Theft

In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.[1][2][3]:1092–3 The word is also used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, embezzlement, larceny, looting, robbery, shoplifting, library theft, and fraud (obtaining money under false pretenses).[1][2] In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to be synonymous with larceny;[2] in others, theft has replaced larceny. Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief. The act of theft is also known by other terms such as stealing, thieving, and filching.[2]

Theft is the name of a statutory offence in California, Canada, England and Wales, Hong Kong,[4] Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland,[5] and the Australian states of South Australia,[6] and Victoria.[7]

Paul-Charles Chocarne-Moreau The Cunning Thief
Paul-Charles Chocarne-Moreau, The Cunning Thief, 1931

Elements

The actus reus of theft is usually defined as an unauthorized taking, keeping, or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and the intent permanently to deprive the owner or rightful possessor of that property or its use.

For example, if X goes to a restaurant and, by mistake, takes Y's scarf instead of her own, she has physically deprived Y of the use of the property (which is the actus reus) but the mistake prevents X from forming the mens rea (i.e., because she believes that she is the owner, she is not dishonest and does not intend to deprive the "owner" of it) so no crime has been committed at this point. But if she realises the mistake when she gets home and could return the scarf to Y, she will steal the scarf if she dishonestly keeps it (see theft by finding). Note that there may be civil liability for the torts of trespass to chattels or conversion in either eventuality.

By jurisdiction

Canada

Section 322(1) of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for theft in Canada:

322. (1) Every one commits theft who fraudulently and without colour of right takes, or fraudulently and without colour of right converts to his/her use or to the use of another person, anything, whether animate or inanimate, with intent

(a) to deprive, temporarily or absolutely, the owner of it, or a person who has a special property or interest in it, of the thing or of his property or interest in it;
(b) to pledge it or deposit it as security;
(c) to part with it under a condition with respect to its return that the person who parts with it may be unable to perform; or
(d) to deal with it in such a manner that it cannot be restored in the condition in which it was at the time it was taken or converted.[8]

Sections 323 to 333 provide for more specific instances and exclusions:

  • theft from oyster beds (s. 323)
  • theft by bailee of things under seizure (s. 324)
  • exception when agent is pledging goods (s. 325)
  • theft of telecommunications service (s. 326)
  • possession of device to obtain telecommunication facility or service (s. 327)
  • theft by or from person having special property or interest (s. 328)
  • theft by person required to account (s. 330)
  • theft by person holding power of attorney (s. 331)
  • misappropriation of money held under direction (s. 332)
  • exception for ore taken for exploration or scientific research (s. 333)

In the general definition above, the Supreme Court of Canada has construed "anything" very broadly, stating that it is not restricted to tangibles, but includes intangibles. To be the subject of theft it must, however:

  • be property of some sort;
  • be property capable of being
  • taken (therefore intangibles are excluded); or
  • converted (and may be an intangible);
  • taken or converted in a way that deprives the owner of his/her proprietary interest in some way.[9]

Because of this, confidential information cannot be the subject of theft, as it is not capable of being taken as only tangibles can be taken. It cannot be converted, not because it is an intangible, but because, save in very exceptional far‑fetched circumstances, the owner would never be deprived of it.[9] However, the theft of trade secrets in certain circumstances does constitute part of the offence of economic espionage, which can be prosecuted under s. 19 of the Security of Information Act.[10]

For the purposes of punishment, Section 334 divides theft into two separate offences, according to the value and nature of the goods stolen:

  • If the thing stolen is worth more than $5000 or is a testamentary instrument the offence is commonly referred to as Theft Over $5000 and is an indictable offence with a maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment.
  • Where the stolen item is not a testamentary instrument and is not worth more than $5000 it is known as Theft Under $5000 and is a hybrid offence, meaning that it can be treated either as an indictable offence or a less serious summary conviction offence, depending on the choice of the prosecutor.
  • if dealt with as an indictable offence, it is punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, and,
  • if treated as a summary conviction offence, it is punishable by 6 months imprisonment, a fine of $2000 or both.

Where a motor vehicle is stolen, Section 333.1 provides for a maximum punishment of 10 years for an indictable offence (and a minimum sentence of six months for a third or subsequent conviction), and a maximum sentence of 18 months on summary conviction.

Hong Kong

Article 2 of the Theft Ordinance provides the general definition of theft in Hong Kong:

(1) A person commits theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it; and thief and steal shall be construed accordingly.

(2) It is immaterial whether the appropriation is made with a view to gain, or is made for the thief’s own benefit.[4]

The Netherlands

Theft is a crime with related articles in the Wetboek van Strafrecht.

  • Article 310 prohibits theft (Dutch: diefstal), which is defined as taking away any object that (partly) belongs to someone else, with the intention to appropriate it illegally. Maximum imprisonment is 4 years or a fine of the fifth category.[11][12]
  • Article 311 consists of the following:
    • Part 1. Punishable with maximum imprisonment of 6 years or a fine of the fourth category[11] is:
      • 1. Theft of cattle;
      • 2. Theft during certain emergency occasions;
      • 3. Theft during night in a residence by someone who is there without knowledge or permission of the owner;
      • 4. Theft by 2 or more organized people;
      • 5. Theft, where the thief got access by means of violence, climbing in, using false keys or disguise;
      • 6. Terroristic theft.
    • Part 2. When theft if committed as in 3 with the situation of 4 and 5, the punishment is a maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category.[13][14]
  • Article 312 consists of the following:
    • Part 1 prohibits robbery (Dutch: beroving), which is defined as taking away any object with violence or with threat of violence. Maximum imprisonment is 9 years or a fine with the fifth category[13]
    • Part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth category[13] when:
      • 1. Robbery was committed during night, in a residence, on the public road or moving train;
      • 2. Robbery was committed by 2 or more people;
      • 3. Robbery was committed by violence, climbing in, false key or disguise;
      • 4. Robbery caused severe injury;
      • 5. Robbery was terroristic.
    • Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 15 years instead of 12 when robbery caused death to the victim.[15]
  • Article 314 consists of the following:
    • Part 1 prohibits poaching (Dutch: stroperij), which is defined as taking away without violence the following: clay, sand, earth, raw wood, fallen vegetables (see the source for a complete list). Maximum imprisonment is one month or a fine of the second category.[16]
    • Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to 2 months when the crime is committed again less than 2 years after the first time.[17]
  • Article 315 increases the maximum imprisonment and fine category when poaching is done with vehicles and draft animals. Maximum imprisonment is 3 years or a fine of the fourth category.[11][18]

