinely, both in order to avoid censorship and commercial networks, but also so that the viewer must take a risk to see them.[2]

There are still some difficulties to clearly define what is considered "First Cinema" versus "Third Cinema". For example, Bollywood, one of the largest centres of film production in the world, can be viewed as resistance against "First Cinema" due to political, cultural and aesthetic differences, but at the same time it can also be said that Bollywood is a popular commercialized industry[3]

Manifestos

There are four manifestos accredited to beginning the genre of Third Cinema: Glauber Rocha’s “Aesthetic of Hunger” (1965), Julio García Espinosa’s “For an Imperfect Cinema” (1969), “Problems of Form and Content in Revolutionary Cinema” (1976) by Jorge Sanjinés, and finally “Toward a Third Cinema” (1969) by Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino.[4] Although all four define the broad and far reaching genre, Solanas and Getino’s “Toward a Third Cinema” is well known for its political stance and outline of the genre.[5]

"Toward a Third Cinema"

Explaining the neo-colonialist dilemma and the need for “a cinema of subversion” or “a revolutionary cinema”, “Toward a Third Cinema” begins by explaining the dilemma that the anti-imperialist film-maker is left with a paradoxical need to survive within as well as subvert “the System”.

“Third cinema is, in our opinion, the cinema that recognizes in that struggle the most gigantic cultural, scientific, and artistic manifestation of our time, the great possibility of constructing a liberated personality with each people as the starting point – in a word, the decolonization of culture.”[6]

Solanas and Getino define the problem with 'the System' (the political and cultural authorities in place) as being one that reduces film to a commodity that exists to fill the needs of the film industry that creates them—mainly in the United States. This “spectator cinema” continues a lack of awareness within the masses of a difference between class interests or “that of the rulers and that of the nation”.[6] To the authors, films of 'the System' do not function to change or move the culture forward; they function to maintain it.

Availability of technology

Vallejo, peron, solanas, getino
(from left) filmmakers Gerardo Vallejo and Fernando Solanas, former president of Argentina, Juan Domingo Perón, and filmmaker Octavio Getino in 1971.

With the advancement of technology in film in the late 1960s (simplification of cameras and tape recorders, rapid film that can be shot in normal light, automatic light meters, improved audio/visual synchronization), Solanas and Getino argue that an alternative cinema is finally possible. The authors cite the Imperfect Cinema movement in Cuba, Cinegiornali liberi in Italy, Zengakuren documentaries in Japan as proof that it is already happening.

Urging the need to further politicize and experiment with the format of film—mainly the documentary—Solanas and Getino illustrate the somewhat obscure and non-universal steps that must be taken to make “revolutionary cinema”:

“Real alternatives differing from those offered by the System are only possible if one of two requirements is fulfilled: making films that the System cannot assimilate and which are foreign to its needs, or making films that directly and explicitly set out to fight the System.”[6]

The "guerilla-film-unit"

Paradoxically, Solanas and Getino continue to state that it is not enough to simply rebel against 'the System'. The manifesto uses Jean-Luc Godard and the French New Wave throughout as a formidable example of a group which failed to properly to subvert 'the System'. Referring to it as “second cinema” or “author's cinema”, the problem begins with the genre's attempt to exist parallel, be distributed by, and funded by 'the System'. Solanas and Getino quote Godard's self-description as being 'trapped inside the fortress'[6] and refer to the metaphor throughout the manifesto.

Because of this paradox of subversion but need for distinctions between commodified rebellion and “the cinema of revolution”, Solanas and Getino recognize that film-makers must function like a guerilla unit, one that “cannot grow strong without military structures and command concepts.”[6] The authors also recognize that the difficulties encountered by those attempting to make revolutionary cinema will stem mainly from its need to work as a synchronized unit. Claiming that the only solution to these difficulties is common awareness of the basics of interpersonal relationships, Solanas and Getino go further to state that “The myth of the irreplaceable technicians must be exploded.”[6]

The guerilla-film unit requires that all members have general knowledge of the equipment being used and caution that any failure in a production will be ten-fold that of a first cinema production. This condition—based on the fact that monetary support will be slim and come mainly from the group itself—also requires that members of the guerilla-film unit be wary and maintain an amount of silence not custom to conventional film-making.

