A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organization that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most policy institutes are non-profit organisations, which some countries such as the United States and Canada provide with tax exempt status. Other think tanks are funded by governments, advocacy groups, or corporations, and derive revenue from consulting or research work related to their projects.
The following article lists global policy institutes according to continental categories, and then sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given that more than 7,500 think tanks exist worldwide.
The Jixia Academy is an early ancestor of the modern think tank. Based on passages in the Records of the Grand Historian, the academy is generally credited to King Xuan and given a foundation date around 318 BC. The academy has been summarized as "the first time on record a state began to act as a patron of scholarship out of the apparent conviction that this was a proper function of the state".
According to University of Southern California historian Jacob Soll, the term "think tank" is modern, but "it can be traced to the humanist academies and scholarly networks of the 16th and 17th centuries." Soll notes that "in Europe, the origins of think tanks go back to the 800s, when emperors and kings began arguing with the Catholic Church about taxes. A tradition of hiring teams of independent lawyers to advise monarchs about their financial and political prerogatives against the church spans from Charlemagne all the way to the 17th century, when the kings of France were still arguing about whether they had the right to appoint bishops and receive a cut of their income." He also writes, independent "research teams became common in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when states often depended on independent scholars and their expertise."
Several major current think tanks were founded in the 19th century. For instance, the Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI) was founded in 1831 in London, as was the Fabian Society in 1884. The oldest American think tank, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1910 by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization." The Brookings Institution was founded shortly thereafter in 1916 by Robert S. Brookings and was conceived as a bipartisan "research center modeled on academic institutions and focused on addressing the questions of the federal government."
After 1945, the number of policy institutes increased, with many small new ones forming to express various issue and policy agendas. Until the 1940s, most think tanks were known only by the name of the institution. During the Second World War, think tanks were often referred to as "brain boxes" after the slang term for skull. The phrase "think tank" in wartime American slang referred to rooms where strategists discussed war planning. Later the term "think tank" was used to refer to organizations that offered military advice, such as the RAND Corporation, founded in 1946 as an offshoot of Douglas Aircraft and became an independent corporation in 1948.
For most of the 20th century, independent public policy institutes that performed research and provided advice concerning public policy were found primarily in the United States, with a much smaller number in Canada, the UK and Western Europe. Although think tanks existed in Japan for some time, they generally lacked independence, having close associations with government ministries or corporations. There has been a veritable proliferation of "think tanks" around the world that began during the 1980s as a result of globalization, the end of the Cold War, and the emergence of transnational problems. Two-thirds of all the think tanks that exist today were established after 1970 and more than half were established since 1980.
The effect of globalisation on the proliferation of think tanks is most evident in regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia, where there was a concerted effort by the international community to assist in the creation of independent public policy research organizations. A recent survey performed by the Foreign Policy Research Institute's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program underscores the significance of this effort and documents the fact that most of the think tanks in these regions have been established during the last 10 years. Presently there are more than 4,500 of these institutions around the world. Many of the more established think tanks, having been created during the Cold War, are focused on international affairs, security studies, and foreign policy.
Think tanks vary by ideological perspectives, sources of funding, topical emphasis and prospective consumers. Some think tanks, such as The Heritage Foundation, which promotes conservative principles, and the Center for American Progress, a progressive organization, are more partisan in purpose. Others, including the Tellus Institute, which emphasizes social and environmental topics, are more issue-oriented groups.
Funding sources and the consumers intended also define the workings of think tanks. Some receive direct government assistance, while others rely on private individual or corporate donors. This will invariably affect the degree of academic freedom within each policy institute and to whom or what the institution feels beholden. Funding may also represent who or what the institution wants to influence; in the United States, for example, "Some donors want to influence votes in Congress or shape public opinion, others want to position themselves or the experts they fund for future government jobs, while others want to push specific areas of research or education."
A new trend, resulting from globalization, is collaboration between policy institutes in different countries. For instance, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace operates offices in Washington, D.C., Beijing, Beirut, Brussels and Moscow.
The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania, led by Dr. James McGann, annually rates policy institutes worldwide in a number of categories and presents its findings in the "Global Go-To Think Tanks" rating index. However, this method of the study and assessment of policy institutes has been criticized by researchers such as Enrique Mendizabal and Goran Buldioski, Director of the Think Tank Fund, assisted by the Open Society Institute.
Several authors have indicated a number of different methods of describing policy institutes in a way that takes into account regional and national variations. For example:
Alternatively, one could use some of the following criteria:
In some cases, corporate interests and political groups have found it useful to create policy institutes, advocacy organizations, and think tanks. For example, The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition was formed in the mid-1990s to dispute research finding an association between second-hand smoke and cancer. According to an internal memorandum from Philip Morris Companies referring to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "The credibility of the EPA is defeatable, but not on the basis of ETS [environmental tobacco smoke] alone,... It must be part of a larger mosaic that concentrates all the EPA's enemies against it at one time."
According to the Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, both left-wing and right-wing policy institutes are often quoted and rarely identified as such. The result is that think tank "experts" are sometimes depicted as neutral sources without any ideological predispositions when, in fact, they represent a particular perspective. In the United States, think tank publications on education are subjected to expert review by the National Education Policy Center's "Think Twice" think tank review project.
A policy institute is often a "tank", in the intellectual sense: discussion only in a sheltered group protected from outside influence isolates the participants, subjects them to several cognitive biases (groupthink, confirmation bias) and fosters members' existing beliefs. This results in surprisingly radical and even unfeasible ideas being published. Many think tanks, however, claim to purposefully attempt to alleviate this problem by selecting members from diverse backgrounds.