Republic of Ireland

Theft is a statutory offence, created by section 4(1) of the Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001.[19]

Romania

According to the Romanian Penal Code a person committing theft (furt) can face a penalty ranging from 1 to 20 years.[20][21]

Degrees of theft:

  • Article 208: Theft (1 to 12 years)—When a person steals an object, or uses a vehicle without permission and no aggravating circumstances apply.
  • Article 209: Qualified theft (3 to 20 years)
  • Aggravating circumstances (3 to 15 years): a) by two or more persons together; b) by a person in possession of a gun or a narcotic substance; c) by a masked or disguised person; d) against a person who cannot defend his or herself; e) in a public place; f) in a public transportation vehicle; g) during nighttime; h) during a natural disaster; i) through burglary, or by using an original or copied key; j) stealing national treasures; k) stealing official identity papers with the intention to make use of them; l) stealing official identity badges with the intention to make use of them.
  • Aggravating circumstances (4 to 18 years): a) stealing petrol-based products directly from transportation pipes and vehicles or deposits; b) stealing components from national electrification, telecommunication, irrigation networks or from any type of navigational system; c) stealing a siren; d) stealing a public intervention vehicle or device; e) stealing something which jeopardises the safety of public transportation.
  • Aggravating circumstances (10 to 20 years): when the consequences are extremely grave and affect public institutions or the material stolen is worth over 200,000 RON (approximately US$80,000).

United Kingdom

Fortunes of a Street Waif
Two young waifs steal a fine pair of boots.

England and Wales

In England and Wales, theft is a statutory offence, created by section 1(1) of the Theft Act 1968. This offence replaces the former offences of larceny, embezzlement and fraudulent conversion.[22]

The marginal note to section 1 of the Theft Act 1968 describes it as a "basic definition" of theft. Sections 1(1) and (2) provide:

1.-(1) A person is guilty of theft, if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it; and "thief" and "steal" shall be construed accordingly.
(2) It is immaterial whether the appropriation is made with a view to gain, or is made for the thief’s own benefit.

Sections 2 to 6 of the Theft Act 1968 have effect as regards the interpretation and operation of section 1 of that Act. Except as otherwise provided by that Act, sections 2 to 6 of that Act apply only for the purposes of section 1 of that Act.[23]

Section 3 provides:

(1) Any assumption by a person of the rights of an owner amounts to an appropriation, and this includes, where he has come by the property (innocently or not) without stealing it, any later assumption of a right to it by keeping or dealing with it as owner.

(2) Where property or a right or interest in property is or purports to be transferred for value to a person acting in good faith, no later assumption by him of rights which he believed himself to be acquiring shall, by reason of any defect in the transferor’s title, amount to theft of the property.

See R v Hinks and Lawrence v Metropolitan Police Commissioner.

Section 4(1) provides that:

"Property" includes money and all other property, real or personal, including things in action and other intangible property.

Edward Griew said that section 4(1) could, without changing its meaning, be reduced, by omitting words, to:

"Property" includes … all … property.[24]

Sections 4(2) to (4) provide that the following can only be stolen under certain circumstances:

  • Land or things forming part of land and severed from it (s. 4(2))
  • Mushrooms growing wild on any land, or the flowers, fruit or foliage of plants growing wild on any land (s. 4(3))
  • Wild creatures or the carcases of wild creatures (s. 4(4))

Intangible property

Confidential information[25] and trade secrets[26] are not property within the meaning of section 4.

The words "other intangible property" include export quotas that are transferable for value on a temporary or permanent basis.[27]

Electricity

Electricity cannot be stolen. It is not property within the meaning of section 4 and is not appropriated by switching on a current.[28] Cf. the offence of abstracting electricity under section 13.

Section 5 "belonging to another" requires a distinction to be made between ownership, possession and control:

  • ownership is where a person is not legally accountable to anyone else for the use of the property:
  • possession is where a person is only accountable to the owner for the use of the property; and
  • control is where a person is only accountable to two people for the use of the property.

So if A buys a car for cash, A will be the owner. If A then lends the car to B Ltd (a company), B Ltd will have possession. C, an employee of B Ltd then uses the car and has control. If C uses the car in an unauthorised way, C will steal the car from A and B Ltd. This means that it is possible to steal one's own property.

In R v Turner,[29] the owner removed his car from the forecourt of a garage where it had been left for collection after repair. He intended to avoid paying the bill. There was an appropriation of the car because it had been physically removed but there were two issues to be decided:

  • did the car "belong to another"? The garage had a lien i.e. a "proprietary right or interest" in the car as security for the unpaid bill and this gave the garage a better right than the owner to possess the car at the relevant time.
  • what was the relevance of Turner's belief that he could not steal his own property? The defence of mistake of law only applies if the defendant honestly believes that he has a right in law to act in the given way. Generalised and non-specific beliefs about what the law might permit are not a defence.

Section 6 "with the intent to permanently deprive the other of it" is sufficiently flexible to include situations where the property is later returned. For example, suppose that B, a keen football fan, has bought a ticket for the next home match. T takes the ticket, watches the match and then returns the ticket to B. In this instance, all that T returns is a piece of paper. Its value as a licence to enter the stadium on a particular day has been permanently lost. Hence, T steals the ticket. Similarly, if T takes a valuable antique but later repents and returns the goods, T has committed the actus reus with the mens rea. The fact that T's conscience forces a change of mind is relevant only for sentencing.

Alternative verdict

The offense created by section 12(1) of the Theft Act 1968 (TWOC) is available an alternative verdict on an indictment for theft.[30]

Visiting forces

Theft is an offence against property for the purposes of section 3 of the Visiting Forces Act 1952.[31]

Mode of trial and sentence

Theft is triable either way.[32] A person guilty of theft is liable, on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years,[33] or on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to a fine not exceeding the prescribed sum, or to both.[34]

Aggravated theft

The only offence of aggravated theft is robbery, contrary to section 8 of the Theft Act 1968.[35]

Stolen goods

For the purposes of the provisions of the Theft Act 1968 which relate to stolen goods, goods obtain in England or Wales or elsewhere by blackmail or fraud are regarded as stolen, and the words "steal", "theft" and "thief" are construed accordingly.[36]

Sections 22 to 24 and 26 to 28 of the Theft Act 1968 contain references to stolen goods.