“The success of the work depends [on]…permanent wariness, a condition that is difficult to achieve in a situation in which apparently nothing is happening and the film-maker has been accustomed to telling all…because the bourgeoisie has trained him precisely on such a basis of prestige and promotion.”[6]

Distribution and Showing

The manifesto concludes with an explanation for how to best distribute third cinema films. Using their own experience with La Hora de los Hornos (The Hour of the Furnaces), Solanas and Getino share that the most intellectually profitable showings were followed by group discussions. The following elements (Solanas and Getino even refer to them as mise en scène) that “reinforce the themes of the films, the climate of the showing, the ‘disinhibiting’ of the participants, and the dialogue”:[6]

  • Art pieces such as recorded music, poetry, sculpture, paintings, and posters
  • A program director to chair the debate and present the film
  • Refreshments such as wine or yerba mate

When distributed correctly, third cinema films will result in the audience members becoming what Solanas and Getino refer to as “man-actor-accomplices”[6] as they become crucial to the film achieving its goal to transform society. It is only when the “man-actor-accomplice” responds to the film that third cinema becomes effective.

“Freeing a forbidden truth means setting free the possibility of indignation and subversion. Our truth, that of the new man who builds himself by getting rid of all the defects that still weigh him down, is a bomb of inexhaustible power and, at the same time, the only real possibility of life.”[6]

History

Third Cinema manifestos and theories evolved in the 1960s and 1970s as a response to the social, political, and economic realities in Latin American countries which were experiencing oppression from perceived Neo-colonial policies. In their manifesto, Solana and Getino describe Third Cinema as a cinematic movement and a dramatic alternative to First Cinema, which was produced in Hollywood, for the purpose of entertaining its audiences; and from Second Cinema that increased the author’s liberty of expression. Fundamentally different, Third Cinema films sought to inspire revolution against class, racial and gender inequalities. Spectators were called upon to reflect on social injustices and the process by which their realities occurred, and to take action to transform their conditions. Even though Third Cinema films arose during revolutionary eras in Latin America and other countries, this filmmaking is still influential today. This style of filmmaking includes a radical form of production, distribution and exhibition that seeks to expose the living conditions of people at the grassroots level.[7]

Purpose and Goals of Third Cinema Third Cinema seeks to expose the process by which oppression occurs; and to criticize those responsible for social inequality in a country or community. Some of the goals of Third Cinema are:

  • Raise political consciousness in the viewer/spectator
  • Expose historical, social, political and/or economic policies that have led to exploitive conditions for the nation
  • Engage spectators in reflection which will inspire them to take revolutionary action and improve their conditions
  • Create films that express the experiences of the masses of a particular region
  • Produce and distribute films that are uncensored by oppressive entities

Production Due to their political nature, Third Cinema films were often censored and therefore, the production and distribution of these films were innovative. Films used documentary clips, news reels, photographs, video clips, interviews and/or statistics and in some cases, non-professional actors. These production elements are combined in an inventive manner to create a message that is specific to its local audience. The staff in production share all aspects of the production process by working collectively. In Third Cinema, for example, a Director can be the Cameraman, the Photographer or the Writer at different phases of the production. Since Third Cinema films were highly politicized, they often lacked the funding and support needed for production or distribution and instead sought funding outside government agencies or traditional financing opportunities available to commercial films. Other unique aspects of Third Cinema film production is the use of their local natural landscape for film shootings often in parts of the country not previously seen. This unique feature was augmented by highlighting the local history and culture of its nation.[8]

Women in Third Cinema

Third Cinema’s critique and resistance of Hollywood’s imperialist “spectator” cinema also opened for differing representations of women in film. While feminist film movements in the United States in the 1970s critiqued the eurocentric and heteronormative sexism within the First-World, the intersection of heterosexism with racism and imperialism seemed to get little attention from mainstream film journals.[9] Because of the reluctance of First-World feminists to acknowledge the importance of nationalism and geographic identity within differing struggles of women, the films made by the women of Third Cinema were usually seen as “burdened” from the Western feminist perspective by these identities.