A 2014 New York Times report asserted that foreign governments buy influence at many United States think tanks. According to the article: "More than a dozen prominent Washington research groups have received tens of millions of dollars from foreign governments in recent years while pushing United States government officials to adopt policies that often reflect the donors’ priorities."
Ghana's first president, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, set up various state-supported think tanks in the 1960s. By the 1990s, a variety of policy research centers sprang up in Africa set up by academics who sought to influence public policy in Ghana.
One such think tank was The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana, which was founded in 1989 when the country was ruled by the Provisional National Defence Council. The IEA undertakes and publishes research on a range of economic and governance issues confronting Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. It has also been involved in bringing political parties together to engage in dialogue. In particular it has organised Presidential debates every election year since the Ghanaian presidential election, 1996.
Notable think tanks in Ghana include:
Most of the Tunisian think tanks have emerged after 2011. Taking advantage of the new climate of free expression and academic freedom, academics and politicians have attempted to set up research centers whose mission the development of public policies.
The Applied Social Science Forum (ASSF) was established in 2011 with the intent of analyzing social transformation and democratic change. As a civilian non-profit organization the program has become a think tank that seeks to develop "citizenship research" – that is research oriented towards policy formulation and public interest service. Today the ASSF works towards a dual mission of "preparing future generations of leaders", and "providing leadership in advancing policy-relevant and applied knowledge about the most important challenges of social dignity, Reform of Education system, Security Sector Reform, security, public health Reform and other critical issues."
Founded in 1995, the Tunisian Institute for Strategic Studies' (ITES) mission is to carry out research, studies, analyses, and forecasting regarding short- and longer-term horizons for a wide range of issues related to various national and international phenomena that may affect the process of development of Tunisian society. These issues cover the political, economic, social, and cultural fields. Among other things, the institute is a meeting place for exchange among those with different skills, experiences, and technical capabilities and a structure for building understanding and consensus among the intellectual elite on the important questions and serious challenges facing the country.
The Ibn Khaldun Institute, an affiliate of the Tunisian Community Center, is a non-partisan, non-profit and secular Advocay type Think Tank. Its focus is on the socio-economic development of Tunisia. The Ibn Khaldun Institute aims to be a Talent Bank as well as an online clearinghouse for information on activities taking place in the United States, that aim to promote the development of Tunisia. Created by the Tunisian Community Center in 2005, the think tank was named after Ibn Khaldun, the renowned 14th Century Tunisian polymath and statesman, whose name came to symbolize kinship and solidarity. It is composed of Tunisian and Tunisian American professionals in all disciplines, dedicated to promoting business, as well as, cultural and professional exchanges between the United States and Tunisia.
According to the Global Go Think Tank Report 2012, there are around 14 think tanks in Armenia of which the largest part is located in Yerevan. The Economic Development and Research Center (EDRC), International Center for Human Development (ICHD) are among the most active and well known think tanks in the country.
Bangladesh has a number of think tanks that are in the form governmental, non-governmental and corporate organizations.
In the People's Republic of China a number of think tanks are sponsored by governmental agencies like Development Research Center of the State Council, but still retain sufficient non-official status to be able to propose and debate ideas more freely. In January 2012, the first non-official think-tank in China, South Non-Governmental Think-Tank, was established in Guangdong province. In 2009 the China Center for International Economic Exchanges, described as "China's top think tank," was founded.
In Hong Kong, those early think tanks established in the late 1980s and early 1990s focused on the political development including first direct Legislative Council members election in 1991 and the political framework of "One Country, Two Systems" manifested in the Sino-British Joint Declaration. After the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997, more and more think tanks were established by various groups of intellectuals and professionals. They have various missions and objectives including promoting civic education; undertaking research on economic social and political policies; promoting "public understanding of and participation in the political, economic, and social development of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region".
India has a number of think tanks. Most are based in New Delhi, and a few are government sponsored. A number of these work on foreign policy and security issues. There are few think tanks like Observer Research Foundation and Centre for Civil Society who promote liberal, social and economic ideas, and others who encourage students to do empirical research and gain first hand experience in public policy issues..
In Mumbai, Strategic Foresight Group is a global think tank that works on issues such as Water Diplomacy, Peace and Conflict and Foresight (futures studies). Think tanks with a development focus are those like the National Centre for Cold-chain Development ('NCCD') which serve to bring inclusive policy change by supporting the Planning Commission and related government bodies with industry-specific inputs – in this case set up at the behest of the government to direct cold chain development.Some think tanks have a fixed set of focus areas and they work towards finding out policy solutions to social problems in the respective areas.
Initiatives such as National e-Governance Plan (to automate administrative processes) and National Knowledge Network (NKN) (for data and resource sharing amongst education and research institutions), if implemented properly, should help improve the quality of work done by think tanks.
There are over 50 recently emerged think tanks in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan Region. Iraq's leading think tank is the Middle East Research Institute (MERI), based in Erbil. MERI is an independent non-governmental policy research organisation, established in 2014 and publishes in English, Kurdish and Arabic. It was listed in the global ranking by the USA's Lauder Institute of the University of Pennsylvania as 46th in the Middle East. Other Iraqi think tanks, publish in Arabic, include the Shiite-focused Al-Rafidain Center in Najaf and the Islamic Dawa Party sponsored Al-Bayan Center.
Japan has over 100 think tanks, most of which cover not only policy research but also economy, technology and so on. Some are government related, but most of the think tanks are sponsored by the private sector.
Most Malaysian think tanks are government or political party related. They focus on defense, politics and policy. However, in recent dates, think tanks that focus on international trade, economics and social sciences have also existed. Notable ones include the Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS), Institute for Pioneering of Education and Economic Excellence (INSPIRE), Penang Institute (PI), Center of Public Policy Studies (CPPS), Khazanah Research Institute (KRI), and Jauhar Academy of Social Sciences (JASS).