Handling stolen goods

The offence of handling stolen goods, contrary to section 22(1) of the Theft Act 1968, can only be committed "otherwise than in the course of stealing".[37]

Similar or associated offences

According to its title, the Theft Act 1968 revises the law as to theft and similar or associated offences. See also the Theft Act 1978.

Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, theft is a statutory offence, created by section 1 of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969.[38]

United States

Theft-p1000763
Bicycles can occasionally be stolen, even when locked up, by removing the wheel or cutting the lock that holds them.

In the United States, plenary regulation of theft exists only at the state level, in the sense that most thefts by default will be prosecuted by the state in which the theft occurred. The federal government has criminalized certain narrow categories of theft which directly affect federal agencies or interstate commerce.[39] The Model Penal Code includes categories of theft by unlawful taking or by unlawfully disposing of property, theft by deception (fraud), theft by extortion, theft by failure to take measures to return lost or mislaid or mistakenly delivered property, theft by receipt of stolen property, theft by failing to make agreed disposition of received funds, and theft of services.[3]:1090–3

Although many U.S. states have retained larceny as the primary offense,[40] some have now adopted theft provisions.

Grand theft, also called grand larceny, is a term used throughout the United States designating theft that is large in magnitude or serious in potential penological consequences. Grand theft is contrasted with petty theft, also called petit theft, that is of smaller magnitude or lesser seriousness.

Theft laws, including the distinction between grand theft and petty theft for cases falling within its jurisdiction, vary by state. This distinction is established by statute, as are the penological consequences.[41] Most commonly, statutes establishing the distinction between grand theft and petty theft do so on the basis of the value of the money or property taken by the thief or lost by the victim,[42] with the dollar threshold for grand theft varying from state to state. Most commonly, the penological consequences of the distinction include the significant one that grand theft can be treated as a felony, while petty theft is generally treated as a misdemeanor.

In some states, grand theft of a vehicle may be charged as "grand theft auto" (see motor vehicle theft for more information).

Repeat offenders who continue to steal may become subject to life imprisonment in certain states.[43]

Sometimes the federal anti-theft-of-government-property law 18 U.S.C. § 640 is used to prosecute cases where the Espionage Act would otherwise be involved; the theory being that by retaining sensitive information, the defendant has taken a 'thing of value' from the government. For examples, see the Amerasia case and United States v. Manning.

Alabama

When stolen property exceeds the amount of $500 it is a felony offense.[44] If property is less than $500, then it is a Class A misdemeanor.[45] Unlike some other states, shoplifting is not defined by a separate statute but falls under the state's general theft statute.[46]

Alaska

The Alaska State Code does not use the terms "grand theft" or "grand larceny." However, it specifies that theft of property valued at more than $1,000 is a felony whereas thefts of lesser amounts are misdemeanors. The felony categories (class 1 and class 2 theft) also include theft of firearms; property taken from the person of another; vessel or aircraft safety or survival equipment; and of access devices.[47]

Arizona

Felony theft is committed when the value of the stolen property exceeds $1000. Regardless of the value of the item, if it is a firearm or an animal taken for the purpose of animal fighting, then the theft is a Class 6 Felony.[48]

California

The Theft Act of 1927 consolidated a variety of common law crimes into theft. The state now distinguishes between two types of theft, grand theft and petty theft.[49] The older crimes of embezzlement, larceny, and stealing, and any preexisting references to them now fall under the theft statute.[50]

There are a number of criminal statutes in the California Penal Code defining grand theft in different amounts. Grand theft generally consists of the theft of something of value over $950 (including money, labor or property but is lower with respect to various specified property),[51] Theft is also considered grand theft when more than $250 in crops or marine life forms are stolen, “when the property is taken from the person of another,” or when the property stolen is an automobile, farm animal, or firearm.[52]

Petty theft is the default category for all other thefts.[53]

Grand theft is punishable by up to a year in jail or prison, and may be charged (depending upon the circumstances) as a misdemeanor or felony,[54] while petty theft is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine or imprisonment not exceeding six months in jail or both.[55]

Florida

In general, any property taken that carries a value of more than $300 can be considered grand theft in certain circumstances.[56]

Georgia

In Georgia, when a theft offense involves property valued at $500 or less, the crime is punishable as a misdemeanor. Any theft of property determined to be exceeding $500 may be treated as grand theft and charged as a felony.[57]

Hawaii

Theft in the first or second degree is a felony. Theft in the first degree means theft above $20,000 or of a firearm or explosive; or theft over $300 during a declared emergency.[58] Theft in the second degree means theft above $750, theft from the person of another, or agricultural products over $100 or aquacultural products from an enclosed property.[59]

Illinois

Theft is a felony if the value of the property exceeds $300 or the property is stolen from the person of another. Thresholds at $10,000, $100,000, and $500,000 determine how severe the punishment can be. The location from which property was stolen is also a factor in sentencing.[60]

Kentucky

KRS 514.030 states that theft by unlawful taking or disposition is generally a Class A misdemeanor unless the items stolen are a firearm, anhydrous ammonia, a controlled substance valued at less than $10,000 or any other item or combination of items valued $500 or higher and less than $10,000 in which case the theft is a Class D felony. Theft of items valued at $10,000 or higher and less than $1,000,000 is a Class C felony. Theft of items valued at $1,000,000 or more is a Class B felony, as is first offense theft of anhydrous ammonia for the express purpose of manufacturing methamphetamines in violation of KRS 218A.1432. In the latter case, subsequent offenses are a Class A felony.[61]

Massachusetts

In Massachusetts, theft may generally be charged as a felony alue of stolen property is greater than $250.[62]

Missouri

Stealing is a felony if the value of stolen property exceeds $500. It is also a felony if “The actor physically takes the property appropriated from the person of the victim” or the stolen property is a vehicle, legal document, credit card, firearm, explosive, U.S. flag on display, livestock animal, fish with value exceeding $75, captive wildlife, controlled substance, or ammonia.[63] Stealing in excess of $25,000 is usually a class B felony (sentence: 5–15 years),[64] while any other felony stealing (not including the felonies of burglary or robbery) that does not involve chemicals is a class C felony (sentence: up to 7 years). Non-felony stealing is a class A misdemeanor (sentence: up to 1 year).