“Notions of nation and race, along with community-based work, are implicitly dismissed as both too “specific” to qualify for the theoretical realm of “feminist theory” and as too “inclusive” in their concern for nation and race that they presumably “lose sight” of feminism.”[9]

Along with the advancement and availability of technology, and the revolutionary tactics proposed by Third Cinema, third-worldist feminist film-makers began to tell their own stories. Because the genre proposed a non-homogeneous approach to cinema (one which allowed variation from region to region and intersection between fiction and documentary), differing stories of “womanhood” and women’s position within revolutions could be told. Lebanese film director Heiny Srour commented in one interview:

“Those of us from the Third World have to reject the ideas of film narration based on the 19th century bourgeois novel with its commitment to harmony. Our societies have been too lacerated and fractured by colonial powers to fit into those neat scenarios.”[10]

Notable films include Sarah Maldoror’s Sambizanga (Mozambique, 1972) which takes place in Angola where a woman awakens to “revolutionary consciousness” to the struggle of the ruling party the MPLA. In Heiny Srour’s documentary Saat al Tahrir (The Hour of Liberation) (Oman, 1973) followed women fighters during the revolution in Oman. Srour’s 1984 film Leila wal dhiab (Leila and the Wolves) (Lebanon) followed the role of women in the Palestine Liberation Movement. Helena Solberg Ladd’s Nicaragua Up From the Ashes (U.S. 1982) documents the role of women in the Sandinista revolution. Sara Gomez’s De cierta manera (One Way or Another) epitomizes Third Cinema’s involvement in the intersection of fiction and documentary as it gives a feminist critique of the Cuban revolution.[9]

Third Cinema film-makers by Country

This is an incomplete list and still does not reflect the number of film-makers that have contributed to Third Cinema.

Country Name Affiliated with

Argentina

Fernando Solanas Grupo Cine Liberación
Octavio Getino Grupo Cine Liberación
Raymundo Gleyzer Cine de la Base

Brazil

Glauber Rocha Cinema Nôvo
Rogerio Sganzerla
the Brazilian Modernists
Nelson Pereira Dos Santos

Bolivia

Jorge Sanjinés

Colombia

Luis Ospina
Carlos Mayolo

Cuba

Julio García Espinosa Cuban revolutionary cinema
Tomás Gutiérrez Alea
Sara Gomez
Haiti Raoul Peck

Lebanon

Heiny Srour

Mauritania

Med Hondo

Mexico

Paul Leduc

Mozambique

Sarah Maldoror

Nicaragua

Helena Solberg Ladd

Pakistan

Jamil Dehlavi

Philippines

Kidlat Tahimik

Senegal

Djibril Diop Mambéty

Third Cinema Films

See also

Further reading

  • Wayne, Mike Political Film:The Dialectics of Third Cinema. Pluto Press, 2001.
  • Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino, "Towards a Third Cinema" in: Movies and Methods. An Anthology, edited by Bill Nichols, Berkeley: University of California Press 1976, pp 44–64
  • All Third Cinema manifestos collected and translated into English in this book: New Latin American Cinema Vol. 1

References

  1. ^ Octavio Getino. "Some notes on the concept of a 'Third Cinema'", in Martin, Michael T. New Latin American Cinema vol. 1. Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1997.] (in English)
  2. ^ David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film History: An Introduction, 2nd edtn. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), 545.
  3. ^ Tyrell, Heather. 2012. "Bollywood versus Hollywood: Battle of the Dream Factories". In The Globalization Reader, edited by Frank Lechner and John Boli. Fourth Edition ed., 372-378. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  4. ^ Stam, Robert (2003). "Beyond Third Cinema: The Aesthetics of Hybridity". In Gunerante, Anthony R.; Dissanayake, Wimal (eds.). Rethinking Third Cinema. London: Routledge. pp. 31–48.
  5. ^ Guneratne, Anthony R. (2003). "Introduction: Rethinking Third Cinema". In Guneratne, Anthony R.; Dissanayake, Wimal (eds.). Rethinking Third Cinema. London: Routledge. pp. 1–28.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Getino, Octavio; Solanas, Fernando (1969). "Hacia un Tercer Cine (Toward a Third Cinema)" (PDF). Tricontinental: 107–132. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  7. ^ Gabriel, Teshome Habte. "Third Cinema in the Third World: The Dynamics of Style and Ideology. Order No. 8001422 University of California, Los Angeles, 1979. Ann Arbor: ProQuest.
  8. ^ Dodge, Kim. http://thirdcinema.blueskylimit.com, Web. 2007
  9. ^ a b c Shohat, Ella (2003). "Post-Third-Worldist culture". In Guneratne, Anthony R.; Dissanayake, Wimal (eds.). Rethinking Third Cinema. London: Routledge. pp. 51–78.
  10. ^ "Laila and the Wolves + Ismael - Eye On Palestine". Eye On Palestine. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
Acid Western

Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".