Pakistan's think tanks mainly revolve around social policy, internal politics, foreign security issues, and regional geo-politics. Most of these are centered on the capital, Islamabad. One notable think tank is the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), which focuses on policy advocacy and research particularly in the area of environment and social development. Another notable policy research institute based in Islamabad is the Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (I-SAPS) which works in the fields of education, health, disaster risk reduction, governance, conflict and stabilization.
Think tanks in the Philippines could be generally categorized in terms of their linkages with the national government. Several were set up by the Philippine government for the specific purpose of providing research input into the policy-making process.
Sri Lanka has a number of think tanks that are in the form governmental, non-governmental and corporate organizations.
There are several think tanks in Singapore that advise the government on various policies and as well as private ones for corporation within the region. Many of them are hosted within the local public educational institutions.
The UAE has been a center for political oriented think tanks which concentrate on both regional and global policy. Notable think tank have emerged in the global debate on terrorism, education & economical policies in the MENA region. Think tanks include:
Key projects: Preparation of the National human development report for Uzbekistan, Sociological "portrait" of the Uzbek businessman, Preparation of an analytical report on export procedures optimization in Uzbekistan, various industry and marketing researches in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Taiwanese think tanks in alphabetical order:
Private sources fund about 20 to 30 "independent" Australian think tanks. The best-known of these think tanks play a much more limited role in Australian public and business policy-making than do their equivalents in the United States. However, in the past decade the number of think tanks has increased substantially. Prominent Australian conservative think tanks include the Centre for Independent Studies, the Sydney Institute and the Institute of Public Affairs. Prominent leftist Australian think tanks include the McKell Institute, Per Capita, the Australia Institute, the Lowy Institute and the Centre for Policy Development. In recent years regionally-based independent and non-partisan think tanks have emerged. Some, such as the Illawarra's i-eat-drink-think, engage in discussion, research and advocacy within a broader civics framework. Commercial think-tanks like the Gartner Group, Access Economics, the Helmsman Institute, and others provide additional insight which complements not-for-profit organisations such as CEDA, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, and the Australian Institute of Company Directors to provide more targeted policy in defence, program governance, corporate governance and similar.
Listed in alphabetical order, think tanks based in Australia include:
Brussels hosts most of the European Institutions, hence a large number of international think tanks are based there. Among them there are, Bruegel, the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Centre for the New Europe (CNE), the European Centre of International Political Economy (ECIPE), the European Policy Centre (EPC), the Friends of Europe, the Global Governance Institute (GGI), Sport and Citizenship, and ThinkYoung.
Bulgaria has a number of think tanks providing expertise and shaping policies, including Institute of Modern Politics.
Finland has several small think tanks that provide expertise in very specific fields. Notable think tanks include:
In addition to specific independent think tanks, the largest political parties have their own think tank organizations. This is mainly due to support granted by state for such activity. The corporate world has focused their efforts to central representative organization Confederation of Finnish Industries, which acts as think tank in addition to negotiating salaries with workers unions. Furthermore, there is the Finnish Business and Policy Forum (Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta, EVA). Agricultural and regional interests, associated with The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners (Maa- ja metsätaloustuottajain Keskusliitto, MTK) and the Centre Party, are researched by Pellervo Economic Research (Pellervon taloustutkimus, PTT). The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö, SAK) and the Social Democratic Party are associated with the Labour Institute for Economic Research (Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos, PT). Each of these organizations often release forecasts concerning the national economy.
The French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) was founded in 1979 and is the third oldest think tank of western Europe, after Chatham House (UK, 1920) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sweden, 1960). The primary goals of IFRI are to develop applied research in the field of public policy related to international issues, and foster interactive and constructive dialogue between researchers, professionals, and opinion leaders. France also hosts the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), a Paris-based agency of the European Union and think tank researching security issues of relevance for the EU. There are also a number of pro-business think tanks, notably the Paris-based Fondation Concorde. The foundation focuses on increasing the competitiveness of French SME's and aims to revive entrepreneurship in France.
On the left, the main think tanks in France are the Fondation Jean Jaures, which is organizationally linked to the French Socialist Party, and Terra Nova. Terra Nova is an independent left-leaning think tank, although it is nevertheless considered to be close to the Socialists. It works on producing reports and analyses of current public policy issues from a progressive point of view, and contributing to the intellectual renewal of social democracy.
Only French Think Tank mentioned in the list "Think Tank to watch" of the 2014 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report GenerationLibre is a French think-tank created by Gaspard Koenig in 2013, independent from all political parties, which aims at promoting freedoms in France, in terms of fondamental rights, economics and societal issues. GenerationLibre is an interesting breed able to connect to the right on pro business freedom and regulations issues but also to the left on issues such as "basic income", gay marriage or marijuana legalization.
In Germany all of the major parties are loosely associated with research foundations that play some role in shaping policy, but generally from the more disinterested role of providing research to support policymakers than explicitly proposing policy. These include the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (Christian Democratic Union-aligned), the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Social Democratic Party-aligned), the Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung (Christian Social Union-aligned), the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung (aligned with the Greens), Friedrich Naumann Foundation (Free Democratic Party-aligned) and the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (aligned with Die Linke). The German Institute for International and Security Affairs is a prominent example of a German foreign policy think tank. Atlantic Community think tank is an example of independent, non-partisan and non-profit organization set up as a joint project of Atlantische Initiative e.V. and Atlantic Initiative United States The Institute for Media and Communication Policy is the leading think tank in the realm of media. Transparency International is a think tank on the role of corporate and political corruption in international development.
In Greece there are many think tanks, also called research organisations or institutes.
The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) is an independent research institute in Dublin, Ireland. Its research focuses on Ireland's economic and social development to inform policy-making and societal understanding.
The Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA) is Ireland's leading think tank on European and International affairs
The Iona Institute is a conservative, Catholic think tank.
Tasc (Think tank for Action on Social Change) is an Irish left wing think tank.
While think tanks are not widespread in Latvia, as opposed to single issue advocacy organizations, there are several noticeable institutions in the Latvian think tank landscape:
There are several think tanks that are established and operate under the auspices of Universities. Such as:
All major political parties in the Netherlands have state-sponsored research foundations that play a role in shaping policy. The Dutch government also has its own think tank: the Scientific Council for Government Policy. The Netherlands furthermore hosts the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, or Clingendael Institute, an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations.
There is a large pool of think-tanks in Poland on a wide variety of subjects. The oldest state-sponsored think tank is The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: Instytut Zachodni, German West-Institut, French: L'Institut Occidental).The second oldest is the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) established in 1947. The other most important state-sponsored think tank is the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW), which specializes in the countries neighboring Poland and in the Baltic Sea region, the Balkans, Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Among the private think tanks the most important are: the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE), founded in 1991 and the oldest economic think tank in the country; and Institute for Structural Research (IBS) on economic policy, The Casimir Pulaski Foundation on foreign policy, demosEUROPA on EU affairs, the Institute of Public Affairs (ISP) on social policy, the Center for International Affairs (CSM) and The Sobieski Institute.
Founded in 1970, the SEDES is one of the oldest Portuguese civic associations and think tanks. Contraditório think tank was founded in 2008. Contraditório is a non-profit, independent and non-partisan think tank.
Romania's largest think tank is the Romanian Academic Society (SAR), which was founded in 1996.
The Institute for Public Policy (IPP) is a think-tank established in 2001 with the aim to support the development of democratic processes in Romania through in-depth research, comprehensive debates and non-partisan public policy analysis. Its mission is to contribute to a better process of public policy formulation in Romania. From its very inception, the Institute adhered to high professional standards and to promote concrete, objective and data-supported policy measures, with the aim to contribute to a consolidation of the democratic system in Romania by promoting the idea of public policy designed in accordance with global standards of scholarship. The IPP developed and consolidated recognized expertise in the fields of reform of public administration (reform of public services, modernization of the civil service body, fiscal decentralization), political parties finance, analysis of electoral systems and processes, health reform, public procurement and policies to combat corruption. This was achieved by working with specialized personnel and by permanent collaboration with experts in the aforementioned fields. Since 2004, the IPP is a member organization of the Policy Association for an Open Society (PASOS) network, together with other similar organizations from 22 countries. The IPP's motto is "It's all about thinking".
Serbia's best known think thank is the Foundation for the Advancement of Economics – FREN, founded in 2005 by the Belgrade University's Faculty of Economics. Thanks to the quality and relevance of its research, FREN has established itself as one of the leading economic think tanks in Serbia. FREN's team comprises a network of over 30 associates who regularly and systematically monitor economic trends in Serbia, conduct in-depth research and encourage and facilitate the exchange of information and availability of economic data.
Besides the international think tanks present in the surrounding countries as well (with Open Society Foundations being the most notable one) Slovakia has a host of its own think tanks as well. Some of the think tanks in Slovakia focus on public policy issues, such as Institute of Public Affairs (Inštitút pre verejné otázky or IVO in Slovak) or Central European Labour Studies Institute (Stredoeurópsky inštitút pre výskum práce or CELSI in Slovak). Others specialize on human rights issues such as minority protection, for example Forum Minority Research Institute (Fórum Kisebbségkutató Intézet or Fórum Intézet in Hungarian and Fórum inštitút pre výskum menšín or Fórum inštitút in Slovak). Since some of the Slovak think tanks are perceived to be associated with right-wing and liberal parties of Slovakia (with the perception being particularly strong among Slovak nationalists), findings and proposals made by these organizations are generally resented or ignored by left-wing supporters and nationalists.
In Spain, think tanks are progressively raising their public profile. There are now at least 30 think tanks in the country.
One of the most influential Spanish think tanks is the Elcano Royal Institute, created in 2001 following the example of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) in the UK, although it is closely linked to (and receives funding from) the government in power.
More independent but clearly to the left of the political spectrum are the Centro de Investigaciones de Relaciones Internacionales y Desarrollo (CIDOB) founded in 1973; and the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE) established in 1999 by Diego Hidalgo and main driving force behind projects such as the Club de Madrid, a group of democratic former heads of state and government, the Foreign Policy Spanish Edition and DARA (international organization).
Former Prime Minister José Maria Aznar presides over the Fundación para el Analisis y los Estudios Sociales (FAES), a policy institute that is associated with the conservative Popular Party (PP). Also linked to the PP is the Grupo de Estudios Estratégicos (GEES), which is known for its defense- and security-related research and analysis. For its part, the Fundación Alternativas is independent but close to left-wing ideas. The Socialist Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) created Fundación Ideas in 2009 and dissolved it in January 2014. Also in 2009, the centrist Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) created Fundación Progreso y Democracia (FPyD). More specialized think tanks has also emerged in Spain during the past 10 years, like the Future Trends Forum from Bankinter Foundation, a unique think tank in Europe, focused on detecting social, economic, scientific and technological trends and analyzing their possible application and impact on current business models.
The first think tank of Switzerland is the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute (GDI), conceived by the Migros-founder Gottlieb Duttweiler in 1946. It opened its doors in 1963 after the death of Duttweiler.
Other think tanks include:
There are more than 100 registered think tanks in Ukraine. For example:
In Britain, think tanks play a similar role to the United States, attempting to shape policy, and indeed there is some cooperation between British and American think tanks. For example, the London-based think tank Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations were both conceived at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and have remained sister organisations.