New York

Grand larceny consists of stealing property with a value exceeding $1000; or stealing a public record, secret scientific material, firearm, credit or debit card, ammonia, telephone with service, or motor vehicle or religious item with value exceeding $100; or stealing from the person of another or by extortion or from an ATM. The degree of grand larceny is increased if the theft was from an ATM, through extortion involving fear, or involved a value exceeding the thresholds of $3,000, $50,000, or $1,000,000.[65]

Vermont

Grand Larceny: Value of goods exceed $900 (13 V.S.A. § 2501)

Virginia

Grand Larceny: Value of goods exceed $200 (Virginia Code § 18.2-95)

Washington State

Theft of goods valued between $750 and $5000 is second-degree theft, a Class C felony.[66] Theft of goods valued above $5000, of a search-and-rescue dog on duty, of public records from a public office or official, of metal wire from a utility, or of an access device, is a Class B felony,[67] as is theft of a motor vehicle [68] or a firearm.[69]

Australia

Actus reus

West Lavington, the Robbers' Stone - geograph.org.uk - 1238637
The Robbers Stone, West Lavington, Wiltshire. This memorial warns against thieving by recording the fate of several who attempted highway robbery on the spot in 1839

Victoria

Theft is defined in the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) as when a person "dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it.".[70] The actus reus and mens rea are defined as follows: Appropriation is defined in section 73(4) of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) as the assumption of any of the owners rights.[71] It does not have to be all the owner's rights, as long as at least one right has been assumed.[72] If the owner gave their consent to the appropriation there cannot be an appropriation.[73] However, if this consent is obtained by deception, this consent is vitiated.

Property – defined in section 71(1) of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) as being both tangible property, including money and intangible property.[74] Information has been held not be property.[75]

Belonging to another – section 73(5) of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) provides that property belongs to another if that person has ownership, possession, or a proprietary interest in the property. Property can belong to more than one person. sections 73(9) & 73(10) deal with situations where the accused receives property under an obligation or by mistake.[71]

South Australia

Theft is defined in section 134 of the Criminal Consolidation Act 1935 (SA) as being where a person deals with property dishonestly, without the owners consent and intending to deprive the owner of their property, or make a serious encroachment on the proprietary rights of the owner.[6]

Under this law, encroachment on proprietary rights means that the property is dealt with in a way that creates a substantial risk that the property will not be returned to the owner, or that the value of the property will be greatly diminished when the owner does get it back. Also, where property is treated as the defendants own property to dispose of, disregarding the actual property owner's rights.[76]

For a basic offence, a person found guilty of this offence is liable for imprisonment of up to 10 years.

For an aggravated offence, a person found guilty of this offence is liable for imprisonment of up to 15 years.

Mens rea

Victoria

Intention to permanently deprive – defined at s.73(12) as treating property as it belongs to the accused, rather than the owner.

Dishonestly – section 73(2) of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) creates a negative definition of the term 'dishonestly'. The section deems only three circumstances when the accused is deemed to have been acting honestly. These are a belief in a legal claim of right, a belief that the owner would have consented, or a belief the owner could not be found.[71]

South Australia

Whether a person's conduct is dishonest is a question of fact to be determined by the jury, based on their own knowledge and experience. As with the definition in Victoria, it contains definitions of what is not dishonesty, including a belief in a legal claim of right or a belief the owner could not be found.[77]

West Indies

In the British West Indies, especially Grenada, there have been a spate of large-scale thefts of tons of sand from beaches.[78] Both Grenada and Jamaica are considering increasing fines and jail time for the thefts.[78]

Religious views and practices

Islam

In parts of the world which govern with sharia law, the punishment for theft is amputation of the right hand if the thief does not repent. This ruling is derived from sura 5 verse 38 of the Quran which states As to the thief, Male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power. This is viewed as being a deterrent.[79][80]

Buddhism

In Buddhism, one of the five precepts prohibits theft, and involves the intention to steal what one perceives as not belonging to oneself ("what is not given") and acting successfully upon that intention. The severity of the act of theft is judged by the worth of the owner and the worth of that which is stolen. Underhand dealings, fraud, cheating and forgery are also included in this precept.[81][82] Professions that are seen to violate the precept against theft are working in the gambling industry or marketing products that are not actually required for the customer.[83]

Psychology

Possible causes for acts of theft include both economic and non-economic motivations. For example, an act of theft may be a response to the offender's feelings of anger, grief, depression, anxiety and compulsion, boredom, power and control issues, low self-esteem, a sense of entitlement, an effort to conform or fit in with a peer group, or rebellion.[84] Theft from work may be attributed to factors that include greed, perceptions of economic need, support of a drug addiction, a response to or revenge for work-related issues, rationalization that the act is not actually one of stealing, response to opportunistic temptation, or the same emotional issues that may be involved in any other act of theft.[84]:438

The most common reasons for shoplifting include participation in an organized shoplifting ring, opportunistic theft, compulsive acts of theft, thrill-seeking, and theft due to need.[85] Studies focusing on shoplifting by teenagers suggest that minors shoplift for reasons including the novelty of the experience, peer pressure, the desire to obtain goods that a minor cannot legally purchase, and for economic reasons, as well as self-indulgence and rebellion against parents.[86]