Cine City, Withington

Cine City (originally named the Scala Cinema) was a cinema in Withington, Manchester, England located at 494 Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester, M20 3BG. It opened in 1912 as The Scala, and was the third cinema to open in Britain. When the popularity of picture houses reached its peak in the 1930s, The Scala was one of 109 cinemas in Manchester.

During the Second World War, the cinema escaped with minor damage when the road outside was hit by a small bomb in 1940. After the war, television led to a decline in cinema attendances, and by 1965, only 40 cinemas remained in Manchester. Cine City closed in July 2001, making it the third-longest running cinema in England.

By 2005 the building was in a bad state of repair, and was threatened with demolition. Although heritage groups won a stay of execution, the cinema was demolished in spring 2008. A new residential building has been constructed the site.

Cinema Novo

Cinema Novo (Portuguese pronunciation: [siˈne.mɐ ˈno.vu]) is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s. It means "New Cinema" in Portuguese, which is the official language of Brazil, the movement's "home". Cinema Novo formed in response to class and racial unrest both in Brazil and the United States. Influenced by Italian neorealism and French New Wave, films produced under the ideology of Cinema Novo opposed traditional Brazilian cinema, which consisted primarily of musicals, comedies and Hollywood-style epics. Glauber Rocha is widely regarded as Cinema Novo's most influential filmmaker. Today, the movement is often divided into three sequential phases that differ in tone, style and content.

Cinema of Africa

African cinema is film production in Africa. It dates back to the early 20th century, when film reels were the primary cinematic technology in use. During the colonial era, African life was shown only by the work of white, colonial, Western filmmakers, who depicted blacks in a negative fashion, as exotic "others". There is no one single African cinema; there are differences between North African and Sub-Saharan cinema, and between the cinemas of different countries.The cinema of Egypt is one of the oldest in the world. Auguste and Louis Lumière screened their films in Alexandria and Cairo in 1896 and the first short documentary was filmed by Egyptians in 1907. In 1935 the MISR film studio in Cairo began producing mostly formulaic comedies and musicals, but also films like Kamal Selim's The Will (1939). Egyptian cinema flourished in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, considered its golden age. Youssef Chahine's seminal Cairo Station (1958) foreshadowed Hitchcock's Psycho, and laid a foundation for Arab film.The Nigerian film industry is the largest in Africa in terms of value, number of annual films, revenue and popularity. It is also the second largest film producer in the world. In 2016 Nigeria's film industry contributed 2.3% of its gross domestic product (GDP).

Fernando Solanas

Fernando Ezequiel 'Pino' Solanas (born 16 February 1936) is an Argentine film director, screenwriter and politician. His films include La hora de los hornos (The Hour of the Furnaces) (1968), Tangos: el exilio de Gardel (1985), Sur (1988), El viaje (1992), La nube (1998) and Memoria del saqueo (2004), among many others. Since 2013, he has been a National Senator representing the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

Solanas studied theatre, music and law. In 1962, he directed his first short feature Seguir andando and in 1968 he covertly produced and directed his first long feature film La Hora de los Hornos, a documentary on neo-colonialism and violence in Latin America. The film won several international awards and was screened around the world. Solanas has won the Grand Jury Prize and the Critics Award at the Venice Film Festival and the Prix de la mise en scène at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1999 he was the President of the Jury at the 21st Moscow International Film Festival. He was awarded a special Golden Bear at the 2004 Berlin Film Festival. He collaborated with tango composer and musician Ástor Piazzolla on the soundtracks for various movies.

Jorge Sanjinés

Jorge Sanjinés (born 31 July 1936 in La Paz, Bolivia) is a Bolivian film director and screenwriter. He founded the production group Grupo Ukamau. He won the ALBA Prize for Arts in 2009.

Kidlat Tahimik

Eric de Guia (born October 3, 1942 in Baguio City, Philippines), better known as Kidlat Tahimik (a Tagalog translation of "silent lightning"), is a film director, writer and actor whose films are commonly associated with the Third Cinema movement through their critiques of neocolonialism. For his contributions to the development of Philippine independent cinema, he was recognized in 2018 as a National Artist of the Philippines for Film - a conferment which represents the Philippine state's highest recognition for artists.One of the most prominent names in the Filipino film industry, he has garnered various accolades locally and internationally, including a Plaridel honorarium for Independent Cinema. He is dubbed by fellow filmmakers and critics as the "Father of Philippine Independent Cinema".

