Third Border Initiative

The Third Border Initiative (TBI) is an area of policy concerning United States and the Caribbean region. The phrase was especially made popular by the administration of the President of the United States George W. Bush. The Third Border Initiative was a reference to the Caribbean region's adjacent placement to the United States of America. The policy is the ideology that behind Canada and Mexico the Caribbean region is a Sea-based border of the United States.

Overview

The initiative also builds upon the founding of the Caribbean/United States - Partnership for Prosperity and Security in the Caribbean (1997). An agreement which is sometimes called the "Bridgetown Accord". This agreement is also complimented with other agreements for Maritime co-operation between the United States and countries of the Caribbean region. These other agreements include: the Maritime Counter-Narcotics Co-operation Agreement (1996),[1] the Maritime Counter-Narcotics ("Shiprider") Agreement (1997), and the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative. Many of these agreements were signed between the Clinton Administration of the United States, and the various independent countries of the Caribbean region in May 1997.

See also

Notes

  • Williams, Michelle (Spring 2000) [2000]. Caribbean Shiprider Agreements: Sunk by Banana Trade War?. Vol. 31, No. 1. Joe Christensen, Inc. (Via The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review). pp. 163–195.
  • Buddan, Robert (14 January 2007). "Crime, deportees, and the Third Border". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 2007-01-23. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  • Singh, Rickey (7 March 2010). "Cases of 'bullying' US politics". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 2010-03-09. Retrieved 16 March 2010.

References

  1. ^ U.S. State Department (March 4, 1996). "TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO - SIGNING OF EXTRADITION AND MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE TREATIES - MARITIME COUNTER-DRUG COOPERATION AGREEMENT". Archived from the original on 2001-06-28.

External links

Barbados–United States relations

The United States and Barbados have had cordial bilateral relations since Barbados' independence in 1966. The United States has supported the government's efforts to expand the country's economic base and to provide a higher standard of living for its citizens. Barbados is a beneficiary of the U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative. U.S. assistance is channeled primarily through multilateral agencies such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank, as well as the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) office in Bridgetown.

Bhutan–United States relations

The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan and the United States of America share bilateral relations. Bhutan is represented in the US through its permanent mission to the United Nations.

While both countries do not share diplomatic missions, relations between two nations are reviewed as "friendly and close", due to shared values between the two countries. The growing alliance between India and the U.S. (see: India–United States relations) has also helped to improve US-Bhutanese bilateral relations.

Borders of the United States

The United States shares international land borders with two nations:

The Canada–United States border to the north of the Contiguous United States and to the east of Alaska

The Mexico–United States border to the southThe Russia – United States maritime boundary was defined by a disputed agreement covering the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Arctic Ocean. The International Date Line essentially acts as the de facto border between the two nations; the USA ratified the USSR-USA Maritime Boundary Agreement, but the USSR failed to ratify it before dissolving, and it was subsequently never ratified by Russia. During the winter, travel between Russia's uninhabited Big Diomede Island and Alaska's Little Diomede Island with a population of 110 is theoretically possible, although not legal, on some occasions when ice flowing through the Bering Strait clogs between the two islands.The Third Border Initiative is an area of foreign policy concerning the Caribbean Sea border between the United States and the Caribbean region.

Insular areas are in a separate customs territory from the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico (see Foreign trade of the United States).

Dominica–United States relations

Dominica–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Commonwealth of Dominica and the United States of America.

Gambia–United States relations

Gambian–American relations are bilateral relations between the Gambia and the United States.

Grenada–United States relations

Grenada – United States relations are bilateral relations between Grenada and the United States. The United States recognized Grenada on the 7 February 1974, as the same day as Grenada got independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. These nations formally established diplomatic relations on 29 November 1974.

Guyana–United States relations

Guyana–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and the United States of America.

Jamaica–United States relations

Jamaica–United States relations are bilateral relations between Jamaica and the United States.

Johnson Doctrine

The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson after the United States' intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.

Kirkpatrick Doctrine

The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was the doctrine expounded by United States Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick in the early 1980s based on her 1979 essay, "Dictatorships and Double Standards". The doctrine was used to justify the U.S. foreign policy of supporting Third World anti-communist dictatorships during the Cold War.