See also

Specific forms of theft and other related offences

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Theft". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Criminal Law – Cases and Materials, 7th ed. 2012, Wolters Kluwer Law & Business; John Kaplan, Robert Weisberg, Guyora Binder, ISBN 978-1-4548-0698-1, [1]
  3. ^ a b "Cap. 210 THEFT ORDINANCE". legislation.gov.hk.
  4. ^ "Section 4, Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001". Irish Statute Book.
  5. ^ a b Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 (SA) s 134 Theft (and receiving).
  6. ^ Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 74 Theft.
  7. ^ Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c c-45, s 322.
  8. ^ a b R. v. Stewart, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 963. Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision at LexUM
  9. ^ Security of Information Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. O-5, s.19
  10. ^ a b c € 19,500
  11. ^ "wetten.nl – Wet- en regelgeving – Wetboek van Strafrecht – BWBR0001854". overheid.nl.
  12. ^ a b c € 78,000
  13. ^ "wetten.nl – Wet- en regelgeving – Wetboek van Strafrecht – BWBR0001854". overheid.nl.
  14. ^ "wetten.nl – Wet- en regelgeving – Wetboek van Strafrecht – BWBR0001854". overheid.nl.
  15. ^ € 3,900
  16. ^ "wetten.nl – Wet- en regelgeving – Wetboek van Strafrecht – BWBR0001854". overheid.nl.
  17. ^ "wetten.nl – Wet- en regelgeving – Wetboek van Strafrecht – BWBR0001854". overheid.nl.
  18. ^ section 4(1) of the Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001.
  19. ^ "Penal Code of Romania, art. 208". Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  20. ^ "Penal Code of Romania, art. 209". Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  21. ^ Griew, Edward. The Theft Acts 1968 and 1978. Sweet and Maxwell. Fifth Edition. 1986. Paragraph 2-01 at page 12.
  22. ^ The Theft Act 1968, section 1(3)
  23. ^ Griew, Edward. The Theft Acts 1968 and 1978. Sweet and Maxwell. Fifth Edition. 1986. Paragraph 2-03 at page 13.
  24. ^ Oxford v Moss (1979) 68 Cr App Rep 183, [1979] Crim LR 119, DC
  25. ^ R v Absolom, The Times, 14 September 1983
  26. ^ Attorney General of Hong Kong v Nai-Keung [1987] 1 WLR 1339, PC
  27. ^ Low v Blease (1975) 119 SJ 695, [1975] Crim LR 513, DC
  28. ^ R v Turner (No 2) [1971] 1 WLR 901, [1971] 2 All ER 441, [1971] RTR 396, sub nom R v Turner, 115 SJ 405, sub nom R v Turner (Frank Richard) 55 Cr App R 336, CA
  29. ^ The Theft Act 1968, section 12(4)
  30. ^ The Visiting Forces Act 1952, section 3(6) and Schedule, paragraph 3(g) (as inserted by the Theft Act 1968, Schedule 2, Part III)
  31. ^ The Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, section 17(1) and Schedule 1, paragraph 28
  32. ^ The Theft Act 1968, section 7
  33. ^ The Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, section 32(1)
  34. ^ Griew, Edward. The Theft Acts 1968 and 1978. Sweet and Maxwell. Fifth Edition. 1986. Paragraph 3-01 at page 79.
  35. ^ The Theft Act 1968, section 24(4) as amended by the Fraud Act 2006
  36. ^ The Theft Act 1968, section 22(1)
  37. ^ section 1 of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969.
  38. ^ Link to Justice.gov concerning federal crimes https://www.justice.gov/usam/usam-9-61000-crimes-involving-property
  39. ^ See, e.g., N.Y. Penal law sections 155.00-155.45, found at NY Assembly official web site. Accessed March 17, 2008.
  40. ^ John, Gramlich; Zafft, Katie (31 March 2016). "Updating State Theft Laws Can Bring Less Incarceration—and Less Crime". Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  41. ^ Larson, Aaron (4 June 2016). "Petty Larceny and Grand Larceny Laws". ExpertLaw. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  42. ^ See Rummel v. Estelle, 445 U.S. 263 (1980) (upholding life sentence for fraudulent use of a credit card to obtain $80 worth of goods or services, passing a forged check in the amount of $28.36, and obtaining $120.75 by false pretenses) and Lockyer v. Andrade, 538 U.S. 63 (2003) (upholding sentence of 50 years to life for stealing videotapes on two separate occasions).
  43. ^ "» Alabama Code 13A-8-4.1. Theft of property in the third degreeLawServer". www.lawserver.com. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  44. ^ "» Alabama Code 13A-8-5. Theft of property in the fourth degreeLawServer". www.lawserver.com. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  45. ^ "Busted: What Happens When Shoplifters". Talk of the Nation. NHPR. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  46. ^ "Alaska Statutes, Sec. 11.46.130". Alaska State Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  47. ^ "Arizona Revised Statutes, Sec. 13-1802. Theft; classification; definitions". Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  48. ^ California Penal Code Section 486. For the entire portion of the Penal Code covering theft, leginfo.ca Archived 2010-06-28 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ California Penal Code Section 490a.
  50. ^ California Penal Code Section 487.
  51. ^ "California Penal Code, Sec. 487". California legislative Information. California State Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  52. ^ California Penal Code Section 488.
  53. ^ California Penal Code Section 489.
  54. ^ California Penal Code Section 490.
  55. ^ "Florida Statutes, Sec. 812.014, Theft". Online Sunshine. Florida Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  56. ^ "O.C.G.A. 16-8-12, Penalties for violation of Code Sections 16-8-2 through 16-8-9". Justia. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  57. ^ "Hawaiii Revised Statutes, Sec. 708-830.5 Theft in the first degree". Hawaii State Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  58. ^ "Hawaiii Revised Statutes, Sec. 708-831 Theft in the second degree". Hawaii State Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  59. ^ "720 ILCS 5/16-1, Theft". Illinois Compiled Statutes. Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  60. ^ "Kentucky Revised Statutes, Sec. 514.030 Theft by unlawful taking or disposition -- Penalties". Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. Kentucky Legislature. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  61. ^ "Crimes & Punishments, Crimes against Property, Chapter 266: Section 30 Larceny; General Provisions and Penalties". Massachusetts General Laws. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  62. ^ "RSMO Sec. 570.030. Stealing — penalties". Revised Statutes of Missouri. Revisor of Statutes, State of Missouri. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  63. ^ "RSMO Sec. 558.011. Sentence of imprisonment, terms — conditional release". Revised Statutes of Missouri. Revisor of Statutes, State of Missouri. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  64. ^ "Article 155 - New York State Penal Law Code - Larceny". Ypdcrime.com. 2014-01-20. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  65. ^ RCW 9A.56.040
  66. ^ RCW 9A.56.030
  67. ^ RCW 9A.56.065
  68. ^ RCW 9A.56.300
  69. ^ Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 72 Basic definition of theft.
  70. ^ a b c Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 73 Further explanation of theft.
  71. ^ Stein v Henshall [1976] VicRp 62, [1976] VR 612, Supreme Court (Vic, Australia).
  72. ^ Baruday v R [1984] VicRp 59, [1984] A Crim R 190612, Supreme Court (Full Court) (Vic, Australia).
  73. ^ Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 71 Definitions.
  74. ^ Oxford v Moss [1979] Crim LR 119, Divisional Court, Queens Bench Division (UK).
  75. ^ "Theft and Stealing Offences South Australia | Criminal legal". sa.criminallegal.com.au. Retrieved 2016-03-12.
  76. ^ Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 (SA) s 131 Dishonesty.
  77. ^ a b AP, "Sand stolen across Caribbean for construction: 'We will lose our beaches' unless crime is taken seriously, one official says", found at MSNBC article. Accessed October 27, 2008.
  78. ^ "Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement". usc.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-05-09.
  79. ^ Contemporary Interpretation of Islamic Law – Page 85, Hassan Affi – 2014
  80. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2000). Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings (PDF). Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 0-415-17357-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2017.
  81. ^ Harvey, Peter (2000). An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-511-07584-1.
  82. ^ Johansen, Barry-Craig P.; Gopalakrishna, D. (21 July 2016). "A Buddhist View of Adult Learning in the Workplace". Advances in Developing Human Resources. 8 (3): 342. doi:10.1177/1523422306288426.
  83. ^ a b Cooper, Cary L. (2012). Risky Business: Psychological, Physical and Financial Costs of High Risk. Gower Publishing, Ltd. p. 442. ISBN 1409460185. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  84. ^ Sali, P.S.; Julka, Tapasya; Sharma, Asha (December 2012). "Shoplifting: Leading to High Shrinkage in Retail Industry" (PDF). Zenith International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2 (12): 188. ISSN 2231-5780. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  85. ^ Prayag, G.; Juwaheer, T.D. (2 February 2019). "Exploring Teenagers Shoplifting Motivations and Perceptions of Deterrence Measures – A Case Study of Mauritius". University of Mauritius Research Journal. 15: 47. Retrieved 17 February 2019.