The Bow Group, founded in 1951, is the oldest centre-right think tank and many of its members have gone on to serve as Members of Parliament or Members of the European Parliament. Past chairmen have included Conservative Party leader Michael Howard, Margaret Thatcher's longest-serving Cabinet Minister Geoffrey Howe, Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont and former British Telecom chairman Christopher Bland.
According to research done by the University of Pennsylvania, there are a total of 12 think tanks in Azerbaijan.
The Center for Economic and Social Development, or CESD; in Azeri, Azerbaijan, İqtisadi və Sosial İnkişaf Mərkəzi (İSİM) is an Azeri think tank, non-profit organization, NGO based in Baku, Azerbaijan. The Center was established in 2005. CESD focuses on policy advocacy and reform, and is involved with policy research and capacity building.
The Economic Research Center (ERC) is a policy-research oriented non-profit think tank established in 1999 with a mission to facilitate sustainable economic development and good governance in the new public management system of Azerbaijan. It seeks to do this by building favorable interactions between the public, private and civil society and working with different networks both in local (EITI NGO Coalition, National Budget Group, Public Coalition Against Poverty, etc.) and international levels (PWYP, IBP, ENTO, ALDA, PASOS, WTO NGO Network etc.).
According to the Foreign Policy Research Institute, Russia has 112 think tanks, while Russian think tanks claimed four of the top ten spots in 2011's "Top Thirty Think Tanks in Central and Eastern Europe".
Notable Russian think tanks include:
Turkish think tanks are relatively new. There are at least 20 think tanks in the country, both independent and supported by government. Many of them are sister organizations of political parties, universities or companies some are independent and others are supported by government. Most Turkish think tanks provide research and ideas, yet they play less important roles in policy making than American think tanks. Turksam, Tasam and the Journal of Turkish Weekly are the leading information sources.
The oldest and most influential think tank in Turkey is ESAM (The Center for Economic and Social Research; Turkmen: Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Merkezi) which was established in 1969 and has headquarters in Ankara. There are also branch offices of ESAM in Istanbul, Bursa, Konya and elsewhere. ESAM has strong international relationships, especially with Muslim countries and societies. Ideologically it performs policies, produces ideas and manages projects in parallel to Milli Görüş and also influences political parties and international strategies. The founder and leader of Milli Görüş, Necmettin Erbakan, was very concerned with the activities and brainstorming events of ESAM. In The Republic of Turkey, two presidents, four prime ministers, various ministers, many members of the parliament, and numerous mayors and bureaucrats have been members of ESAM. Currently the General Chairman of ESAM is Recai Kutan (former minister for two different ministries, former main opposition party leader, and founder and General Chairman of the Saadet Party).
The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV) is another leading think-thank. Established in 1994, TESEV is an independent non-governmental think-tank, analyzing social, political and economic policy issues facing Turkey. TESEV has raised issues about Islam and democracy, combating corruption, state reform, and transparency and accountability. TESEV serve as a bridge between academic research and policy-making. Its core program areas are democratization, good governance, and foreign policy.
Other notable Turkish think tanks are the International Strategic Research Organisation (USAK), the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA), and the Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies (BİLGESAM).
Canada has many notable think tanks (listed in alphabetical order). Each has specific areas of interest with some overlaps.
As the classification is most often used today, the oldest American think tank is the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, founded in 1910. The Institute for Government Research, which later merged with two organizations to form the Brookings Institution, was formed in 1916. Other early twentieth century organizations now classified as think tanks include the Hoover Institution (1919), The Twentieth Century Fund (1919, and now known as the Century Foundation), the National Bureau of Economic Research (1920), the Council on Foreign Relations (1921), and the Social Science Research Council (1923). The Great Depression and its aftermath spawned several economic policy organizations, such as the National Planning Association (1934), the Tax Foundation (1937), and the Committee for Economic Development (1943).
In collaboration with the Douglas Aircraft Company, the Air Force set up the RAND Corporation in 1946 to develop weapons technology and strategic defense analysis.
More recently, progressive and liberal think tanks have been established, most notably the Center for American Progress and the Center for Research on Educational Access and Leadership (CREAL). The organization has close ties to former United States President Barack Obama and other prominent Democrats. In 2002, a French economist, Dr Gerard Pince, founded the Free World Academy well known for its entrepreneurship program.
Think tanks help shape both foreign and domestic policy. They receive funding from private donors, and members of private organizations. By 2013, the largest 21 think tanks in the US spent more than $1 billion per year. Think tanks may feel more free to propose and debate controversial ideas than people within government. The progressive media watchgroup Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) has identified the top 25 think tanks by media citations, noting that from 2006 to 2007 the number of citations declined 17%. The FAIR report reveals the ideological breakdown of the citations: 37% conservative, 47% centrist, and 16% liberal. Their data show that the most-cited think tank was the Brookings Institution, followed by the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Enterprise Institute, The Heritage Foundation, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Recently in response to scrutiny about think tanks appearing to have a "conflict of interest" or lack transparency, executive vice president, Martin S. Indyk of Brookings Institution – the "most prestigious think tank in the world" – admitted that they had "decided to prohibit corporations or corporate-backed foundations from making anonymous contributions." In August 2016, the New York Times published a series on think tanks that blur the line. One of the cases the journalists cited was Brookings, where scholars paid by a seemingly independent think tank "push donors' agendas amplifying a culture of corporate influence in Washington." For example, in exchange for hundreds of thousands of dollars the Brookings Institution provided the publicly-traded company Lennar Corporation – one of the United States' largest home builders – with a significant advantage in pursuing their $US8 billion revitalization project in Hunters Point, San Francisco. In 2014 Lennar's then-regional vice president in charge of the San Francisco revitalization, Kofi Bonner in 2014, was named as a Brookings senior fellow – a position as 'trusted adviser' that carries some distinction. Bruce Katz, a Brookings vice president, also offered to help Lennar Corporation "engage with national media to develop stories that highlight Lennar's innovative approach."