Lodge Corollary

The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind from acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control". As Lodge argued, the corollary reaffirmed the basic right of nations to provide for their safety, extending the principles behind the Monroe Doctrine beyond colonialism to include corporate territorial acquisitions as well.

The proposal was a reaction to negotiations between a Japanese syndicate and Mexico for the purchase of a considerable portion of Baja California including a harbor considered to be of strategic value, Magdalena Bay. After the ratification of the Lodge Corollary, Japan disavowed any connection to the syndicate and the deal was never completed.

Powell Doctrine

The "Powell Doctrine" is a journalist-created term, named after General Colin Powell in the run-up to the 1990–91 Gulf War. It is based in large part on the Weinberger Doctrine, devised by Caspar Weinberger, former Secretary of Defense and Powell's former boss. The doctrine emphasizes U.S. national security interests, overwhelming strike capabilities with an emphasis on ground forces, and widespread public support.

Progressive realism

Progressive realism is an American foreign policy paradigm largely made popular by Robert Wright in 2006 which focuses on producing measurable results in pursuit of widely supported goals. It supports stronger international institutions, free trade, and US national interests. Progressive realists' beliefs are similar to neoconservatives in that foreign interests, such as national defense and participation in the United Nations, serves national interests. They feel that economic interdependence, the environment and global security makes international governance serve national interest. The policy emphasizes the need to convert "hard" military power and "soft" attractive power into "smart" power.

Rumsfeld Doctrine

The "Rumsfeld Doctrine", named after former United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, is a neologism created by journalists concerned with the perceived transformation of the military of the United States. It would be considered Rumsfeld's own take on RMA (Revolution in Military Affairs). It seeks to increase force readiness and decrease the amount of supply required to maintain forces, by reducing the number in a theater. This is done mainly by using LAVs (Light Armoured Vehicles) to scout for enemies who are then destroyed via airstrikes. The basic tenets of this military strategy are:

High-technology combat systems;

Reliance on air forces;

Small, nimble ground forces.The early phases of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars are considered the two closest implementations of this doctrine.

Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations

Saint Kitts and Nevis – United States relations are bilateral relations between Saint Kitts and Nevis and the United States.

Saint Lucia–United States relations

Saint Lucia – United States relations are bilateral relations between Saint Lucia and the United States. Larry Leon Palmer is the U.S. Ambassador to St. Lucia.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – United States relations are bilateral relations between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the United States.

The United States and St. Vincent have solid bilateral relations. Both governments are concerned with eradicating local marijuana cultivation and combating the illegal drug trade. In 1995, the United States and St. Vincent signed a maritime law enforcement agreement. In 1996, the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines signed an extradition treaty with the United States. In 1997, the two countries signed a mutual legal assistance treaty.

The United States supports the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines' efforts to expand its economic base and to provide a higher standard of living for its citizens. U.S. assistance is channeled primarily through multilateral agencies such as the World Bank. The United States has 10 Peace Corps volunteers in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, working in primary literacy education. The U.S. military also provides assistance through construction and humanitarian civic action projects.

A relatively small number of Americans—fewer than 1,000—reside on the islands.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials include:

United States Ambassador—Linda S. Taglialatela

Deputy Chief of Mission—O.P. Garza

Political/Economic Counselor—Ian Campbell

Consul General—Clyde Howard Jr.

Regional Labor Attaché—Jake Aller

Commercial Affairs—Jake Aller

Public Affairs Officer—John Roberts

Peace Corps Director—Kate Raftery

Stimson Doctrine

The Stimson Doctrine is the policy of nonrecognition of states created as a result of aggression. The policy was implemented by the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. The doctrine was an application of the principle of ex injuria jus non oritur. While some analysts have applied the doctrine in opposition to governments established by revolution, this usage is not widespread, and its invocation usually involves treaty violations.

Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

Trinidad and Tobago – United States relations are bilateral relations between Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.

The United States and Trinidad and Tobago enjoy cordial relations. U.S. interests here and throughout the hemisphere focus on increasing investment and trade, and ensuring more stable supplies of energy. They also include enhancing Trinidad and Tobago's political and social stability and positive regional role through assistance in drug interdiction, health issues, and legal affairs. The U.S. embassy was established in Port of Spain in 1962, replacing the former consulate general.

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