References

  • Allen, Michael. Textbook on Criminal Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (2005) ISBN 0-19-927918-7.
  • Criminal Law Revision Committee. 8th Report. Theft and Related Offences. Cmnd. 2977
  • Green, Stuart P. Thirteen Ways to Steal a Bicycle: Theft Law in the Information Age. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (2012). ISBN 978-0674047310
  • Griew, Edward. Theft Acts 1968 & 1978, Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 0-421-19960-1
  • Ormerod, David. Smith and Hogan Criminal Law, LexisNexis, London. (2005) ISBN 0-406-97730-5
  • Maniscalco, Fabio, Theft of Art (in Italian), Naples – Massa (2000) ISBN 88-87835-00-4
  • Smith, J. C. Law of Theft, LexisNexis: London. (1997) ISBN 0-406-89545-7.

External links

  • Quotations related to Theft at Wikiquote
  • The dictionary definition of scrump at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of theft at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Theft at Wikimedia Commons
Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement (colloquially referred to as piracy) is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is typically the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement.

Copyright infringement disputes are usually resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement, especially when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system. Shifting public expectations, advances in digital technology, and the increasing reach of the Internet have led to such widespread, anonymous infringement that copyright-dependent industries now focus less on pursuing individuals who seek and share copyright-protected content online, and more on expanding copyright law to recognize and penalize, as indirect infringers, the service providers and software distributors who are said to facilitate and encourage individual acts of infringement by others.

Estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary widely and depend on many factors. Nevertheless, copyright holders, industry representatives, and legislators have long characterized copyright infringement as piracy or theft – language which some U.S. courts now regard as pejorative or otherwise contentious.

Grand Theft Auto

Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is an action-adventure video game series created by David Jones and Mike Dailly; the later titles of which were created by brothers Dan and Sam Houser, Leslie Benzies and Aaron Garbut. It is primarily developed by Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design), and published by Rockstar Games. The name of the series references the term used in the US for motor vehicle theft.

Most games in the series are set in fictional locales modelled on cities, usually either Liberty City, Vice City or San Andreas, which are stand-ins for New York City, Miami and the state of California, respectively. The first game encompassed three fictional cities, while subsequent titles tend to emphasise a single setting. Gameplay focuses on an open world where the player can choose missions to progress an overall story, as well as engaging in side activities, all consisting of action-adventure, driving, third-person shooting, carjacking, occasional role-playing, stealth and racing elements. The series focuses on many different protagonists who attempt to rise through the ranks of the criminal underworld, although their motives for doing so vary in each game. The series also has elements of the earlier beat 'em up games from the 16-bit era. The antagonists are commonly characters who have betrayed the protagonist or his organisation, or characters who have the most impact impeding the protagonist's progress. Film and music veterans have voiced characters, including Ray Liotta, Burt Reynolds, Dennis Hopper, Samuel L. Jackson, James Woods, Debbie Harry, Phil Collins, Axl Rose and Peter Fonda.British video game developer DMA Design began the series in 1997. As of 2014, it has eleven stand-alone games and four expansion packs. The third chronological title, Grand Theft Auto III, is considered a landmark title, as it brought the series to a 3D setting and more immersive experience. Subsequent titles have followed and built upon the concept established in Grand Theft Auto III, and received significant acclaim. They have influenced many other open-world action games, and led to the label Grand Theft Auto clone on similar games.

The series has been critically acclaimed and commercially successful, having shipped more than 250 million units, making it the fourth-highest selling video game franchise of all time, behind Nintendo's Mario and Pokémon franchises, and Tetris. In 2006, Grand Theft Auto was featured in a list of British design icons in the Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum. In 2013, The Telegraph ranked Grand Theft Auto among Britain's most successful exports. The series has also been controversial for its adult nature and violent themes.

Grand Theft Auto (video game)

Grand Theft Auto is an action-adventure video game developed by DMA Design and published by BMG Interactive. It was first released in Europe and North America in October 1997 for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. It was later re-released on 12 December 1997 in Europe and 30 June 1998 in North America for the PlayStation. It is the first instalment of the Grand Theft Auto series, to be followed by 1999's Grand Theft Auto 2. The series, which has led to five main entries and several special edition games over 16 years, has sold more than 150 million units as of September 2013. The story follows a group of criminals in three fictionalised versions of US cities as they perform bank robberies, assassinations, and other illegal activities for their respective crime syndicates.

The game was originally intended to be named Race'n'Chase and to be developed for the Commodore Amiga, starting in 1996. However, it was nearly cancelled due to production issues.Its successor, Grand Theft Auto 2, was released in October 1999.

Grand Theft Auto III

Grand Theft Auto III is an action-adventure video game developed by DMA Design and published by Rockstar Games. It was released in October 2001 for the PlayStation 2, in May 2002 for Microsoft Windows, and in October 2003 for the Xbox. An enhanced version of the game was released on mobile platforms in 2011, for the game's tenth anniversary. It is the fifth title in the Grand Theft Auto series, and the first main entry since 1999's Grand Theft Auto 2.