Government think tanks are also important in the United States, particularly in the security and defense field. These include the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Institute for Homeland Security Studies, and the Center for Technology and National Security Policy, at the National Defense University; the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the Naval War College and the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College.
The government funds, wholly or in part, activities at approximately 30 Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). FFRDCs, are unique independent nonprofit entities sponsored and funded by the United States government to meet specific long-term technical needs that cannot be met by any other single organization. FFRDCs typically assist government agencies with scientific research and analysis, systems development, and systems acquisition. They bring together the expertise and outlook of government, industry, and academia to solve complex technical problems. These FFRDCs include the RAND Corporation, the MITRE Corporation, the Institute for Defense Analyses, the Aerospace Corporation, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and other organizations supporting various departments within the United States Government.
Similar to the above quasi-governmental organizations are Federal Advisory Committees. These groups, sometimes referred to as commissions, are a form of think tank dedicated to advising the US Presidents or the Executive branch of government. They typically focus on a specific issue and as such, might be considered similar to special interest groups. However, unlike special interest groups these committees have come under some oversight regulation and are required to make formal records available to the public. Approximately 1,000 these advisory committees are described in the FACA searchable database.
Research done by Enrique Mendizabal shows that South American think tanks play various roles depending on their origins, historical development and relations to other policy actors. In this study, Orazio Bellettini from Grupo FARO suggests that they:
How a policy institute addresses these largely depends on how they work, their ideology vs. evidence credentials, and the context in which they operate including funding opportunities, the degree and type of competition they have and their staff.
This functional method addresses the inherit challenge of defining a think tank. As Simon James said in 1998, "Discussion of think tanks...has a tendency to get bogged down in the vexed question of defining what we mean by ‘think tank’—an exercise that often degenerates into futile semantics." It is better (as in the Network Functions Approach) to describe what the organisation should do. Then the shape of the organisation should follow to allow this to happen. The following framework (based on Stephen Yeo's description of think tanks’ mode of work) is described in Enrique Mendizabal's blog "onthinktanks":
First, policy institutes may work in or base their funding on one or more of:
Second, policy institutes may base their work or arguments on:
According to the National Institute for Research Advancement, a Japanese policy institute, think tanks are "one of the main policy actors in democratic societies ..., assuring a pluralistic, open and accountable process of policy analysis, research, decision-making and evaluation". A study in early 2009 found a total of 5,465 think tanks worldwide. Of that number, 1,777 were based in the United States and approximately 350 in Washington DC alone.
Working on public policies, Brazil hosts, for example, Instituto Liberdade, a University-based Center at Tecnopuc inside the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, located in the South Region of the country, in the city of Porto Alegre. Instituto Liberdade is among the Top 40 think tanks in Latin America and the Caribbean, according to the 2009 Global Go To Think Tanks Index a report from the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP).
Fundação Getulio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV)) is a Brazilian higher education institution. Its original goal was to train people for the country's public- and private-sector management. Today it hosts faculties (Law, Business, Economics, Social Sciences and Mathematics), libraries, and also research centers in Rio, São Paulo and Brasilia. It is considered by Foreign Policy magazine to be a top-5 "policymaker think-tank" worldwide.
The Igarapé Institute is a Brazilian think tank focusing on public security and policing.
In some countries, blogs and organizations have been established to monitor the activities of think tanks.
Located in an unassuming office building filled with boardrooms, lecture halls, and projectors in the Finnish capital, a new entity under the joint auspices of the European Union and NATO was founded with a herculean mission. [...] In this vein, the hybrid center is more of an in-house think tank than a task force dedicated to debunking propaganda or tracking hackers in cyberspace.
The Finnish Institute of International Affairs is a research institute whose mission is to produce high quality, topical information on international relations and the EU.
BEST Education Network (BEST-EN), headquartered at Modul University Vienna, Austria is an international consortium of educators committed to furthering the development and dissemination of knowledge in the field of Sustainable tourism.Brookings Institution
The Brookings Institution is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system."Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D.C. campus (Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance Studies, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy) and three international centers based in Doha, Qatar (Brookings Doha Center); Beijing, China (Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy); and New Delhi, India (Brookings India).The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008. The Economist describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank."Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan, and the media sometimes describes Brookings as either "conservative," "centrist" or "liberal." An academic analysis of Congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was referred to by conservative politicians almost as frequently as liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale with 100 representing the most liberal score. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by the U.S. media and politicians.Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi. The organization describes itself as being dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Founded in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie, its work is not formally associated with any political party of the United States.
In the University of Pennsylvania's 2015 Global Go To Think Tanks Report, Carnegie is ranked the third most influential think tank in the world, after the Brookings Institution and Chatham House.Its headquarters building, prominently located on the Embassy Row section of Massachusetts Avenue, was completed in 1989 on a design by architecture firm Smith, Hinchman & Grylls. It also hosts the embassy of Papua New Guinea in the U.S.
The Chairperson of Carnegie's Board of Trustees is former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker, and the organization's President is former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State William J. Burns.Center for Strategic and International Studies
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. CSIS was founded as the "Center for Strategic and International Studies" of Georgetown University in 1962. The center conducts policy studies and strategic analyses of political, economic and security issues throughout the world, with a specific focus on issues concerning international relations, trade, technology, finance, energy and geostrategy.In the University of Pennsylvania's 2017 Global Go To Think Tanks Report, CSIS is ranked the number one think tank in the world for "Top Defense and National Security Think Tanks (Table 14)", the number two think think in the United States across all fields (table 7), and was also ranked as the 4th best think tank for "Think Tanks with the Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals (Table 45)." CSIS has been named the number one think tank for Defense and National Security for the past seven years.