In recent years, Tahimik has become a noted installation artist with his works exhibited in various public spaces in the Philippines.

List of apocalyptic films

This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.

National Film and Television School

The National Film and Television School (NFTS) is a film, television and games school established in 1971 and based at Beaconsfield Studios in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England. It is featured in the 2018 ranking by The Hollywood Reporter of the top 15 International film schools.Its community of students makes around a hundred and fifty films a year on courses that are over 90% practical and unlike courses offered at other UK film schools. As of 2017 it had over 400 students and about a thousand a year on its short courses. Beaconsfield Studios consists of film and television stages; animation and production design studios; edit suites; sound post-production facilities; a music recording studio and three dubbing theatres. The school completed an expansion and modernisation programme in early 2017 with new teaching facilities, a third cinema and a new 4K Television Studio.

The BBC stated that the NFTS was the "leading centre of excellence for education in film and television programme making", and noted that it was "relevant to the industry's present and future needs." British Film Magazine once described the NFTS as being one of the few schools to come "very, very close" to guaranteeing a job in the film industry, and named its leader (Powell) a "maverick"; Filmmaking.net named it one of two films schools outside the US which had such a high international reputation.NFTS student films have been nominated for an Oscar three times in the last six years. Additionally, in 2017 NFTS graduation film, A Love Story, directed and co-written by Anushka Naanayakkara, won the British Short Animation BAFTA at the EE British Academy Film Awards making it the fourth year in a row that NFTS students have picked up this accolade. This is the second consecutive year that two of NFTS students' graduation films competed for the same prize with A Love Story up against The Alan Dimension directed & co-written by Jac Clinch. NFTS student films are regularly selected for the top film festivals around the world. This year's highlights include selections at Cannes and Annecy Animation Festival and top prizes in nearly all the Royal Television Society categories for which they are eligible.In 2016 the National Film and Television School won accolades in all three categories in the CILECT Prize, the global film school awards. This is the third time that the NFTS has taken top place in these prestigious awards having also won two out of three categories in 2015, and in 2013, the school made history by becoming the first institution to win first prize in all three categories. This year, 117 film schools submitted entries, which were voted on by 107 of the world's major film and television schools from 57 countries.

In 2018, the school was the recipient of the "BAFTA Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema Award" award at the 71st British Academy Film Awards.

Octavio Getino

Octavio Getino (August 6, 1935 in León, Spain – October 1, 2012) was an Argentine film director and writer who is best known for co-founding, along with Fernando Solanas, the Grupo Cine Liberación and the school of Third Cinema.

Getino was born in Spain and migrated to Argentina in the 1950s.

In 1964 he was awarded the Premio Casa de las Américas for his short-stories book Chulleca. Getino also left a number of essays on cinema and sociology.

From 1989 to 1990, Getino led the Instituto Nacional de Cinematografía (INCAA).

He died of cancer at 77, on October 1, 2012.

Opera film

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Reel Cinemas

Reel Cinemas is a cineplex in the United Arab Emirates operated by Emaar Entertainment (Dubai). It was first opened in The Dubai Mall on August 22, 2009. It opened its second cinema in Dubai Marina Mall and on July 22, 2010 featuring a premier section with recliner seats. Reel Cinemas opened its third cinema at The Beach, JBR (Jumeirah Beach Residence) and on March 23, 2016 another cinema at City Walk opened. It was voted as Best Cinema in the UAE on The Kris Fade Show with Chad on Virgin Radio Dubai 104.4 FM.

Ronal the Barbarian

Ronal the Barbarian (Danish: Ronal barbaren) is a 2011 Danish adult animated stereoscopic CGI feature film directed by Thorbjørn Christoffersen, Kresten Vestbjerg Andersen and Philip Einstein Lipski. It is their third cinema feature following Terkel in Trouble and Journey to Saturn, produced by Einstein Film with the support of the Danish Film Institute, TV 2, distributor Nordisk Film and Nordisk Film & TV Fond. It is a comedic fantasy adventure which parodies the barbarians and other stereotypes of sword and sorcery fiction, role-playing games and films such as Conan the Barbarian and the Dungeons & Dragons class, with nods towards the 1980s fantasy boom and its association with traditional heavy metal. It was released in Denmark on September 29, 2011.