Set within the fictional Liberty City, based on New York City, the game follows Claude after he is left for dead and quickly becomes entangled in a world of gangs, crime and corruption. The game is played from a third-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. The open world design lets players freely roam the three islands of Liberty City. Development was shared between DMA Design, based in Edinburgh, and Rockstar, based in New York City. Much of the development work involved transforming popular elements from the Grand Theft Auto series into a fully 3D world for the first time. The game was delayed following the September 11 attacks to allow the team to change references and gameplay deemed inappropriate.

Upon release, Grand Theft Auto III received critical acclaim, with praise particularly directed at its concept and gameplay. However, the game also generated controversy, with criticism directed at its depictions of violence and sex. It became the best-selling video game of 2001, and has sold over 14.5 million copies since. Considered by many critics as one of the most significant titles of the sixth generation of video games, and one of the greatest video games of all time, it won a number of year-end accolades, including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. Since its release, it has received ports to many different gaming platforms. Its successor, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, was released in October 2002.

Grand Theft Auto IV

Grand Theft Auto IV is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles on 29 April 2008, and for Microsoft Windows on 2 December 2008. It is the eleventh title in the Grand Theft Auto series, and the first main entry since 2004's Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Set within the fictional Liberty City (based on New York City), the single-player story follows a war veteran, Niko Bellic, and his attempts to escape his past while under pressure from loan sharks and mob bosses. The open world design lets players freely roam Liberty City, consisting of three main islands.

The game is played from a third-person perspective and its world is navigated on-foot or by vehicle. Throughout the single-player mode, players play as Niko Bellic. An online multiplayer mode is included with the game, allowing up to 32 players to engage in both co-operative and competitive gameplay in a recreation of the single-player setting. Two expansion packs were later released for the game, The Lost and Damned and The Ballad of Gay Tony, which both feature new plots that are interconnected with the main Grand Theft Auto IV storyline, and follow new protagonists.

Development began soon after the release of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas and was shared between many of Rockstar's studios worldwide. The game introduced a shift to a more realistic and detailed style and tone for the series. Unlike previous entries, Grand Theft Auto IV lacked a strong cinematic influence, as the team attempted an original approach to the story. As part of their research for the open world, the developers conducted field research around New York throughout development and captured footage for the design team.

Following its announcement in May 2006, Grand Theft Auto IV was widely anticipated. Upon release, the game received universal critical acclaim, with praise particularly directed at the game's narrative and open world design. However, the game also generated controversy, with criticism directed at the game's depiction of violence and players' ability to drive under the influence of alcohol. Grand Theft Auto IV broke industry sales records and became the fastest-selling entertainment product in history at the time, earning US$310 million in its first day and $500 million in its first week. Considered one of the most significant titles of the seventh generation of video games, and by many critics as one of the greatest video games of all time, it won year-end accolades, including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. Its successor, Grand Theft Auto V, was released in September 2013.

Grand Theft Auto V

Grand Theft Auto V is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released in September 2013 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, in November 2014 for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, and in April 2015 for Microsoft Windows. It is the first main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series since 2008's Grand Theft Auto IV. Set within the fictional state of San Andreas, based on Southern California, the single-player story follows three criminals and their efforts to commit heists while under pressure from a government agency. The open-world design lets players freely roam San Andreas' open countryside and the fictional city of Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.

The game is played from either a third-person or first-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. Players control the three lead protagonists throughout single-player and switch between them both during and outside missions. The story is centred on the heist sequences, and many missions involve shooting and driving gameplay. A "wanted" system governs the aggression of law enforcement response to players who commit crimes. Grand Theft Auto Online, the game's online multiplayer mode, lets up to 30 players engage in a variety of different cooperative and competitive game modes.

The development of Grand Theft Auto V began soon after Grand Theft Auto IV's release and was shared between many of Rockstar's studios worldwide. The development team drew influence from many of their previous projects such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3 and designed the game around three lead protagonists to innovate on the core structure of its predecessors. Much of the development work constituted the open world's creation, and several team members conducted field research around California to capture footage for the design team. The game's soundtrack features an original score composed by a team of producers who collaborated over several years.

Extensively marketed and widely anticipated, the game broke industry sales records and became the fastest-selling entertainment product in history, earning $800 million in its first day and $1 billion in its first three days. It received widespread critical acclaim, with praise directed at its multiple protagonist design, open world, presentation and gameplay. However, it caused controversies related to its depiction of women and a mission featuring torture during a hostage interrogation. Considered one of the seventh generation console gaming's most significant titles and among the best video games ever made, it won year-end accolades including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. It is the third-best-selling video game of all time with over 100 million copies shipped and one of the most financially successful entertainment products of all time, with about $6 billion in worldwide revenue.

Identity theft

Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss. The person whose identity has been assumed may suffer adverse consequences, especially if they are held responsible for the perpetrator's actions. Identity theft occurs when someone uses another's personally identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. The term identity theft was coined in 1964. Since that time, the definition of identity theft has been statutorily prescribed throughout both the U.K. and the United States as the theft of personally identifying information, generally including a person’s name, date of birth, social security number, driver’s license number, bank account or credit card numbers, PIN numbers, electronic signatures, fingerprints, passwords, or any other information that can be used to access a person’s financial resources.Determining the link between data breaches and identity theft is challenging, primarily because identity theft victims often do not know how their personal information was obtained, and identity theft is not always detectable by the individual victims, according to a report done for the FTC. Identity fraud is often but not necessarily the consequence of identity theft. Someone can steal or misappropriate personal information without then committing identity theft using the information about every person, such as when a major data breach occurs. A US Government Accountability Office study determined that "most breaches have not resulted in detected incidents of identity theft". The report also warned that "the full extent is unknown". A later unpublished study by Carnegie Mellon University noted that "Most often, the causes of identity theft is not known", but reported that someone else concluded that "the probability of becoming a victim to identity theft as a result of a data breach is ... around only 2%". More recently, an association of consumer data companies noted that one of the largest data breaches ever, accounting for over four million records, resulted in only about 1,800 instances of identity theft, according to the company whose systems were breached.

An October 2010 article entitled "Cyber Crime Made Easy" explained the level to which hackers are using malicious software. As Gunter Ollmann,

Chief Technology Officer of security at Microsoft, said, "Interested in credit card theft? There's an app for that." This statement summed up the ease with which these hackers are accessing all kinds of information online. The new program for infecting users' computers was called Zeus; and the program is so hacker-friendly that even an inexperienced hacker can operate it. Although the hacking program is easy to use, that fact does not diminish the devastating effects that Zeus (or other software like Zeus) can do to a computer and the user. For example, the article stated that programs like Zeus can steal credit card information, important documents, and even documents necessary for homeland security. If the hacker were to gain this information, it would mean identity theft or even a possible terrorist attack. The ITAC says that about 15 million Americans are having their identity stolen, in 2012.