Since its founding, CSIS "has been dedicated to finding ways to sustain American prominence and prosperity as a force for good in the world," according to its website.
CSIS is officially a bipartisan think tank with scholars that represent varying points of view across the political spectrum. The think tank is known for inviting well-known foreign policy and public service officials from the U.S. Congress and the executive branch including those affiliated with either the Democratic or the Republican Party as well as foreign officials of varying political backgrounds. It has been labeled a "centrist" think tank by U.S. News & World Report.The center hosts the Statesmen's Forum, a bipartisan venue for international leaders to present their views. Past speakers have included UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon and National Security Advisor Tom Donilon. The center also conducts the CSIS-Schieffer School Dialogues, a series of discussions hosted by Bob Schieffer, of CBS News, in addition to the Global Security Forum, with keynote addresses by Defense Department officials including former Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel.Compass (think tank)
Compass is a British centre-left pressure group, aligned with the Labour Party which describes itself as: "'An umbrella grouping of the progressive left whose sum is greater than its parts". Compass differs from other think tanks in that it is a membership based organisation and thus seeks to be a pressure group and a force for political organisation and mobilisation.
Compass was launched in 2003 with the publication of a founding statement called A Vision for the Democratic Left. Supported by a number of academics and Labour politicians unhappy with the political direction of prime minister Tony Blair this was the first attempt by Compass to help guide the Labour government. Since then it has published pamphlets and a series of booklets as part of its Programme for Renewal charting an alternative path for left governments and for centre-left activists in the UK.Demos (UK think tank)
Demos is a think tank based in the United Kingdom with a cross-party political viewpoint. It was founded in 1993 and specialises in social policy, developing evidence-based solutions in a range of areas - from education and skills to health and housing.
Demos also houses the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media, which leads the study of how the rise of the digital world affects politics, policy and decision-making.
The current Chief Executive is Polly Mackenzie, who joined the think tank in January 2018 and previously worked as the Director of Policy to the Deputy Prime Minister from 2010-15.
Demos publishes a quarterly journal, titled Demos Quarterly, which features articles from politicians, academics and Demos researchers.
The organisation is an independently registered educational charity.European Foundation (think tank)
The European Foundation is a leading Eurosceptic think tank based in the United Kingdom. It is chaired by Bill Cash, a British Conservative MP. The organisation produces the European Journal.
The Great College Street Group was formed in October 1992 in order to oppose the Maastricht Treaty. The Group, consisting of politicians, academics, businessmen, lawyers, and economists, provided comprehensive briefs in the campaign to win the arguments both in Parliament and in the country. The European Foundation was created out of Great College Street by Bill Cash after the Maastricht debates. It exists to conduct a vigorous campaign in the UK to leave the European Union. The Foundation continues to establish links with like-minded organisations across Europe and the world.
It was reported in 1996 that the European Foundation was being funded by Sir James Goldsmith the then leader of the British Referendum Party. Because there was an approaching election at which Conservative and Referendum candidates would be contesting the same seats, Cash was forced to sever the link. The shortfall in funding was plugged by Margaret Thatcher, who later became the European Foundation's Patron, a position she held until her death.Fraser Institute
The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity. It has been described as politically conservative and libertarian. The Institute is headquartered in Vancouver, with offices also located in Calgary, Toronto, and Montreal, and ties to a global network of 80 think-tanks through the Economic Freedom Network.According to the 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Fraser is number 23 (of 100) in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide (non-U.S.)", number 19 (of 150) in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide (U.S. and non-U.S.)" and number 1 (of 30) in the "Top Think Tanks in Mexico and Canada".Freedom Force (comics)
Freedom Force is the name of two fictional teams appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Fundação Getúlio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation, often abbreviated as FGV) is a Brazilian higher education institution and think tank founded on December 20, 1944, with a mission "To stimulate Brazil’s socioeconomic development". Its initial objective was to prepare qualified people to work in public and private administration in Brazil.
FGV is considered by the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program of the University of Pennsylvania as top think tank in Latin America, best managed think tank worldwide and seventh best think tank in the world.FGV offers undergraduate programs, graduate & MBA programs, as well as Master's & PhD programs in economics, business administration, public administration, law, social sciences, applied mathematics and international relations.
FGV has over 90 research centers and produces a large volume of academic research. The subjects cover macro and micro-economics, finance, business, decision-making, law, health, welfare, poverty and unemployment, pollution, and sustainable development. FGV also maintains research programs in the fields of history, social sciences, education, justice, citizenship, and politics. FGV also executes projects at the request of the public sector, private enterprise and international agencies such as the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Notable examples of such work include assistance for the successful Rio de Janeiro bids for the 2007 Pan American Games and the 2016 Summer Olympics.
FGV's main office is based in Rio de Janeiro, and is also present in São Paulo and Brasília. In addition, it offers educational programs in over 100 cities in Brazil, through a network of affiliate partner institutions, with Executive Education and MBA programs in several areas of knowledge.International Institute for Strategic Studies
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. Since 1997 its headquarters have been Arundel House, in London, England. The 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index ranked IISS as the tenth-best think tank worldwide and the second best Defense and National Security think tank globally.List of think tanks in the United Kingdom
This is a list of think tanks in the United Kingdom.Non-profit journalism
Non-profit journalism (abbreviated as NPJ, also known as a not-for-profit journalism or think tank journalism) is the practice of journalism as a non-profit organization instead of a for-profit business. NPJ groups are able to operate and serve the public good without the concern of debt, dividends and the need to make a profit. Just like all non-profit organizations, NPJ outfits depend on private donations and or foundation grants to pay for operational expenses.Prospect (magazine)
Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics, economics and current affairs. Topics include British, European, and US politics, social issues, art, literature, cinema, science, the media, history, philosophy, and psychology. It features a mixture of lengthy analytic articles, first-person reportage, one-page columns, and shorter, quirky items.