Simon Hartog

Simon Hartog (8 February 1940 – 18 August 1992) was a British filmmaker who worked as both director and producer. He helped develop an independent film industry in the United Kingdom (UK), founding London Film-Makers' Co-op in the 1960s, key to the avant-garde; working on independent documentaries, and founding the production company, www.largedoorltd.com Large Door Ltd. Through the Independent Filmmakers' Association, he campaigned for an independent Channel 4. Through his company, Hartog produced a series on world cinema, Visions, that ran on the channel for three years.

Long interested in the Third Cinema of African and Latin American nations, Hartog at one time worked for The Other Cinema, a distribution company in the UK, to gain such films wider audiences. In the 1970s, he served as a consultant to help the newly independent Mozambique set up a film industry.

After having grown up from age eight in the United States, he returned to England and Italy in the 1960s for graduate work and settled in the UK.

Teshome Gabriel

Teshome H. Gabriel (September 24, 1939 – June 14, 2010) was an Ethiopian-born American cinema scholar and professor at the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television in Los Angeles. Gabriel was considered an expert on cinema and film of Africa and the developing world. A colleague at UCLA, Vinay Lal, noted that Gabriel was "one of the first scholars to theorize in a critical fashion about Third World cinema."Gabriel was born in Ticho, Ethiopia, on September 24, 1939. He immigrated to the United States in 1962. He obtained a bachelor's degree in political science in 1967 and received a master's degree in educational media in 1969, both from the University of Utah. He continued his education at UCLA, where he earned a master's degree in theater arts in 1976 and a doctorate in film and television studies in 1979.Gabriel began lecturing at UCLA in 1974 and became an assistant professor at the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television in 1981.Gabriel's books included Third Cinema in the Third World: The Aesthetics of Liberation in 1982 and Third Cinema: Exploration of Nomadic Aesthetics & Narrative Communities. He co-edited Otherness and the Media: The Ethnography of the Imagined and the Imaged, which was published in 1993. He served as the editor of Emergences: Journal for the Study of Media and Composite Cultures. Additionally, Gabriel founded Tuwaf (Light), an Ethiopian journal on fine arts which is published in Amharic. He served on Tuwaf's editorial board from 1987 until 1991.Teshome Gabriel died of cardiac arrest on June 14, 2010, at Kaiser Permanente Panorama City Medical Center in Panorama City, Los Angeles at the age of 70. He was survived by his wife, Maaza Woldemusie; daughter, Mediget; and son, Tsegaye.http://teshomegabriel.net/ is a website with many of his academic articles.

The Hour of the Furnaces

The Hour of the Furnaces (Spanish: La hora de los hornos) is a 1968 Latin American film directed by Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas. 'The paradigm of revolutionary activist cinema', it addresses the politics of the 'Third worldist' films and Latin-American manifesto of the late 1960s. It is a key part of the 'Third Cinema', a movement which emerged in Latin America around the same time as the film's release.

Tomás Gutiérrez Alea

Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈlea]; December 11, 1928 – April 16, 1996) was a Cuban filmmaker. He wrote and directed more than 20 features, documentaries, and short films, which are known for his sharp insight into post-Revolutionary Cuba, and possess a delicate balance between dedication to the revolution and criticism of the social, economic, and political conditions of the country.

Gutiérrez's work is representative of a cinematic movement occurring in the 1960s and 1970s known collectively as the New Latin American Cinema. This collective movement, also referred to by various writers by specific names such as “Third Cinema”, “Cine Libre”, and “Imperfect Cinema,” was concerned largely with the problems of neocolonialism and cultural identity. The movement rejected both the commercial perfection of the Hollywood style, and the auteur-oriented European art cinema, for a cinema created as a tool for political and social change. Due not in a small part to the filmmakers’ lack of resources, aesthetic was of secondary importance to cinema's social function. The movement's main goal was to create films in which the viewer became an active, self-aware participant in the discourse of the film. Viewers were presented with an analysis of a current problem within society that as of that time had no clear solution, hoping to make the audience aware of the problem and to leave the theater willing to become actors of social change.

Transnational cinema

Transnational cinema is a developing concept within film studies that encompasses a range of theories relating to the effects of globalization upon the cultural and economic aspects of film. It incorporates the debates and influences of postnationalism, postcolonialism, consumerism and Third cinema, amongst many other topics.

Transnational cinema debates consider the development and subsequent effect of films, cinemas and directors which span national boundaries.

By style
By theme
By movement
or period
By demographic groups
By format,
technique,
approach,
or production

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