Larceny

Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business. It was an offence under the common law of England and became an offence in jurisdictions which incorporated the common law of England into their own law (also Statutory law), where in many cases it remains in force.

Larceny has been abolished in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland due to breaking up the generalised crime of larceny into the specific crimes of burglary, robbery, fraud, theft, and related crimes. However, larceny remains an offence in parts of the United States, Jersey, and in New South Wales, Australia, involving the taking (caption) and carrying away (asportation) of personal property.

Motor vehicle theft

Motor vehicle theft is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle. Nationwide in the United States in 2012, there were an estimated 721,053 motor vehicle thefts, or approximately 229.7 motor vehicles stolen for every 100,000 inhabitants. Property losses due to motor vehicle theft in 2012 were estimated at $4.3 billion.

Property is theft!

Property is theft! (French: La propriété, c'est le vol!) is a slogan coined by French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government.

If I were asked to answer the following question: What is slavery? and I should answer in one word, It is murder!, my meaning would be understood at once. No extended argument would be required to show that the power to remove a man's mind, will, and personality, is the power of life and death, and that it makes a man a slave. It is murder. Why, then, to this other question: What is property? may I not likewise answer, It is robbery!, without the certainty of being misunderstood; the second proposition being no other than a transformation of the first?

Retail loss prevention

Retail Loss Prevention is a set of practices employed by retail companies to preserve profit. Profit preservation is any business activity specifically designed to reduce preventable losses. A preventable loss is any business cost caused by deliberate or inadvertent human actions, colloquially known as "shrinkage". Deliberate human actions that cause loss to a retail company can be theft, fraud, vandalism, waste, abuse, or misconduct. Inadvertent human actions attributable to loss are poorly executed business processes, where employees fail to follow existing policies or procedures – or cases in which business policies and procedures are lacking. Loss prevention is mainly found within the retail sector but also can be found within other business environments.

Since retail loss prevention is geared towards the elimination of preventable loss and the bulk of preventable loss in retail is caused by deliberate human activity, traditional approaches to retail loss prevention have been through visible security measures matched with technology such as CCTV and electronic sensor barriers. Most companies take this traditional approach by either having their own in-house loss prevention team or using external security agencies. Charles A. Sennewald and John H. Christman state, "Four elements are necessary for a successful loss prevention plan: 1) Total support from top management, 2) A positive employee attitude, 3) Maximum use of all available resources, 4) A system which establishes both responsibility and accountability for loss prevention through evaluations that are consistent and progressive."

Robbery

Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear; that is, it is a larceny or theft accomplished by an assault. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft (such as burglary, shoplifting, or car theft) by its inherently violent nature (a violent crime); whereas many lesser forms of theft are punished as misdemeanors, robbery is always a felony in jurisdictions that distinguish between the two. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words (e.g., deraubare) of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub -- "theft".

Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a weapon, and aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force. Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions.

Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" (armed robbery, usually of a bank) or "stick-up" (derived from the verbal command to robbery targets to raise their hands in the air), and "steaming" (organized robbery on underground train systems).

Rockstar Games

Rockstar Games, Inc. is an American video game publisher based in New York City. The company was established in December 1998 as a subsidiary of Take-Two Interactive, and as successor to BMG Interactive, a dormant video game publisher of which Take-Two had previously acquired the assets. Founding members of the company were Sam and Dan Houser, Terry Donovan and Jamie King, who worked for Take-Two at the time, and of which the Houser brothers were previously executives at BMG Interactive. Co-founders Sam and Dan Houser head the studio as president and vice-president for creative, respectively.Since 1999, several companies acquired by or established under Take-Two became part of Rockstar Games, such as Rockstar Canada (later renamed Rockstar Toronto) becoming the first one in 1999, and Rockstar India the most recent in 2016. All companies organized under Rockstar Games bear the "Rockstar" name and logo; in that context, Rockstar Games is sometimes also referred to as Rockstar New York or Rockstar NYC. Rockstar also sports a motion capture studio in Bethpage, New York.Rockstar Games predominantly publishes games in the action-adventure genre, while racing games also saw success for the company. One of such action-adventure game franchises is Grand Theft Auto, which Rockstar Games took over from BMG Interactive, which published the series' original 1997 entry. The most recent game in the series, Grand Theft Auto V, has shipped over 95 million copies since its release in September 2013, making it one of the best-selling video games of all time. Other popular franchises published by Rockstar Games are Red Dead, Midnight Club, Max Payne and Manhunt.

Rockstar North

Rockstar North Limited (formerly DMA Design Limited) is a British video game developer based in Edinburgh, Scotland. The company was founded as Acme Software, in Dundee in 1984, by classmates David Jones, Russell Kay, Steve Hammond, and Mike Dailly, and was renamed DMA Design in 1987. During its early years, DMA Design was backed by its publisher Psygnosis, primarily focusing on Amiga, Atari ST and Commodore 64 games. During this time, they created successful shooters such as Menace, and Blood Money, but it soon turned to platform games after the release of Lemmings in 1991, which was an international success and led to several sequels and spin-offs. After developing Unirally for Nintendo, DMA Design was set to become one of their main second-party developers, but this partnership ended after Nintendo's disapproval of Body Harvest.

In 1997, DMA released Grand Theft Auto, which was a huge success; the game sparked a successful series. The company was soon acquired by Gremlin Interactive. Following the release of Grand Theft Auto 2, Gremlin was acquired by Infogrames. DMA Design was sold to Take-Two Interactive, the owner of Grand Theft Auto publisher Rockstar Games. In 2001, after the release of Grand Theft Auto III, DMA Design was ultimately renamed Rockstar North and became part of the Rockstar Games label. After the shift, the company worked on new titles, including Manhunt, provided support to other Rockstar games such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3, and continued the Grand Theft Auto franchise with Grand Theft Auto IV (2008) and Grand Theft Auto V (2013). Both games are considered one of the best video games made and Grand Theft Auto V became one of the best-selling games of all time. Leslie Benzies headed the studio since the Take-Two acquisition until his departure in 2016.

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