The magazine was launched in October 1995 by David Goodhart, then a senior correspondent for the Financial Times, and chairman Derek Coombs. Goodhart came up with the idea of producing an essay-based monthly general interest magazine—a form then unknown in Britain—while covering German reunification as Bonn correspondent for the FT.
Contributors include Lionel Shriver, A. C. Grayling, Gordon Brown, Mohamed ElBaradei, Michael Lind, Michael Ignatieff, Geoff Dyer, Francis Fukuyama, Roger Scruton, Andrew Marr, John Kay, and J. M. Coetzee. Notable features of the magazine include head-to-head debates between two writers with opposing views on a subject; roundtable discussions, in which a series of experts with varying views on a given topic meet for a discussion, an edited transcript of which is published in the magazine; and interviews with major political and cultural figures (examples include Orhan Pamuk, Paul Wolfowitz, and Hilary Mantel).
Prospect received worldwide attention in October 2005 when it published its list of the world's top 100 public intellectuals, which included Noam Chomsky, Umberto Eco, Richard Dawkins, Steven Pinker and Christopher Hitchens. The magazine asked readers to vote for their top intellectual from the longlist; Chomsky was the eventual winner. Subsequent lists have continued to attract attention. Dawkins claimed the top spot in 2013.
Prospect has also published the winning short story of the Royal Society of Literature's V. S. Pritchett Memorial Prize since 2009.Think Tank (Australian TV series)
Think Tank is an Australian television quiz show based on the British program of the same name. It premiered on the ABC on 5 February 2018 and is hosted by Paul McDermott.Think Tank (Blur album)
Think Tank is the seventh studio album by the English rock band Blur, released in May 2003. Continuing the jam-based studio constructions of the group's previous album, 13 (1999), the album expanded on the use of sampled rhythm loops and brooding, heavy electronic sounds. There are also heavy influences from dance music, hip hop, dub, jazz, and African music, an indication of songwriter Damon Albarn's expanding musical interests.
Recording sessions started in November 2001, taking place in London, Morocco and Devon, and finished a year later. The album's primary producer was Ben Hillier with additional production by Norman Cook (Fatboy Slim), and William Orbit. At the start of the sessions, guitarist Graham Coxon had been in rehab for alcoholism. After he rejoined, relationships between him and the other members became strained. After initial recording sessions, Coxon left, leaving little of his presence on the finished album.
Think Tank is a loose concept album, which Albarn has stated is about "love and politics". Albarn, a pacifist, had spoken out against the invasion of Afghanistan and, after Western nations threatened to invade Iraq, took part in the widespread protests against the war. Anti-war themes are recurrent in the album as well as in associated artwork and promotional videos.
After leaking onto the internet in March, Think Tank was released on 5 May 2003 and entered the UK Albums Chart at number one, making it Blur's fifth consecutive studio album to reach the topspot. The album was later certified Gold. Think Tank also reached the top 20 in many other countries, including Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Norway and Japan. It was their highest charting album in the United States, reaching number 56 on the Billboard 200. The album produced three singles, which charted at number 5, number 18 and number 22 respectively on the UK Singles Chart. After the album was released, Blur announced a world tour with Simon Tong filling in for Coxon.
Think Tank was mostly well-received by critics.Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program
The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) is a non-profit program at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. TTCSP was established at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in 1989. The director is James McGann. The program conducts research on policy institutes around the world, and maintains a database of approximately 6,300 think tanks from across the world.Vinay Sahasrabuddhe
Vinay Prabhakar Sahasrabuddhe is an Indian politician & Member of Parliament of India representing state of Maharashtra in the Rajya Sabha. He is also serving as National Vice President of Bharatiya Janata Party. Mr. Sahasrabuddhe has been appointed as President of Indian Council for Cultural Relations by President of India. He is known as a political scholar and an occasional columnist. He is the Vice Chairman of Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini, a research and training academy for elected representatives & social activists. He heads BJP's think tank Public Policy Research Centre.Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies
The Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies is the 10th biggest think tank worldwide and the official think tank of the European People’s Party. Its mission is to offer decision makers and opinion leaders assistance in formulating new and effective policy options, as well as to put forward new ideas and provide a forum where they can be debated. The Centre’s goals are to have policy impact through concrete policy proposals, to shape European public opinion, and to be the key platform of cooperation for centre-right partners and experts. Currently, the president of the Martens Centre is former Slovak prime minister Mikuláš Dzurinda, who succeeded the centre’s founder Wilfried Martens in 2013.
The Martens Centre was founded in 2007 as a result of the revision of the EU Regulation that after 2007 allowed the creation of European foundations and think tanks affiliated to the European parties. The European People’s Party (EPP) established the Centre for European Studies (CES) as its official think tank. Later, during the EPP Congress in Dublin on 6 and 7 March 2014, the think tank was renamed in honour of its founder Wilfried Martens. It is now known as the "Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies".
The Martens Centre embodies a pan-European mindset, promoting Christian Democrat and conservative political values. It serves as a framework for national political foundations linked to member parties of the EPP and currently has more than 40 partners across Europe and the rest of the world. The Martens Centre hosts more than 100 events per year, and collaborates with more than 500 speakers and experts. Besides the organisation of various events (including the Economic Ideas Forum and Makerstown), round table discussions and interview series such as “I say Europe, you say…”, the Martens Centre also publishes numerous research papers on various topics, as well as a biannual academic journal, European View.